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Management Of Diabetic Ketoacidosis In Children And Adolescents

Management Of Diabetic Ketoacidosis In Children And Adolescents

Objectives After completing this article, readers should be able to: Describe the typical presentation of diabetic ketoacidosis in children. Discuss the treatment of diabetic ketoacidosis. Explain the potential complications of diabetic ketoacidosis that can occur during treatment. Introduction Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) represents a profound insulin-deficient state characterized by hyperglycemia (>200 mg/dL [11.1 mmol/L]) and acidosis (serum pH <7.3, bicarbonate <15 mEq/L [15 mmol/L]), along with evidence of an accumulation of ketoacids in the blood (measurable serum or urine ketones, increased anion gap). Dehydration, electrolyte loss, and hyperosmolarity contribute to the presentation and potential complications. DKA is the most common cause of death in children who have type 1 diabetes. Therefore, the best treatment of DKA is prevention through early recognition and diagnosis of diabetes in a child who has polydipsia and polyuria and through careful attention to the treatment of children who have known diabetes, particularly during illnesses. Presentation Patients who have DKA generally present with nausea and vomiting. In individuals who have no previous diagnosis of diabetes mellitus, a preceding history of polyuria, polydipsia, and weight loss usually can be elicited. With significant ketosis, patients may have a fruity breath. As the DKA becomes more severe, patients develop lethargy due to the acidosis and hyperosmolarity; in severe DKA, they may present with coma. Acidosis and ketosis cause an ileus that can lead to abdominal pain severe enough to raise concern for an acutely inflamed abdomen, and the elevation of the stress hormones epinephrine and cortisol in DKA can lead to an elevation in the white blood cell count, suggesting infection. Thus, leukocytosi Continue reading >>

Treatment Of Diabetic Ketoacidosis (dka)/hyperglycemic Hyperosmolar State (hhs): Novel Advances In The Management Of Hyperglycemic Crises (uk Versus Usa)

Treatment Of Diabetic Ketoacidosis (dka)/hyperglycemic Hyperosmolar State (hhs): Novel Advances In The Management Of Hyperglycemic Crises (uk Versus Usa)

Go to: Diabetic Ketoacidosis Prior to the discovery and isolation of insulin in 1922 by Banting and Best, type 1 diabetes was universally fatal within a few months of initial diagnosis. Once mass production was started, the challenge to those early pioneers of insulin treatment was learning how to use this new wonder drug, e.g., how much to give and how often to give it, in order to treat the hyperglycemia without raising the inherent risk of hypoglycemia. In 1945, Howard Root in Boston described how they had improved the outcomes for people with diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA), reducing mortality to 12% by 1940 and to 1.6% by 1945 using high doses of insulin—giving an average of 83 units within the first 3 h of treatment in 1940 and 216 units by 1945 [3]. They described how in 1945, they used an average of 287 units in the first 24 h, but this ranged from 50 to 1770 units [3]. In Birmingham, UK, high-dose insulin was also being used with similar success—doses varying depending on the degree of consciousness, with those unarousable on admission given doses between 500 and 1400 units per 24 h [4]. DKA remains a medical emergency; over time, mortality has continued to fall but remains a significant risk, especially amongst the young, socially isolated and when care provision is fragmented [5•, 6•]. Overall, the diagnosis and treatment of DKA are very similar in the UK and USA with a few differences. The UK has separate guidelines on the management of DKA [7], while the USA has a position statement on DKA and HHS that was updated in 2009 [8]. The UK guideline differs in several ways from the US position statement. The concept of low-dose intravenous insulin was established in the late 1960s and early 1970s by teams on both sides of the Atlantic. The UK championed the u Continue reading >>

