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Dka In Pregnancy Algorithm

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What is DIABETIC KETOACIDOSIS? What does DIABETIC KETOACIDOSIS mean? DIABETIC KETOACIDOSIS meaning - DIABETIC KETOACIDOSIS definition - DIABETIC KETOACIDOSIS explanation. Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/... license. SUBSCRIBE to our Google Earth flights channel - https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC6Uu... Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a potentially life-threatening complication of diabetes mellitus. Signs and symptoms may include vomiting, abdominal pain, deep gasping breathing, increased urination, weakness, confusion, and occasionally loss of consciousness. A person's breath may develop a specific smell. Onset of symptoms is usually rapid. In some cases people may not realize they previously had diabetes. DKA happens most often in those with type 1 diabetes, but can also occur in those with other types of diabetes under certain circumstances. Triggers may include infection, not taking insulin correctly, stroke, and certain medications such as steroids. DKA results from a shortage of insulin; in response the body switches to burning fatty acids which produces acidic ketone bodies. DKA is typically diagnosed when testing finds high blood sugar, low blood pH, and ketoacids in either the blood or urine. The primary treatment of DKA is with intravenous fluids and insulin. Depending on the severity, insulin may be given intravenously or by injection under the skin. Usually potassium is also needed to prevent the development of low blood potassium. Throughout treatment blood sugar and potassium levels should be regularly checked. Antibiotics may be required in those with an underlying infection. In those with severely low blood pH, sodium bicarbonate may be given; however, its use is of unclear benefit and typically not recommended. Rates of DKA vary around the world. About 4% of people with type 1 diabetes in United Kingdom develop DKA a year, while in Malaysia the condition affects about 25% a year. DKA was first described in 1886 and, until the introduction of insulin therapy in the 1920s, it was almost universally fatal. The risk of death with adequate and timely treatment is currently around 1–4%. Up to 1% of children with DKA develop a complication known as cerebral edema. The symptoms of an episode of diabetic ketoacidosis usually evolve over a period of about 24 hours. Predominant symptoms are nausea and vomiting, pronounced thirst, excessive urine production and abdominal pain that may be severe. Those who measure their glucose levels themselves may notice hyperglycemia (high blood sugar levels). In severe DKA, breathing becomes labored and of a deep, gasping character (a state referred to as "Kussmaul respiration"). The abdomen may be tender to the point that an acute abdomen may be suspected, such as acute pancreatitis, appendicitis or gastrointestinal perforation. Coffee ground vomiting (vomiting of altered blood) occurs in a minority of people; this tends to originate from erosion of the esophagus. In severe DKA, there may be confusion, lethargy, stupor or even coma (a marked decrease in the level of consciousness). On physical examination there is usually clinical evidence of dehydration, such as a dry mouth and decreased skin turgor. If the dehydration is profound enough to cause a decrease in the circulating blood volume, tachycardia (a fast heart rate) and low blood pressure may be observed. Often, a "ketotic" odor is present, which is often described as "fruity", often compared to the smell of pear drops whose scent is a ketone. If Kussmaul respiration is present, this is reflected in an increased respiratory rate.....

Diabetes Ketoacidosis

1. DIABETIC KETO-ACIDOSIS MANAGEMENT 2. INTRODUCTION  HHS and DKA are not mutually exclusive but rather two conditions that both result from some degree of insulin deficiency.  They can and often do occur simultaneously. In fact, one third of patients admitted for hyperglycemia exhibit characteristics of both HHS and DKA. 14th edition of Joslin's Diabetes Mellitus 3. DEFINITION DKA is defined as the presence of all three of the following: (i) Hyperglycemia (glucose >250 mg/dL) (ii) Ketosis, (iii) Acidemia (pH <7.3). 14th edition of Joslin's Diabetes Mellitus 4. PATHOPHYSIOLOGY Insulin Deficiency Glucose uptake Lipolysis Proteolysis Glycerol Free Fatty Acids Amino Acids Hyperglycemia Osmotic diuresis Ketogenesis Gluconeogenesis Glycogenolysis Dehydration Acidosis 14th edition of Joslin's Diabetes Mellitus 5. ROLE OF INSULIN  Required    for transport of glucose into: Muscle Adipose Liver  Inhibits lipolysis  Absence of insulin Glucose accumulates in the blood.  Uses amino acids for gluconeogenesis  Converts fatty acids into ketone bodies : Acetone, Acetoacetate, β-hydroxybutyrate.  6. DIABETIC KETOACIDOSIS PRECIPITATING EVENTS  Infection(Pneumoni Continue reading >>

