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Dka Guidelines

(pdf) Diabetic Ketoacidosis (dka): Treatment Guidelines

(pdf) Diabetic Ketoacidosis (dka): Treatment Guidelines

The object of this review is to provide the definitions, frequency, risk factors, pathophysiology, diagnostic considerations, and management recommendations for diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) in children and adolescents, and to convey current knowledge of the causes of permanent disability or mortality from complications of DKA or its management, particularly the most common complication, cerebral ... [Show full abstract] edema (CE). DKA frequency at the time of diagnosis of pediatric diabetes is 10%-70%, varying with the availability of healthcare and the incidence of type 1 diabetes (T1D) in the community. Recurrent DKA rates are also dependent on medical services and socioeconomic circumstances. Management should be in centers with experience and where vital signs, neurologic status, and biochemistry can be monitored with sufficient frequency to prevent complications or, in the case of CE, to intervene rapidly with mannitol or hypertonic saline infusion. Fluid infusion should precede insulin administration (0.1 U/kg/h) by 1-2 hours; an initial bolus of 10-20 mL/kg 0.9% saline is followed by 0.45% saline calculated to supply maintenance and replace 5%-10% dehydration. Potassium (K) must be replaced early and sufficiently. Bicarbonate administration is contraindicated. The prevention of DKA at onset of diabetes requires an informed community and high index of suspicion; prevention of recurrent DKA, which is almost always due to insulin omission, necessitates a committed team effort. This review deals with the two most serious side effects encountered with insulin pump therapy, severe hypoglycemia and diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA). Although clinical follow-up studies reported decreased rates of severe hypoglycemia, randomized studies have not confirmed this, showing no diff Continue reading >>

C6.2.1.diabetic Keto Acidosis (dka)

C6.2.1.diabetic Keto Acidosis (dka)

DKA is a potentially life threatening complication of diabetes that while often preventable, must be dealt with as a matter of urgency once established. Diagnosis of DKA is only appropriate in the presence of diabetes AND ketosis AND acidosis. A national protocol for management of confirmed DKA in adults only is being rolled out in summer 2011; it can also be down loaded from the link below. A separate paediatric protocol is available for children under the age of 16 years. The paediatric protocol may also be appropriate in adults of low body weight (BMI < 16kg/m2), as it reduces the risk of fluid overload. The Diabetes specialist team should be contacted as appropriate for advice regarding management of DKA Consideration must be given to the cause of DKA for example, infection, myocardial infarction or insulin administration difficulties and the underlying cause appropriately treated. The Diabetes specialist team should be contacted as appropriate for advice regarding management of DKA and, once the patient is stable, for education to try to prevent recurrence. Continue reading >>

Management Of Diabetic Ketoacidosis And Other Hyperglycemic Emergencies

Management Of Diabetic Ketoacidosis And Other Hyperglycemic Emergencies

Understand the management of patients with diabetic ketoacidosis and other hyperglycemic emergencies. ​ The acute onset of hyperglycemia with attendant metabolic derangements is a common presentation in all forms of diabetes mellitus. The most current data from the National Diabetes Surveillance Program of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention estimate that during 2005-2006, at least 120,000 hospital discharges for diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) occurred in the United States,(1) with an unknown number of discharges related to hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state (HHS). The clinical presentations of DKA and HHS can overlap, but they are usually separately characterized by the presence of ketoacidosis and the degree of hyperglycemia and hyperosmolarity, though HHS will occasionally have some mild degree of ketosis. DKA is defined by a plasma glucose level >250 mg/dL, arterial pH <7.3, the presence of serum ketones, a serum bicarbonate measure <18 mEq/L, and a high anion gap metabolic acidosis. The level of normal anion gap may vary slightly by individual institutional standards. The anion gap also needs to be corrected in the presence of hypoalbuminemia, a common condition in the critically ill. Adjusted anion gap = observed anion gap + 0.25 * ([normal albumin]-[observed albumin]), where the given albumin concentrations are in g/L; if given in g/dL, the correction factor is 2.5.(3) HHS is defined by a plasma glucose level >600 mg/dL, with an effective serum osmolality >320 mOsm/kg. HHS was originally named hyperosmolar hyperglycemic nonketotic coma; however, this name was changed because relatively few patients exhibit coma-like symptoms. Effective serum osmolality = 2*([Na] + [K]) + glucose (mg/dL)/18.(2) Urea is freely diffusible across cell membranes, thus it will Continue reading >>

Adherence To Pediatric Diabetic Ketoacidosis Guidelines By Community Emergency Departments’ Providers