Hyperglycemic Crises In Diabetes

Hyperglycemic Crises In Diabetes

Ketoacidosis and hyperosmolar hyperglycemia are the two most serious acute metabolic complications of diabetes, even if managed properly. These disorders can occur in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. The mortality rate in patients with diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is <5% in experienced centers, whereas the mortality rate of patients with hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state (HHS) still remains high at ∼15%. The prognosis of both conditions is substantially worsened at the extremes of age and in the presence of coma and hypotension (1–10). This position statement will outline precipitating factors and recommendations for the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of DKA and HHS. It is based on a previous technical review (11), which should be consulted for further information. PATHOGENESIS Although the pathogenesis of DKA is better understood than that of HHS, the basic underlying mechanism for both disorders is a reduction in the net effective action of circulating insulin coupled with a concomitant elevation of counterregulatory hormones, such as glucagon, catecholamines, cortisol, and growth hormone. These hormonal alterations in DKA and HHS lead to increased hepatic and renal glucose production and impaired glucose utilization in peripheral tissues, which result in hyperglycemia and parallel changes in osmolality of the extracellular space (12,13). The combination of insulin deficiency and increased counterregulatory hormones in DKA also leads to the release of free fatty acids into the circulation from adipose tissue (lipolysis) and to unrestrained hepatic fatty acid oxidation to ketone bodies (β-hydroxybutyrate [β-OHB] and acetoacetate), with resulting ketonemia and metabolic acidosis. On the other hand, HHS may be caused by plasma insulin concentrations that are in Continue reading >>

Management Of Diabetic Ketoacidosis And Other Hyperglycemic Emergencies

Management Of Diabetic Ketoacidosis And Other Hyperglycemic Emergencies

Understand the management of patients with diabetic ketoacidosis and other hyperglycemic emergencies. ​ The acute onset of hyperglycemia with attendant metabolic derangements is a common presentation in all forms of diabetes mellitus. The most current data from the National Diabetes Surveillance Program of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention estimate that during 2005-2006, at least 120,000 hospital discharges for diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) occurred in the United States,(1) with an unknown number of discharges related to hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state (HHS). The clinical presentations of DKA and HHS can overlap, but they are usually separately characterized by the presence of ketoacidosis and the degree of hyperglycemia and hyperosmolarity, though HHS will occasionally have some mild degree of ketosis. DKA is defined by a plasma glucose level >250 mg/dL, arterial pH <7.3, the presence of serum ketones, a serum bicarbonate measure <18 mEq/L, and a high anion gap metabolic acidosis. The level of normal anion gap may vary slightly by individual institutional standards. The anion gap also needs to be corrected in the presence of hypoalbuminemia, a common condition in the critically ill. Adjusted anion gap = observed anion gap + 0.25 * ([normal albumin]-[observed albumin]), where the given albumin concentrations are in g/L; if given in g/dL, the correction factor is 2.5.(3) HHS is defined by a plasma glucose level >600 mg/dL, with an effective serum osmolality >320 mOsm/kg. HHS was originally named hyperosmolar hyperglycemic nonketotic coma; however, this name was changed because relatively few patients exhibit coma-like symptoms. Effective serum osmolality = 2*([Na] + [K]) + glucose (mg/dL)/18.(2) Urea is freely diffusible across cell membranes, thus it will Continue reading >>

Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Authors Runa Acharya, MD, University of Iowa-Des Moines Internal Medicine Residency Program at UnityPoint Health, Des Moines, IA Udaya M. Kabadi, MD, FACP, FRCP(C), FACE, Veteran Affairs Medical Center and Broadlawns Medical Center, Des Moines, IA; Des Moines University of Osteopathic Medicine, Iowa City; and University of Iowa Carver College of Medicine, Iowa City; Adjunct Professor of Medicine and Endocrinology, University of Iowa, Iowa City, and Des Moines University, Des Moines Peer Reviewer Jay Shubrook, DO, FAAFP, FACOFP, Professor, Primary Care Department, Touro University, College of Osteopathic Medicine, Vallejo, CA Statement of Financial Disclosure To reveal any potential bias in this publication, and in accordance with Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education guidelines, Dr. Kabadi (author) reports he is a consultant and on the speakers bureau for Sanofi. Dr. Shubrook (peer reviewer) reports he receives grant/research support from Sanofi and is a consultant for Eil Lilly, Novo Nordisk, and Astra Zeneca. Dr. Acharya (author) reports no financial relationships relevant to this field of study. Continue reading >>