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  1. Robbity

    I'm something of a gadget freak... and after reading @borofergie's threads a while back about using the Ketonix Ketone Analyzer for testing ketone levels, although I thought it was quite expensive and I didn't really need one, green-eyed envy set in and I finally decided I just had to own one too! It was invented by an epileptic, Michel Lundell, who uses a ketogenic diet to control his seizures (which is an old tried and tested method used in the early 1900s!); it's made in Sweden and you can buy it directly from the Ketonix website. My main feelings about it initially were firstly the highish price, though this has now been reduced, and secondly and more importantly the fact that it apparently relied on a USB connection to a computer for power, more of which later. (They've also now introduced a more expensive Sports model which is more expensive and measures a greater ketone range - mainly at higher levels.)
    There are three different ways of measuring your ketones levels, and these also measure slightly different chemicals so they're apparently not directly comparable. (More details on the different types of measurements, plus other information, can be found on the Ketonix website. There are now also some reviews on the web where users comparison tests have been made using these three different measurements.) The first method tests beta-hydroxybutyrate in your blood which is the most accurate and also the most expensive method and this can be done with certain glucose monitors, and special - very expensive - ketone test strips, and will give you up-to-the-minute results. Some type 1 diabetics test this way, as it can also be used to check for ketoacidosis? The least reliable and cheapest test checks for acetoacetate in urine with ketone test strips such as Ketostix; this method can only give you delayed results from the surplus (if any!) ketones flushed out with your wee, but it's cheap and cheerful, if slightly messy, and is probably quite adequate if you are on a low carb diet. The Ketonix falls in the middle, both for accuracy and price, and checks the acetone levels in your breath; but its main advantage is that it's a one-off investment - there's nothing else to buy as it stands, but it relies on either a computer or something like and Amazon Kindle USB.mains plug to power it, though again see below for a solution to this issue.
    I finally decided that I'd get one after I'd read, and discovered for myself, that the waste ketones in your urine can often disappear when you are nicely in ketosis - I was sometimes having this happen, but at the same time could often "taste" them in my mouth, so I wanted some other definite and visible proof too, and it seemed a perfect justification (errm excuse ) to treat my self to this nifty little gadget. I also did a bit of research on Amazon, and found that I could buy small lightweight USB power packs complete with on/off switches, which meant that I could use the Ketonix as a free standing, completely portable unit. It arrived from Sweden within a week.
    The Ketonix itself is a small translucent tube about 6" long with a USB cable and connector permanently attached, and comes in a little drawstring bag. You blow into its mouthpiece to measure the levels of ketones in your breathe; it has a set of led "traffic lights" which light up to indicate the different ketone levels that it measures: blue for base/neutral, green for a low level, yellow for moderate, and red for a high reading. It needs to be powered up before use and this normally takes several minutes, entertaining you with flashing sequences of its led lights until it decides it's ready to go and then it sits at a steady blue. You need to blow into it gently with a normal exhaled breath for a minimum of 15 seconds for it to register. If you can keep on breathing out until your lungs are more or less empty (which can be quite hard!) you get a better indication of your ketone level, but one thing it's best not to do is to take a (deep) breath just before you blow as this means you're blowing out "fresh" air instead of nice ketone laden breath! At first I found the colours a bit misleading, as the green is rather yellowish and I mistook it for yellow, which actually is quite orange!
    I'm finding in general that if I test in the morning, I get a slightly lower result than later in the day, which tends to be somewhat higher than I'd anticipated.
    The small power pack I bought is the PowerAdd Ultra Slim from Amazon, it's not very expensive, is both very small and very lightweight, comes with a number of different colour trims, and additionally includes a selection of interchangeable connectors - only required for recharging it, and as a bonus, a plugin led light to convert it into a torch.
    My Ketonix and its matching (!! ) power pack both fit very nicely into the drawstring bag, and because of the on/off power switch I can leave the Ketonix plugged into to the power pack: all I have to do is take them out of the bag, switch on and then wait until it's stopped flashing and is ready to go.
    My completely colour co-ordinated Ketonix kit! (Alliterative too...)
    ​Robbity

