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Dka In Pediatrics Ppt

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What is DIABETIC KETOACIDOSIS? What does DIABETIC KETOACIDOSIS mean? DIABETIC KETOACIDOSIS meaning - DIABETIC KETOACIDOSIS definition - DIABETIC KETOACIDOSIS explanation. Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/... license. SUBSCRIBE to our Google Earth flights channel - https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC6Uu... Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a potentially life-threatening complication of diabetes mellitus. Signs and symptoms may include vomiting, abdominal pain, deep gasping breathing, increased urination, weakness, confusion, and occasionally loss of consciousness. A person's breath may develop a specific smell. Onset of symptoms is usually rapid. In some cases people may not realize they previously had diabetes. DKA happens most often in those with type 1 diabetes, but can also occur in those with other types of diabetes under certain circumstances. Triggers may include infection, not taking insulin correctly, stroke, and certain medications such as steroids. DKA results from a shortage of insulin; in response the body switches to burning fatty acids which produces acidic ketone bodies. DKA is typically diagnosed when testing finds high blood sugar, low blood pH, and ketoacids in either the blood or urine. The primary treatment of DKA is with intravenous fluids and insulin. Depending on the severity, insulin may be given intravenously or by injection under the skin. Usually potassium is also needed to prevent the development of low blood potassium. Throughout treatment blood sugar and potassium levels should be regularly checked. Antibiotics may be required in those with an underlying infection. In those with severely low blood pH, sodium bicarbonate may be given; however, its use is of unclear benefit and typically not recommended. Rates of DKA vary around the world. About 4% of people with type 1 diabetes in United Kingdom develop DKA a year, while in Malaysia the condition affects about 25% a year. DKA was first described in 1886 and, until the introduction of insulin therapy in the 1920s, it was almost universally fatal. The risk of death with adequate and timely treatment is currently around 1–4%. Up to 1% of children with DKA develop a complication known as cerebral edema. The symptoms of an episode of diabetic ketoacidosis usually evolve over a period of about 24 hours. Predominant symptoms are nausea and vomiting, pronounced thirst, excessive urine production and abdominal pain that may be severe. Those who measure their glucose levels themselves may notice hyperglycemia (high blood sugar levels). In severe DKA, breathing becomes labored and of a deep, gasping character (a state referred to as "Kussmaul respiration"). The abdomen may be tender to the point that an acute abdomen may be suspected, such as acute pancreatitis, appendicitis or gastrointestinal perforation. Coffee ground vomiting (vomiting of altered blood) occurs in a minority of people; this tends to originate from erosion of the esophagus. In severe DKA, there may be confusion, lethargy, stupor or even coma (a marked decrease in the level of consciousness). On physical examination there is usually clinical evidence of dehydration, such as a dry mouth and decreased skin turgor. If the dehydration is profound enough to cause a decrease in the circulating blood volume, tachycardia (a fast heart rate) and low blood pressure may be observed. Often, a "ketotic" odor is present, which is often described as "fruity", often compared to the smell of pear drops whose scent is a ketone. If Kussmaul respiration is present, this is reflected in an increased respiratory rate.....

The Management Of Diabetic Ketoacidosis In Children

Go to: Abstract The object of this review is to provide the definitions, frequency, risk factors, pathophysiology, diagnostic considerations, and management recommendations for diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) in children and adolescents, and to convey current knowledge of the causes of permanent disability or mortality from complications of DKA or its management, particularly the most common complication, cerebral edema (CE). DKA frequency at the time of diagnosis of pediatric diabetes is 10%–70%, varying with the availability of healthcare and the incidence of type 1 diabetes (T1D) in the community. Recurrent DKA rates are also dependent on medical services and socioeconomic circumstances. Management should be in centers with experience and where vital signs, neurologic status, and biochemistry can be monitored with sufficient frequency to prevent complications or, in the case of CE, to intervene rapidly with mannitol or hypertonic saline infusion. Fluid infusion should precede insulin administration (0.1 U/kg/h) by 1–2 hours; an initial bolus of 10–20 mL/kg 0.9% saline is followed by 0.45% saline calculated to supply maintenance and replace 5%–10% dehydration. Potassium (K) m Continue reading >>

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Popular Questions

  1. nothingtoseehere28

    So you've been on keto for a few weeks and the scale has been going down steadily and then suddenly it stops for a few days, and you're wondering what you've done wrong.
    Nothing. The answer is nothing. Nothing is wrong
    When you first start keto, you have a huge drop in water weight. This is because you're burning through your glycogen stores (glucose stored in your muscles). Each gram of glycogen comes with ~3g of water. Burn the glycogen, drop the water.
    After the first couple of weeks, your body adjusts, you find a new balance, and your glycogen stores refill. This comes with storing a bit of water again. You can also retain water for a thousand other reasons:
    changes in activity
    changes in sleep
    changes in weather
    changes in stress levels
    Typical weight loss averages out to 1-2lbs of fat per week. That's an average that means 50-100lbs per year. The more obese you are, the higher that number is, but keep in mind it is an average. Let's say one week you're trucking along, keeping your calories in check and lost 2lbs. Awesome! Great work! However, at the same time, you've been stressed out and not sleeping well, so you're holding on to 3lbs of water.
    -2lbs + 3lbs = +1lbs on the scale
    That doesn't mean you haven't lost the fat, it just means that the number on the scale tells you your mass, not how much fat is on your body.
    This is why you will hear over and over again that 1 week is not a stall, to keep calm and keto on, and to trust the process. If your calories are in check, you are losing fat. If you go a month with no progress, then the next step is to lower calories (or, if you're not already doing it, log what you eat more accurately).
    It's also important to remember the woosh phenomenon wherein it's possible to retain water as you're losing fat, and then drop that water all of a sudden. Generally, this is what is happening when people "break through a stall" using whatever trick they happen to find (fasting, going off keto, alcohol, etc). You'll get the same result without the trick, just wait it out.
    If you are consistently eating under your energy needs, you will lose weight - this is a fact. Sometimes it won't show up on the scale right away, but it will happen. Keep calm and keto on.