Pilot Study Of Guideline Adherence And Secondary Outcomes In Patients Presenting With Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Pilot Study Of Guideline Adherence And Secondary Outcomes In Patients Presenting With Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Background: The 2010 American Diabetic Association (ADA) Guidelines for management of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) recommend treatment of DKA in a timely manner. Objective: We sought to explore the quality of emergency department (ED) DKA management by comparing ED DKA management with standard ADA guidelines beyond the initial management. Materials and Methods: This study was a retrospective study at an academic ED. Patients age ≥ 18 years who were evaluated and treated for DKA were included. We compared ED DKA management with standard ADA guidelines in four aspects: (1) fluid administration, (2) insulin administration, (3) electrolyte correction, and (4) ED disposition. Secondary outcomes were hypoglycemia, restarting of continuous insulin infusion (CII), and rebound hyperglycemia within 24 hours. Results: Of 75 enrolled patients, 29(39%) had mild, 16(21%) had moderate, and 30(40%) had severe DKA. All patients received intravenous fluid during their ED stay. Seventy five (100%) of cases received insulin administration in the ED. Twenty-four (44%) of cases received potassium supplement. Dextrose containing fluids was administered in 24/58(41%) of cases where blood glucose dropped <250 mg/dL. Only 14/30(47%) of severe DKA patients were admitted to ICU. Forty-six (61%) of the DKA cases treatment in the ED followed all components of the ADA guidelines. We found 12(16%) patients had hypoglycaemia. CII discontinued while still in the ED and restarted in 7/13(53%) of these patients. Conclusion: The ADA recommended guidelines were adhered to in only two third of the time. Further studies to assess the impact of educational programs and ED-specific DKA protocols beyond stabilization are planned. Keywords: Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA); Guideline adherence; Emergency department ( Continue reading >>

Hyperglycemic Crises: Diabetic Ketoacidosis (dka), And Hyperglycemic Hyperosmolar State (hhs)

Hyperglycemic Crises: Diabetic Ketoacidosis (dka), And Hyperglycemic Hyperosmolar State (hhs)

Go to: Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) and hyperglycemic hyperosmolar state (HHS) are acute metabolic complications of diabetes mellitus that can occur in patients with both type 1 and 2 diabetes mellitus. Timely diagnosis, comprehensive clinical and biochemical evaluation, and effective management is key to the successful resolution of DKA and HHS. Critical components of the hyperglycemic crises management include coordinating fluid resuscitation, insulin therapy, and electrolyte replacement along with the continuous patient monitoring using available laboratory tools to predict the resolution of the hyperglycemic crisis. Understanding and prompt awareness of potential of special situations such as DKA or HHS presentation in comatose state, possibility of mixed acid-base disorders obscuring the diagnosis of DKA, and risk of brain edema during the therapy are important to reduce the risks of complications without affecting recovery from hyperglycemic crisis. Identification of factors that precipitated DKA or HHS during the index hospitalization should help prevent subsequent episode of hyperglycemic crisis. For extensive review of all related areas of Endocrinology, visit WWW.ENDOTEXT.ORG. Go to: INTRODUCTION Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) and hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state (HHS) represent two extremes in the spectrum of decompensated diabetes. DKA and HHS remain important causes of morbidity and mortality among diabetic patients despite well developed diagnostic criteria and treatment protocols (1). The annual incidence of DKA from population-based studies is estimated to range from 4 to 8 episodes per 1,000 patient admissions with diabetes (2). The incidence of DKA continues to increase and it accounts for about 140,000 hospitalizations in the US in 2009 (Figure 1 a) (3). Continue reading >>

Study Of The Outcomes Of Application Of Ispas Versus Ada Guidelines Of Diabetic Ketoacidosis In Type 1 Diabetic Children

Study Of The Outcomes Of Application Of Ispas Versus Ada Guidelines Of Diabetic Ketoacidosis In Type 1 Diabetic Children

Diabetic ketoacodosis (DKA) is a serious complication of diabetes mellitus, especially type 1, and its secondary consequences account for a large proportion of diabetes-related hospitalizations and mortality in children with type 1 diabetes. Aim of the work: The aim of this study was to compare between the outcomes of application of ISPAD (International Society of Pediatric & Adolescence Diabetes) versus ADA, (American Diabetes Association) guidelines for management of diabetic ketoacodosis in type 1 diabetic children attending the National Institute oof Diabetes & endocrinology in Cairo, Egypt (NIDE). Each protocol had been applied on 100 dibetic children with DKA with no significant difference between both groups as regarding, age, sex, acidity represented by ph. and serum bicarbonate and anion gap or coma score. The results showed that there was no statistical difference as regarding all outcome results as duration of recovery of acidosis or dehydration or the morbidity or mortality results. While the results of the change in potassium was better in ISPAD protocol. The Net results showed that there is no great difference between both groups. It could be recommended to apply any of the ISPAD or ADA protocols for managment of DKA in type 1 diabetic children but it will be more benificial to delay the insulin therapy for 1 hour after giving the intravenous fluid therapy as had been recommended by the ISPAD guidelines. Declaration of interest: The authors declare that there is no conflict of interest that could be perceived as prejudicing the impartiality of the research project. Funding: This research did not receive any specific grant from any funding agency in the public, commercial or not-for-profit sector. Background: Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a life-threatenin Continue reading >>

