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Dka Hypernatremia

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University Of Zagreb

SCHOOL OF MEDICINE Mohammad Imran Khan Malik A review of the efficacy of the Milwaukee protocol in the treatment of ketoacidosis in pediatric Intensive Care Unit patients at Rebro hospital between 2009-2014. GRADUATE THESIS Zagreb, 2014 UNIVERSITY OF ZAGREB SCHOOL OF MEDICINE Mohammad Imran Khan Malik A review of the efficacy of the Milwaukee protocol in the treatment of ketoacidosis in pediatric Intensive Care Unit patients at Rebro hospital between 2009-2014. GRADUATE THESIS Zagreb, 2014 This graduation paper has been completed at the Department of Paediatrics at the University Hospital Centre Zagreb (Rebro hospital) under the supervision of Dr. sc. Mario Ćuk and was submitted for evaluation during the academic year 2013 /2014. LIST OF TABLES Table 1: DKA laboratory diagnosis criteria Table 2: Classification of DKA. Modified from Kliegman et al. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics, 2011. Table 3: Table 3: Summary of key data of patients admitted to pediatric ICU at Rebro hospital. LIST OF FIGURES Figure 1: DKA pathogenesis. Figure 2: Ketone bodies: showing formation of negatively charged conjugate bases of the ketoacids. The conjugate bases cause the increased anion gap in DKA meta Continue reading >>

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    can anyone plz tell me what happens to the Na and K levels in DKA.kaplan says there is hypernatremia and hypokalemia.

  2. frontal

    There is no hypernatremia in DKA. There is electrolyte loss in DKA primariy due to hyperglycemia causing osmotic diuresis, so the patient is depleted of both Na and K, but the serum levels of potassium maybe normal or even elevated. This is because of a disproportionate loss of water (osmotic diuresis) and because of acidosis, which forces the hydrogen ions into cells in exchange for K ions. Remember: a patient with DKA is potassium depleted, even if serum potassium values are on the higher side at presentation. Renal loss continues and as treatment with insulin is started, a fall in serum potassium is likely to be observed because insulin pushes the K ions back into the cells. Electrolye monitoring is necessary while treating the patient, so that insulin dose can be adjusted and fluids given appropriately.

  3. frontal

    A normal serum sodium level in DKA would indicate profound dehydration.

  4. -> Continue reading
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USMLE Step 1 Questions at http://www.latisom.com Life and Times in Schools of Medicine Inc. LATISOM offers a video streaming question bank for USMLE Step 1 and second year of medical school course work. Neurology questions

Osmotic Demyelination Syndrome As The Initial Manifestation Of A Hyperosmolar Hyperglycemic State

Copyright © 2014 Karla Victoria Rodríguez-Velver et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Abstract Osmotic demyelination syndrome (ODS) is a life-threatening demyelinating syndrome. The association of ODS with hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state (HHS) has been seldom reported. The aim of this study was to present and discuss previous cases and the pathophysiological mechanisms involved in ODS secondary to HHS. A 47-year-old man arrived to the emergency room due to generalized tonic-clonic seizures and altered mental status. The patient was lethargic and had a Glasgow coma scale of 11/15, muscle strength was 4/5 in both lower extremities, and deep tendon reflexes were diminished. Glucose was 838 mg/dL; serum sodium and venous blood gas analyses were normal. Urinary and plasma ketones were negative. Brain magnetic resonance revealed increased signal intensity on T2-weighted FLAIR images with restricted diffusion on the medulla and central pons. Supportive therapy was started and during the next 3 weeks the Continue reading >>

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Popular Questions

  1. launchpad

    can anyone plz tell me what happens to the Na and K levels in DKA.kaplan says there is hypernatremia and hypokalemia.

  2. frontal

    There is no hypernatremia in DKA. There is electrolyte loss in DKA primariy due to hyperglycemia causing osmotic diuresis, so the patient is depleted of both Na and K, but the serum levels of potassium maybe normal or even elevated. This is because of a disproportionate loss of water (osmotic diuresis) and because of acidosis, which forces the hydrogen ions into cells in exchange for K ions. Remember: a patient with DKA is potassium depleted, even if serum potassium values are on the higher side at presentation. Renal loss continues and as treatment with insulin is started, a fall in serum potassium is likely to be observed because insulin pushes the K ions back into the cells. Electrolye monitoring is necessary while treating the patient, so that insulin dose can be adjusted and fluids given appropriately.

  3. frontal

    A normal serum sodium level in DKA would indicate profound dehydration.

  4. -> Continue reading
read more
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Anion gap usmle - anion gap metabolic acidosis normal anion gap metabolic acidosis

Hypernatraemia And Acidosis

aka Metabolic Muddle 005 A 20 year old male presents with 3 days of lethargy and generalised malaise. He is confused and looks very unwell. The following blood tests are obtained: Questions Q1. Describe the acid base disturbance. Q2. What is the likely diagnosis? Q3. Describe the electrolyte abnormalities. Q4.Should the corrected sodium be used for calculating the anion gap? Q5. It emerges that the patient has recently been diagnosis with Schizophrenia and has commenced olanzepine. What is the significance of this additional history? Q6. An amylase is measured and is found to be 3 times the upper limit of normal. What is the significance of this finding? References and Links Beck, LH. Should the actual or the corrected serum sodium be used to calculate the anion gap in diabetic ketoacidosis? CLEVELAND CLINIC JOURNAL OF MEDICINE 2001; 68 (8) 673-674. (pdf) Continue reading >>

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Popular Questions

  1. launchpad

    can anyone plz tell me what happens to the Na and K levels in DKA.kaplan says there is hypernatremia and hypokalemia.

  2. frontal

    There is no hypernatremia in DKA. There is electrolyte loss in DKA primariy due to hyperglycemia causing osmotic diuresis, so the patient is depleted of both Na and K, but the serum levels of potassium maybe normal or even elevated. This is because of a disproportionate loss of water (osmotic diuresis) and because of acidosis, which forces the hydrogen ions into cells in exchange for K ions. Remember: a patient with DKA is potassium depleted, even if serum potassium values are on the higher side at presentation. Renal loss continues and as treatment with insulin is started, a fall in serum potassium is likely to be observed because insulin pushes the K ions back into the cells. Electrolye monitoring is necessary while treating the patient, so that insulin dose can be adjusted and fluids given appropriately.

  3. frontal

    A normal serum sodium level in DKA would indicate profound dehydration.

  4. -> Continue reading
read more

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