Adherence To Pediatric Diabetic Ketoacidosis Guidelines By Community Emergency Departments’ Providers

Abstract Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a common presentation of type I diabetes mellitus to the emergency departments. Most children with DKA are initially managed in community emergency departments where providers may not have easy access to educational resources or pediatric-specific guidelines and protocols that are readily available at pediatric academic medical centers. The aim of this study is to evaluate adherence of community emergency departments in the state of Indiana to the pediatric DKA guidelines. We performed a retrospective chart review of patients, age 18 years of age or under, admitted to the pediatric intensive care unit with a diagnosis of DKA. A total of 100 patients were included in the analysis. Thirty-seven percent of patients with DKA were managed according to all six guideline parameters. Only 39% of patients received the recommended hourly blood glucose checks. Thirty percent of patients received intravenous insulin bolus, which is not recommended. Non-adherence to pediatric DKA guidelines still exists in the state of Indiana. Further, larger studies are needed to reveal the etiology of non-adherence to pediatric DKA guidelines and strategies to improve that adherence. Background Worldwide, from 1990 to 2008, the incidence of type I diabetes increased from 2.8 to 4.0% per year [1]. Between 2000 and 2008 in the United States, the prevalence of type I diabetes increased by 21.1% [2]. Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a common presentation of type I diabetes mellitus with one study demonstrating 38.9% of type I diabetes patients presenting in DKA [3]. The biochemical criteria of DKA are hyperglycemia (blood glucose > 11 mmol/L or 200 mg/dL); venous pH < 7.3 or bicarbonate <15 mmol/L; and the presence of ketonemia or ketonuria [4]. Cerebral edema (C Continue reading >>

Developments In The Management Of Diabetic Ketoacidosis In Adults: Implications For Anaesthetists

Developments In The Management Of Diabetic Ketoacidosis In Adults: Implications For Anaesthetists

Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a medical emergency and bedside capillary ketone testing allows timely diagnosis and identification of successful treatment. 0.9% saline with premixed potassium chloride should be the main resuscitation fluid on the general wards and in theatre; this is because it complies with National Patient Safety Agency recommendations on the administration of potassium chloride. Weight-based fixed rate i.v. insulin infusion (FRIII) is now recommended rather than a variable rate i.v. insulin infusion (VRIII). The blood glucose must be kept above 14 mmol litre−1 with the FRIII. Precipitating factor(s) needs to be identified and treated. Surgery and also critical care may be indicated to manage the patient presenting with DKA. Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a medical emergency. The diagnostic triad is: DKA can occur in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus and, although preventable, it remains a frequent and life-threatening complication. Errors in the management of DKA are not uncommon and are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. The majority of mortality and morbidity in DKA are attributable to delays in presentation and initiation of treatment. Rapid recognition and treatment of DKA is critical. Ketonaemia ≥3.0 mmol litre−1 or significant ketonuria (more than 2+ on urine sticks) Blood glucose >11.0 mmol litre−1 or known diabetes mellitus Bicarbonate <15.0 mmol litre−1, venous pH <7.3, or both. To overcome these concerns and to highlight current management strategies, the Joint British Diabetes Societies (JBDS) published guidelines in 2010. This was updated in consultation with the Intensive Care Society in September 2013.1 This article will review the pathophysiology of DKA and highlight the modern management of DKA that Continue reading >>

Type 1 Diabetes In Adults: Diagnosis And Management

Type 1 Diabetes In Adults: Diagnosis And Management

High blood glucose (hyperglycaemia) that is not treated can lead to a serious condition called diabetic ketoacidosis (or DKA for short). It is caused by the build‑up of harmful ketones in the blood. People with type 1 diabetes are at risk of DKA. You may be advised to test for ketones in your blood or urine as part of sick-day rules. Your blood ketones may be measured by a healthcare professional if it is thought you might have DKA. If you have DKA you will need emergency treatment in hospital by a specialist care team. This will include having fluids through a drip. Questions to ask about DKA Continue reading >>