My Site - Chapter 15: Hyperglycemic Emergencies In Adults

My Site - Chapter 15: Hyperglycemic Emergencies In Adults

Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) and hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state (HHS) should be suspected in ill patients with diabetes. If either DKA or HHS is diagnosed, precipitating factors must be sought and treated. DKA and HHS are medical emergencies that require treatment and monitoring for multiple metabolic abnormalities and vigilance for complications. A normal blood glucose does not rule out DKA in pregnancy. Ketoacidosis requires insulin administration (0.1 U/kg/h) for resolution; bicarbonate therapy should be considered only for extreme acidosis (pH7.0). Note to readers: Although the diagnosis and treatment of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) in adults and in children share general principles, there are significant differences in their application, largely related to the increased risk of life-threatening cerebral edema with DKA in children and adolescents. The specific issues related to treatment of DKA in children and adolescents are addressed in the Type 1 Diabetes in Children and Adolescents chapter, p. S153. Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) and hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state (HHS) are diabetes emergencies with overlapping features. With insulin deficiency, hyperglycemia causes urinary losses of water and electrolytes (sodium, potassium, chloride) and the resultant extracellular fluid volume (ECFV) depletion. Potassium is shifted out of cells, and ketoacidosis occurs as a result of elevated glucagon levels and absolute insulin deficiency (in the case of type 1 diabetes) or high catecholamine levels suppressing insulin release (in the case of type 2 diabetes). In DKA, ketoacidosis is prominent, while in HHS, the main features are ECFV depletion and hyperosmolarity. Risk factors for DKA include new diagnosis of diabetes mellitus, insulin omission, infection, myocardial infarc Continue reading >>

Diabetes Guidelines Of 2016: Update On Updates

Diabetes Guidelines Of 2016: Update On Updates

Important updates of the past year sought to recognize the importance of obesity care and the need to better integrate behavioral health into diabetes care. Guidelines that affect diabetes care come from many places: professional societies, advocacy groups, and regulators weigh in on when to use certain drugs and what standards should apply for medical devices. Whether they represent updates to existing standards or cover new ground, guidelines not only affect clinical decisions, but they also drive coverage decisions by payers—and thus, access for patients. The relationship between obesity and diabetes, and the recognition that unmet behavioral health needs affect outcomes drove updates in 2016. Below are some key changes that will affect both diabetes care and payer decisions going into the new year: AACE/ACE issue joint update on type 2 diabetes algorithm. The year began with an update from the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists (AACE) and the American College of Endocrinology (ACE) on care of patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D). The statement emphasized the need to improve lifestyle management first, to individualize both targets for glycated hemoglobin (A1C) and therapy regimens, based on factors that included cost and likelihood of adherence. Evaluating “cost” must go beyond the price of medication and factor in monitoring, hypoglycemia risk, and likelihood of weight gain. Endocrinology groups weigh in on SGLT2 inhibitors: On April 15, 2016, AACE and ACE published a joint statement on diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA); the statement said the condition does not occur more frequently among patients with T2D taking sodium glucose co-transporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibitors than it does generally. This statement was based on a meeting of leaders in the field th Continue reading >>