  2. Indy51

    If you haven't already seen it, Jimmy Moore did an interview with the inventor recently:
    http://www.thelivinlowcarbshow.com/...-michel-lundell-and-paleo-girl-leslie-klenke/

  3. Robbity

    Thanks Indy, I've recently found it (in passing, but not had time to looked at it yet....
    Robbity

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What Is Preeclampsia? Formerly called toxemia, preeclampsia is a condition that women develop during pregnancy. It is marked by high blood pressure in women who have previously not experienced high blood pressure before. Preeclamptic women will have a high level of protein in their urine and often also have swelling in the feet, legs, and hands. This condition usually appears late in pregnancy, generally after the 20 week mark, although it can occur earlier. Subscribe my channel: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCjPG... Follow us: https://plus.google.com/u/0/b/1180418... https://web.facebook.com/Health-Tips-... https://twitter.com/?lang=en Other videos: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1HW0r... https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iMues... https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hKNqw... https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9KySz... Like and share this video. Don,t forget to Subscribe my channel for health updates.

Managing Severe Preeclampsia And Diabetic Ketoacidosis In Pregnancy

US Pharm. 2010;35(9):HS-2-HS-8. Pregnancy is associated with increased levels of emotional and physical stress. Women with preexisting conditions such as hypertension and diabetes require intense prenatal monitoring by health care professionals. Pharmacists in direct contact with patients can play an integral role in identifying signs and symptoms that require immediate care. Two conditions that require emergent treatment in pregnant women are severe preeclampsia and diabetic ketoacidosis. SEVERE PREECLAMPSIA Hypertensive disorders can affect 6% to 8% of women and increase the risk of morbidity and mortality in both the expectant mother and the unborn child.1,2 Hypertension in pregnancy is divided into four categories: chronic hypertension, gestational hypertension, preeclampsia, and preeclampsia superimposed on chronic hypertension. The focus in this article is on severe preeclampsia, but a brief discussion of preeclampsia is warranted. Preeclampsia, a pregnancy-specific syndrome of unknown etiology, is a multiorgan disease process characterized by the development of hypertension and proteinuria after 20 weeks' gestation.1,2 See TABLE 1 for diagnostic criteria.1,2 History of antip Continue reading >>

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  1. DebbieMiller1981

    Has anyone else had this? Have been a bit sore on and off doing this diet for last 2.5 weeks and wondered if it's normal and if there's anything to do to make it better?
    I know that ketosis does put stress on the kidneys which is why many people disaprove of VLCDs but I really wanna lose teh rest of the weight so don't want to stop! I am worried I am not doing my kidneys any good though so any advice? Reassurance please?
    I know fi I see my GP, he will just tell me it's because of CD as many drs don't agree with it!
    Thanks in advance xxx

  2. Wabbitt

    Drink plenty of water honey, it helps to flush the kidneys out and should help x

  3. DebbieMiller1981

    I'm already drinking about 4 litres a day but will try for a lil more! eek! Thanks x