  2. Just1morefix

    This is a very important and sometimes ignored part of keto. People need to understand water retention and fat loss. We need to look long term and not be dissuaded by an apparent 1 week "stall" Sometimes my brain wants to immediately think the worst about a stagnation or worse a slight gain. Remember also that sometimes a slight weight gain is also an increase in muscle mass, especially if you are doing progressive resistance training. Don't be discouraged with a slight increase and certainly don't use it as an excuse to binge, because "Keto stopped working"!

  3. fleuvage

    Coming up on one year of keto. Have had weeks and weeks where I've stayed about the same weight. Then, some eases off here and there-- basically at maintenance now.
    But-- haven't had any big gains, and still enjoying all the benefits of this lifestyle: no headaches, sleep is amazing, lots of energy, GI peace, clear complexion... I could go on. The point is, even almost a year in I'm still losing gradually but reaping the benefits of all the positives this lifestyle brings.
    The weight loss was great, but the rest of the benefits are what really keep me here.

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Acute Management Of Pediatric Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Acute Management of Pediatric Diabetic Ketoacidosis To view all publication components, extract (i.e., unzip) them from the downloaded .zip file. Editor's Note: This publication predates our implementation of the Educational Summary Report in 2016 and thus displays a different format than newer publications. Introduction: This educational tool is a PowerPoint presentation that allows providers to quickly access guidelines for acute management of pediatric diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA). It was created after a chart review of pediatric patients with DKA determined that guidelines of DKA management were being incompletely followed. Methods: The resource contains recommendations from the American Diabetes Association guidelines, as well as a learning module consisting of a case scenario and three questions, each of which highlights important aspects of the care of pediatric patients with DKA.Session length should be no longer than 15 minutes. Results: Data are currently being collected on the reach of this educational tool. Discussion: The resource is limited by its short duration. It was deliberately designed to be readily accessible in a time-limited situation for initial care. Part o Continue reading >>

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Popular Questions

  1. juliebugs

    Hi All,
    I am wondering about when we actually lose the weight. I read somewhere that most weight comes off while you are sleeping??? I have been sweating a lot while I sleep and I am wondering if that is a sign that I am sweating some of the pounds off? I know this is a strange question, but thought I would run it by you for some idea's. Thanks, julie

  2. Arrow

    Hi all,
    Julie, I have absolutely no idea where lost weight goes.
    But, during the night when you are drinking nothing your kidneys are working to remove water. Sweating removes water. Even when you breathe you lose water through a small amount of moisture lose every time you exhale. Also at night there is nothing in your stomach.
    I step on the scale right after my morning's shower, and I'm guessing that's when a person weighs the least.
    But I have no idea where "real" lost weight goes. Sigh. I do know that sometimes it doesn't go.
    Interesting question though.

  3. WillDuke

    I don't know about sweating, but my first couple of weeks on the Atkins diet I felt that my body temperature increased. I just felt hot at night. I assumed it was the whole Ketosis thing.

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Explore valuable insights on a modern problem of an increasingly common disease and how the prevalence of obesity in the general population creates an increased chance of misdiagnosis of the specific type of diabetes in children and adolescents. Program Presenters: Janet Silverstein, MD Division Chief of Pediatric Endocrinology University of Florida , Gainesville Kenneth C Copeland, MD, Director of Oklahoma City Pediatric Programs Harold Hamm Diabetes Center, Oklahoma City

Management Of Diabetic Ketoacidosis In Children And Adolescents

Objectives After completing this article, readers should be able to: Describe the typical presentation of diabetic ketoacidosis in children. Discuss the treatment of diabetic ketoacidosis. Explain the potential complications of diabetic ketoacidosis that can occur during treatment. Introduction Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) represents a profound insulin-deficient state characterized by hyperglycemia (>200 mg/dL [11.1 mmol/L]) and acidosis (serum pH <7.3, bicarbonate <15 mEq/L [15 mmol/L]), along with evidence of an accumulation of ketoacids in the blood (measurable serum or urine ketones, increased anion gap). Dehydration, electrolyte loss, and hyperosmolarity contribute to the presentation and potential complications. DKA is the most common cause of death in children who have type 1 diabetes. Therefore, the best treatment of DKA is prevention through early recognition and diagnosis of diabetes in a child who has polydipsia and polyuria and through careful attention to the treatment of children who have known diabetes, particularly during illnesses. Presentation Patients who have DKA generally present with nausea and vomiting. In individuals who have no previous diagnosis of diabetes Continue reading >>

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Popular Questions

  1. Capricorn1

    Hi, I never know if I am in ketosis or not since I don’t have ketosis strips. I am losing weight very slow with crazy ups and downs, mostly because of my water retention.
    I am wondering is there are any physical signs of being in ketosis? Is it possible to feel it?
    Also, do you think the fact that I retain water indicates that I am not in the ketosis? (I do drink my 1.5 L of water per day).
    Thx!

  2. kristie88

    Im so glad you asked this question because I have been wondering myself. eveyone here is helpful so im sure you will get your answer.

  3. FatCat

    Yes there are ways to tell if you are in ketosis. You may, or may not have any or all of the signs, but here are some signs:
    Thirst
    metallic or sweet taste in the mouth
    bad breath that can be hard to get rid of
    stronger smelling urine
    stronger body odor
    best of all.....lack of appetite

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