Ispad Clinical Practice Consensus Guidelines 2014

Ispad Clinical Practice Consensus Guidelines 2014

Editor in Chief: Mark A. Sperling, Pittsburgh, USA. Guest Editors: Carlo Acerini, Maria E Craig, Carine de Beaufort, David M Maahs and Ragnar Hanas. Introduction Carlo Acerini, Maria E Craig, Carine de Beaufort, David M Maahs and Ragnar Hanas. Published in Pediatric Diabetes 2014: 15(Suppl. 20): 1–3. Uploaded: 2. Sept 2014 Download Introduction Chapter 1: Definition, epidemiology, diagnosis and classification Craig ME, Jefferies C, Dabelea D, Balde N, Seth A, Donaghue KC. Published in Pediatric Diabetes 2014: 15(Suppl. 20): 4–17. Uploaded: 2. Sept 2014 Download Chapter 1 Chapter 2: Phases of Type 1 Diabetes Couper JJ, Haller MJ, Ziegler A-G, KnipM, Ludvigsson J, Craig ME. Published in Pediatric Diabetes 2014: 15(Suppl. 20): 18–25. Download Chapter 2 Chapter 3: Type 2 diabetes Zeitler P, Fu J, Tandon N, Nadeau K, Urakami T, Bartlett T, Maahs D. Published in Pediatric Diabetes 2014: 15(Suppl. 20): 26-46. Uploaded: 2. Sept 2014 Download Chapter 3 Chapter 4: The Diagnosis and Management of Monogenic diabetes Rubio-Cabezas O, Hattersley AT, Njølstad PR, Mlynarski W, Ellard S,White N, Chi DV, Craig ME. Published in Pediatric Diabetes 2014: 15(Suppl. 20): 47-64. Uploaded: 2. Sept 2014 Download Chapter 4 Chapter 5: Management of cystic fibrosis-related diabetes Moran A, Pillay K, Becker DJ, Acerini CL. Published in Pediatric Diabetes 2014: 15(Suppl. 20): 65-76. Uploaded: 2. Sept 2014 Download Chapter 5 Chapter 6: Diabetes education Lange K, Swift P, Pankowska E, Danne T. Published in Pediatric Diabetes 2014: 15(Suppl. 20): 77-85. Uploaded: 2. Sept 2014 Download Chapter 6 Chapter 7: The delivery of ambulatory diabetes care Pihoker C, Forsander G, Fantahun B, Virmani A, Luo X, Hallman M, Wolfsdorf J, Maahs DM. Published in Pediatric Diabetes 2014: 15(Suppl. 20): 86-101. Up Continue reading >>

Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Initial Evaluation Initial evaluation of patients with DKA includes diagnosis and treatment of precipitating factors (Table 14–18). The most common precipitating factor is infection, followed by noncompliance with insulin therapy.3 While insulin pump therapy has been implicated as a risk factor for DKA in the past, most recent studies show that with proper education and practice using the pump, the frequency of DKA is the same for patients on pump and injection therapy.19 Common causes by frequency Other causes Selected drugs that may contribute to diabetic ketoacidosis Infection, particularly pneumonia, urinary tract infection, and sepsis4 Inadequate insulin treatment or noncompliance4 New-onset diabetes4 Cardiovascular disease, particularly myocardial infarction5 Acanthosis nigricans6 Acromegaly7 Arterial thrombosis, including mesenteric and iliac5 Cerebrovascular accident5 Hemochromatosis8 Hyperthyroidism9 Pancreatitis10 Pregnancy11 Atypical antipsychotic agents12 Corticosteroids13 FK50614 Glucagon15 Interferon16 Sympathomimetic agents including albuterol (Ventolin), dopamine (Intropin), dobutamine (Dobutrex), terbutaline (Bricanyl),17 and ritodrine (Yutopar)18 DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS Three key features of diabetic acidosis are hyperglycemia, ketosis, and acidosis. The conditions that cause these metabolic abnormalities overlap. The primary differential diagnosis for hyperglycemia is hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state (Table 23,20), which is discussed in the Stoner article21 on page 1723 of this issue. Common problems that produce ketosis include alcoholism and starvation. Metabolic states in which acidosis is predominant include lactic acidosis and ingestion of drugs such as salicylates and methanol. Abdominal pain may be a symptom of ketoacidosis or part of the inci Continue reading >>

Hospital Guidelines For Diabetes Management And The Joint Commission-american Diabetes Association Inpatient Diabetes Certification☆

Hospital Guidelines For Diabetes Management And The Joint Commission-american Diabetes Association Inpatient Diabetes Certification☆