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What is KETOACIDOSIS? What does KETOACIDOSIS mean? KETOACIDOSIS meaning - KETOACIDOSIS definition - KETOACIDOSIS explanation. Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/... license. SUBSCRIBE to our Google Earth flights channel - https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC6Uu... Ketoacidosis is a metabolic state associated with high concentrations of ketone bodies, formed by the breakdown of fatty acids and the deamination of amino acids. The two common ketones produced in humans are acetoacetic acid and ß-hydroxybutyrate. Ketoacidosis is a pathological metabolic state marked by extreme and uncontrolled ketosis. In ketoacidosis, the body fails to adequately regulate ketone production causing such a severe accumulation of keto acids that the pH of the blood is substantially decreased. In extreme cases ketoacidosis can be fatal. Ketoacidosis is most common in untreated type 1 diabetes mellitus, when the liver breaks down fat and proteins in response to a perceived need for respiratory substrate. Prolonged alcoholism may lead to alcoholic ketoacidosis. Ketoacidosis can be smelled on a person's breath. This is due to acetone, a direct by-product of the spontaneous decomposition of acetoacetic acid. It is often described as smelling like fruit or nail polish remover. Ketosis may also smell, but the odor is usually more subtle due to lower concentrations of acetone. Treatment consists most simply of correcting blood sugar and insulin levels, which will halt ketone production. If the severity of the case warrants more aggressive measures, intravenous sodium bicarbonate infusion can be given to raise blood pH back to an acceptable range. However, serious caution must be exercised with IV sodium bicarbonate to avoid the risk of equally life-threatening hypernatremia. Three common causes of ketoacidosis are alcohol, starvation, and diabetes, resulting in alcoholic ketoacidosis, starvation ketoacidosis, and diabetic ketoacidosis respectively. In diabetic ketoacidosis, a high concentration of ketone bodies is usually accompanied by insulin deficiency, hyperglycemia, and dehydration. Particularly in type 1 diabetics the lack of insulin in the bloodstream prevents glucose absorption, thereby inhibiting the production of oxaloacetate (a crucial molecule for processing Acetyl-CoA, the product of beta-oxidation of fatty acids, in the Krebs cycle) through reduced levels of pyruvate (a byproduct of glycolysis), and can cause unchecked ketone body production (through fatty acid metabolism) potentially leading to dangerous glucose and ketone levels in the blood. Hyperglycemia results in glucose overloading the kidneys and spilling into the urine (transport maximum for glucose is exceeded). Dehydration results following the osmotic movement of water into urine (Osmotic diuresis), exacerbating the acidosis. In alcoholic ketoacidosis, alcohol causes dehydration and blocks the first step of gluconeogenesis by depleting oxaloacetate. The body is unable to synthesize enough glucose to meet its needs, thus creating an energy crisis resulting in fatty acid metabolism, and ketone body formation.

Diagnosis And Treatment Of Diabetic Ketoacidosis

85 Abstract Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is the most frequent hyperglycaemic acute diabetic complication. Furthermore it carries a significant risk of death, which can be prevented by early and effective management. All physicians, irrespective of the discipline they are working in and whether in primary, secondary or tertiary care institutions, should be able to recognise DKA early and initiate management immediately. 86 Introduction Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a common complication of diabetes with an annual occurrence rate of 46 to 50 per 10 000 diabetic patients. The severity of this acute diabetic complication can be appreciated from the high death-to-case ratio of 5 to 10%.1 In Africa the mortality of DKA is unacceptably high with a reported death rate of 26 to 29% in studies from Kenya, Tanzania and Ghana.2 It is a complication of both type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus, although more commonly seen in type 1 diabetic patients. Of known diabetic patients presenting with DKA about one-quarter will be patients with type 2 diabetes. In patients presenting with a DKA as first manifestation of diabetes about 15% will be type 2.3 This correlates well with data from South Africa Continue reading >>

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  1. Vinaykumar Mistry

    Your birth year + age = 108

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