The Management Of Diabetic Ketoacidosis In Adults

The Management Of Diabetic Ketoacidosis In Adults

Action 1: Commence 0.9% sodium chloride solution (use large bore cannula) via infusion pump. See Box 2 for rate of fluid replacement Action 2: Commence a fixed rate intravenous insulin infusion (IVII). (0.1unit/kg/hr based on estimate of weight) 50 units human soluble insulin (Actrapid® or Humulin S®) made up to 50ml with 0.9% sodium chloride solution. If patient normally takes long acting insulin analogue (Lantus®, Levemir®) continue at usual dose and time Action 3: Assess patient o Respiratory rate; temperature; blood pressure; pulse; oxygen saturation o Glasgow Coma Scale o Full clinical examination Action 4: Further investigations • Capillary and laboratory glucose • Venous BG • U & E • FBC • Blood cultures • ECG • CXR • MSU Action 5: Establish monitoring regimen • Hourly capillary blood glucose • Hourly capillary ketone measurement if available • Venous bicarbonate and potassium at 60 minutes, 2 hours and 2 hourly thereafter • 4 hourly plasma electrolytes • Continuous cardiac monitoring if required • Continuous pulse oximetry if required Action 6: Consider and precipitating causes and treat appropriately BOX 1: Immediate management: time 0 to 60 minutes (T=0 at time intravenous fluids are commenced) If intravenous access cannot be obtained request critical care support immediately Systolic BP (SBP) below 90mmHg Likely to be due to low circulating volume, but consider other causes such as heart failure, sepsis, etc. • Give 500ml of 0.9% sodium chloride solution over 10-15 minutes. If SBP remains below 90mmHg repeat whilst requesting senior input. Most patients require between 500 to 1000ml given rapidly. • Consider involving the ITU/critical care team. • Continue reading >>

Management Of Diabetic Ketoacidosis Following Implementation Of The Jbds Guidelines: Where Are We And Where Should We Go?

Management Of Diabetic Ketoacidosis Following Implementation Of The Jbds Guidelines: Where Are We And Where Should We Go?

Abstract Background: The Joint British Diabetes Society (JBDS) consensus guideline published in 2010 has provided the framework for the effective management of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) in adults in the UK. Methodology: A retrospective study of 50 patient episodes admitted to our teaching hospital between February and December 2012, with a discharge diagnosis of DKA. Results: Twenty-seven (54%) patients were male, mean (SD) age was 43 (21) years and duration of diabetes was 11 (9) years. In the first 60 minutes from diagnosis, median (interquartile range [IQR]) time to fixed rate intravenous insulin infusion (FRIII) was 49 (29–110) minutes and to intravenous fluids was 19 (0–42) minutes. During ongoing management, 46% of patients developed hypokalaemia and, of those, in 70% potassium supplementation was not prescribed as per protocol. Forty percent of patients experienced hypoglycaemia in the first 24 hours, of whom 80% had 10% dextrose prescribed appropriately according to protocol. Median time to hypoglycaemia from diagnosis was 12 hours 54 minutes. Median (SD) time to resolution of DKA was 12 hours 6 minutes. Eighty six percent of patients were reviewed by the diabetes specialist team during admission. No deaths due to DKA or complications of its management were reported. Median length of hospital stay was two days. Conclusions: Adherence to the JBDS DKA guideline was good in the immediate stage of treatment. Inadequate metabolic monitoring, fluid management and iatrogenic hypoglycaemia remain areas of concern. A high proportion of patients received diabetes specialist nurse input with reduced length of stay and no recorded mortality. Our recommendations as a result of this audit include a strengthened programme of teaching and education for nursing and medical Continue reading >>

Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a potentially life-threatening complication of diabetes mellitus.[1] Signs and symptoms may include vomiting, abdominal pain, deep gasping breathing, increased urination, weakness, confusion, and occasionally loss of consciousness.[1] A person's breath may develop a specific smell.[1] Onset of symptoms is usually rapid.[1] In some cases people may not realize they previously had diabetes.[1] DKA happens most often in those with type 1 diabetes, but can also occur in those with other types of diabetes under certain circumstances.[1] Triggers may include infection, not taking insulin correctly, stroke, and certain medications such as steroids.[1] DKA results from a shortage of insulin; in response the body switches to burning fatty acids which produces acidic ketone bodies.[3] DKA is typically diagnosed when testing finds high blood sugar, low blood pH, and ketoacids in either the blood or urine.[1] The primary treatment of DKA is with intravenous fluids and insulin.[1] Depending on the severity, insulin may be given intravenously or by injection under the skin.[3] Usually potassium is also needed to prevent the development of low blood potassium.[1] Throughout treatment blood sugar and potassium levels should be regularly checked.[1] Antibiotics may be required in those with an underlying infection.[6] In those with severely low blood pH, sodium bicarbonate may be given; however, its use is of unclear benefit and typically not recommended.[1][6] Rates of DKA vary around the world.[5] In the United Kingdom, about 4% of people with type 1 diabetes develop DKA each year, while in Malaysia the condition affects about 25% a year.[1][5] DKA was first described in 1886 and, until the introduction of insulin therapy in the 1920s, it was almost univ Continue reading >>