Jump to Section Abstract Background The Joint Commission Advanced Inpatient Diabetes Certification Program is founded on the American Diabetes Association’s Clinical Practice Recommendations and is linked to the Joint Commission Standards. Diabetes currently affects 29.1 million people in the USA and another 86 million Americans are estimated to have pre-diabetes. On a daily basis at the Medical University of South Carolina (MUSC) Medical Center, there are approximately 130-150 inpatients with a diagnosis of diabetes. Methods The program encompasses all service lines at MUSC. Some important features of the program include: a program champion or champion team, written blood glucose monitoring protocols, staff education in diabetes management, medical record identification of diabetes, a plan coordinating insulin and meal delivery, plans for treatment of hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia, data collection for incidence of hypoglycemia, and patient education on self-management of diabetes. Results The major clinical components to develop, implement, and evaluate an inpatient diabetes care program are: I. Program management, II. Delivering or facilitating clinical care, III. Supporting self-management, IV. Clinical information management and V. performance measurement. The standards receive guidance from a Disease-Specific Care Certification Advisory Committee, and the Standards and Survey Procedures Committee of the Joint Commission Board of Commissioners. Conclusions The Joint Commission-ADA Advanced Inpatient Diabetes Certification represents a clinical program of excellence, improved processes of care, means to enhance contract negotiations with providers, ability to create an environment of teamwork, and heightened communication within the organization. Continue reading >>

Ada Hospital Admission Guidelines For Diabetes Mellitus

Ada Hospital Admission Guidelines For Diabetes Mellitus

[Diabetes Care 22(1):s80, 1999. © 1999 American Diabetes Association, Inc.] Introduction These guidelines are to be used for determining when a patient requires hospitalization for reasons related to diabetes. Inpatient care may be appropriate in the following situations: Life-threatening acute metabolic complications of diabetes. Newly diagnosed diabetes in children and adolescents. Substantial and chronic poor metabolic control that necessitates close monitoring of the patient to determine the etiology of the control problem, with subsequent modification of therapy. Severe chronic complications of diabetes that require intensive treatment or other severe conditions unrelated to diabetes that significantly affect its control or are complicated by diabetes. Uncontrolled or newly discovered insulin-requiring diabetes during pregnancy. Institution of insulin-pump therapy or other intensive insulin regimens. Modification of fixed insulin-treatment regimens or sulfonylurea treatment is not, by itself, an indication for hospital admission. Guidelines for hospital admission are given below. Guidelines are never a substitute for medical judgment, and each patient's total clinical and psychosocial circumstances must be considered in their application. Therefore, there may be situations in which admission is appropriate, although the patient's clinical profile does not comply with these guidelines. For example, inadequate family resources may dictate admission of newly diagnosed type 1 diabetic patients who otherwise do not meet the admission guidelines. Acute Metabolic Complications Of Diabetes Admission is appropriate for the following: Diabetic ketoacidosis Blood glucose >250 mg/dl (>13.9 mmol/l) with 1) arterial pH <7.35, venous pH <7.30, or serum bicarbonate level <15 mEq/ Continue reading >>

Type 1 Diabetes: Its Problems And Solutions

Type 1 Diabetes: Its Problems And Solutions

Formerly known as juvenile-onset diabetes, type 1 diabetes (T1D) is an endocrine disorder characterized by hyperglycemia due to insulin deficiency.1 Most cases of T1D are immune-mediated due to cellular-mediated autoimmune destruction of beta cells, resulting in inadequate insulin secretion and hyperglycemia via abnormal macronutrient metabolism.1,2 Acute hyperglycemia can cause metabolic emergencies such as diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) and a hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state. Chronic hyperglycemia can cause vascular complications such as nephropathy, retinopathy, and cardiovascular disease. EPIDEMIOLOGY According to the American Diabetes Association (ADA), immune-mediated T1D accounts for 5% to 10% of diabetes cases. Although T1D may occur at any age, 50% to 60% of patients with T1D present at 16 years and younger.3-5 In a population- based cross-sectional study of children and adolescents in 2009, the overall prevalence of newly diagnosed cases of T1D was 1.93 per 1000 patients (95% CI, 1.88-1.97), with whites having the highest incidence of newly diagnosed T1D.6 RISK FACTORS A patient’s genome is a significant risk factor for T1D, as a case-control study of approximately 8000 patients with T1D identified 7 genetic variants associated with an increased risk of T1D and celiac disease.7 Other possible risk factors associated with an increased risk of T1D include high birth weight, childhood obesity, and a higher maternal age at birth.8-11 Childhood immunizations, however, are not associated with an increased risk for T1D.12,13 Conditions complicated by T1D include celiac disease and increased risk of hip fracture.14,15 HISTORY AND PHYSICAL Patients with T1D rarely present asymptomatically; the most common symptoms include polyuria and nocturia, enuresis, lethargy, fatig Continue reading >>

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