Diabetes Mellitus

Diabetes Mellitus

See also: Background: Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is the combination of hyperglycemia, metabolic acidosis, and ketonaemia. It may be the first presentation for a child with previously undiagnosed diabetes. It can also be precipitated by illness, or poor compliance with taking insulin. All patients presenting with a blood glucose level (BGL) ≥ 11.1mmol/l should have blood ketones tested on a capillary sample using a bedside OptiumTM meter. If this test is positive (>0.6 mmol/l), assess for acidosis to determine further management. Urinalysis can be used for initial assessment if blood ketone testing is not available. The biochemical criteria for DKA are: 1. Venous pH < 7.3 or bicarbonate <15 mmol/l 2. Presence of blood or urinary ketones If ketones are negative, or the pH is normal in the presence of ketones, patients can be managed with subcutaneous (s.c.) insulin (see ' new presentation, mildly ill' below). Assessment of children and adolescents with DKA 1. Degree Of Dehydration (often over-estimated) None/Mild ( < 4%): no clinical signs Moderate (4-7%): easily detectable dehydration eg. reduced skin turgor, poor capillary return Severe(>7%): poor perfusion, rapid pulse, reduced blood pressure i.e. shock 3. Investigations Venous blood sample (place an i.v. line if possible as this will be needed if DKA is confirmed) for the following: FBE Blood glucose, urea, electrolytes (sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, phosphate) Blood ketones (bedside test) Venous blood gas (including bicarbonate) Investigations for precipitating cause: if clinical signs of infection consider septic work up including blood culture For all newly diagnosed patients: Insulin antibodies, GAD antibodies, coeliac screen (total IgA, anti-gliadin Ab, tissue transglutaminase Ab) and thyroid function Continue reading >>

Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Shocked or Haemodynamically Unstable Patients Airway: Assess and manage Breathing: 100% 02 Circulation: 2 x intravenous cannulas Give IV 0.9% saline 10mL/kg bolus Reassess response; consider the need to repeat boluses to a maximum of 20mL/kg Discuss with Emergency or PICU Consultant if more fluid is thought to be required Contact PICU and Endocrinology teams regarding PICU admission When haemodynamically stable change fluid rate to maintenance + deficit as per DKA fluid calculator Haemodynamically Stable Patients Contact the Endocrinology team Commence maintenance + deficit fluids as per DKA fluid calculator Do not use > 5% dehydration in calculations Add potassium to maintenance + deficit fluids if: Patient has passed urine Potassium level (venous) is < 5mmol/L as per DKA fluid calculator Recheck potassium level 2 hours post commencement insulin infusion then every 2-4 hours as clinically indicated Commence Insulin as per DKA fluid calculator pH >7.2 or patients being treated outside PMH (tertiary paediatric hospital): subcutaneous insulin pH <7.2 or patient unwell: intravenous insulin infusion and PICU admission DKA FLUID CALCULATOR Enter Patient's Weight kg Estimate % dehydration 0 1 2 3 4 5 % (max 5) Total Fluid Bolus Given ml - if requiring >20ml/kg, seek senior advice (ED consultant/ICU) (Fluid boluses should only be given if patient is clinically shocked or under senior advice) Fluid Initial fluid should be 0.9% Normal Saline only Calculated Fluid deficit is ml (% dehydration x wt x 10) Minus fluid bolus given Rate Remaining fluid deficit To be replaced over 48 hours ml/h Plus Maintenance Fluid ml/day Rate over 24 hours ml/h Total fluid rate ml/h Add KCl to fluid if serum K<5.0 and patient has passed urine. Initially 20mmol KCl in 500ml fluid (40mmol per litre). Continue reading >>

Management Of Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Management Of Diabetic Ketoacidosis

The management of diabetic ketoacidosis is aimed at correction of dehydration correction of acidosis and reverse ketosis restoration of blood glucose to near normal levels monitor for complications of DKA and its treatment identify and treat any precipitating event (1,2) Reference: Continue reading >>

Ispad Clinical Practice Consensus Guidelines 2014

Ispad Clinical Practice Consensus Guidelines 2014

Editor in Chief: Mark A. Sperling, Pittsburgh, USA. Guest Editors: Carlo Acerini, Maria E Craig, Carine de Beaufort, David M Maahs and Ragnar Hanas. Introduction Carlo Acerini, Maria E Craig, Carine de Beaufort, David M Maahs and Ragnar Hanas. Published in Pediatric Diabetes 2014: 15(Suppl. 20): 1–3. Uploaded: 2. Sept 2014 Download Introduction Chapter 1: Definition, epidemiology, diagnosis and classification Craig ME, Jefferies C, Dabelea D, Balde N, Seth A, Donaghue KC. Published in Pediatric Diabetes 2014: 15(Suppl. 20): 4–17. Uploaded: 2. Sept 2014 Download Chapter 1 Chapter 2: Phases of Type 1 Diabetes Couper JJ, Haller MJ, Ziegler A-G, KnipM, Ludvigsson J, Craig ME. Published in Pediatric Diabetes 2014: 15(Suppl. 20): 18–25. Download Chapter 2 Chapter 3: Type 2 diabetes Zeitler P, Fu J, Tandon N, Nadeau K, Urakami T, Bartlett T, Maahs D. Published in Pediatric Diabetes 2014: 15(Suppl. 20): 26-46. Uploaded: 2. Sept 2014 Download Chapter 3 Chapter 4: The Diagnosis and Management of Monogenic diabetes Rubio-Cabezas O, Hattersley AT, Njølstad PR, Mlynarski W, Ellard S,White N, Chi DV, Craig ME. Published in Pediatric Diabetes 2014: 15(Suppl. 20): 47-64. Uploaded: 2. Sept 2014 Download Chapter 4 Chapter 5: Management of cystic fibrosis-related diabetes Moran A, Pillay K, Becker DJ, Acerini CL. Published in Pediatric Diabetes 2014: 15(Suppl. 20): 65-76. Uploaded: 2. Sept 2014 Download Chapter 5 Chapter 6: Diabetes education Lange K, Swift P, Pankowska E, Danne T. Published in Pediatric Diabetes 2014: 15(Suppl. 20): 77-85. Uploaded: 2. Sept 2014 Download Chapter 6 Chapter 7: The delivery of ambulatory diabetes care Pihoker C, Forsander G, Fantahun B, Virmani A, Luo X, Hallman M, Wolfsdorf J, Maahs DM. Published in Pediatric Diabetes 2014: 15(Suppl. 20): 86-101. Up Continue reading >>

Diabetic Ketoacidosis And Hyperosmolar Hyperglycemic State In Adults: Treatment

Diabetic Ketoacidosis And Hyperosmolar Hyperglycemic State In Adults: Treatment

INTRODUCTION Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) and hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state (HHS, also known as hyperosmotic hyperglycemic nonketotic state [HHNK]) are two of the most serious acute complications of diabetes. They are part of the spectrum of hyperglycemia, and each represents an extreme in the spectrum. The treatment of DKA and HHS in adults will be reviewed here. The epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical features, evaluation, and diagnosis of these disorders are discussed separately. DKA in children is also reviewed separately. (See "Diabetic ketoacidosis and hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state in adults: Epidemiology and pathogenesis".) (See "Diabetic ketoacidosis and hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state in adults: Clinical features, evaluation, and diagnosis".) Continue reading >>

Diabetic Ketoacidosis: Clinical Practice Guidelines

Diabetic Ketoacidosis: Clinical Practice Guidelines

1. Introduction Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA), the most common endocrinal emergency remains a life-threatening condition despite improvements in diabetes care [1]. The mortality and morbidity rates remain high worldwide, especially in developing countries and among non-hospitalized patients [2,3], which highlight the importance of early diagnosis and implementation of effective preventive and management strategies. The adage "The child is not a miniature adult" is most appropriate when considering DKA. The fundamental pathophysiology of DKA is the same in children as in adults; however, the child differs from the adult in a number of characteristics which raise some important considerations in management [2]. The purpose of this chapter is to briefly review the pathophysiology of DKA and discuss recommended treatment protocols and current standards of care pertaining to children, adolescents and adults with type 1 or 2 diabetes presenting with DKA. The information provided is based on evidence from published studies and internationally accepted guidelines whenever possible and, when not, supported by expert opinion or consensus [1-5]. Current concepts of cerebral edema, recommendations and strategies for the prediction and prevention of DKA and hence its complications are finally presented. The considerations and recommendations included are in agreement with those endorsed by the American Diabetes Association (ADA), Lawson Wilkins Pediatric Endocrine Society (LWPES), European Society for Pediatric Endocrinology (ESPE), and the International Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Diabetes (ISPAD) [2-5]. Thus, this book chapter will provide easy and practical information to guide healthcare professional who manage DKA in all age groups. 2. Definition of Diabetic Ketoacidosis Continue reading >>

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