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Dka Effects On Fetus

Diabetic Ketoacidosis In Pregnancy

Diabetic Ketoacidosis In Pregnancy

Diabetic ketoacidosis is a serious metabolic complication of diabetes with high mortality if undetected. Its occurrence in pregnancy compromises both the fetus and the mother profoundly. Although predictably more common in patients with type 1 diabetes, it has been recognised in those with type 2 diabetes as well as gestational diabetes, especially with the use of corticosteroids for fetal lung maturity and β2-agonists for tocolysis.1–3 Diabetic ketoacidosis usually occurs in the second and third trimesters because of increased insulin resistance, and is also seen in newly presenting type 1 diabetes patients. With increasing practice of antepartum diabetes screening and the availability of early and frequent prenatal care/surveillance, the incidence and outcomes of diabetic ketoacidosis in pregnancy have vastly improved. However, it still remains a major clinical problem in pregnancy since it tends to occur at lower blood glucose levels and more rapidly than in non-pregnant patients often causing delay in the diagnosis. The purpose of this article is to illustrate a typical patient who may present with diabetic ketoacidosis in pregnancy and review the literature on this relatively uncommon condition and provide an insight into the pathophysiology and management. MAGNITUDE OF THE PROBLEM In non-pregnant patients with type 1 diabetes, the incidence of diabetic ketoacidosis is about 1–5 episodes per 100 per year with mortality averaging 5%–10%.4 The incidence rates of diabetic ketoacidosis in pregnancy and the corresponding fetal mortality rates from different retrospective studies5–8 are summarised in the table 1. As is evident from the table, both the incidence and rates of fetal loss in pregnancies have fallen in recent times compared with those before. In 1963 Continue reading >>

Normoglycemic Diabetic Ketoacidosis In Pregnancy

Normoglycemic Diabetic Ketoacidosis In Pregnancy

The clinical presentation of diabetic ketoacidosis in pregnancy is usually the same as in nonpregnant women, although the blood glucose may not be as high as in the nongravid state. We report a case of a pregnant woman who developed diabetic ketoacidosis with a normal blood glucose and review the pertinent medical literature. A 29-year-old woman with type I diabetes developed diabetic ketoacidosis during induction of labor. She had a glucose level of 87 mg per 100 ml with ketonuria, a metabolic acidosis, and an anion gap of 20 mmol l−1. Normoglycemic diabetic ketoacidosis during pregnancy is truly unusual but can occur with relatively low, or even normal, blood sugars and necessitates prompt recognition and treatment. In this case, the combination of an initial episode of hypoglycemia and subsequent blood glucose levels below 95 mg per 100 ml led to a prolonged delay in the initiation of a planned insulin infusion for insulin coverage during the induction of labor. A significant ketoacidosis consequently developed, despite the absence of even a single elevated blood glucose measurement. This case illustrated the importance of not withholding insulin in a patient with type I diabetes for more than a few hours even if the blood glucose is normal. Normal pregnancy is characterized by a state of decreased insulin sensitivity, as well as accelerated lipolysis and ketogenesis.1, 2, 3, 4 The concentration of serum ketones has been estimated to be two to four times greater than in the nonpregnant state.1, 5 In addition, pregnant women have a respiratory alkalosis, lowering the serum bicarbonate concentration, thus reducing the capacity to buffer hydrogen ions. Despite these changes, the incidence of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) in pregnant diabetic women is only 1 to 3%.6, 7 K Continue reading >>

Diabetes And Pregnancy

Diabetes And Pregnancy

Pregestational and Gestational Diabetes throughout the pregnancy Pregestational vs Gestational Diabetes Pregestational diabetes is diabetes that pre exists the pregnancy Gestational diabetes develops or is first discovered during the pregnancy. Changes in glucose metabolism during pregnancy Early in pregnancy there is an increased insulin secretion At the end of the first trimester most women have an increased glucose utilization and increased insulin secretion In the second and third trimesters there is a progressive increase in insulin resistance due to pregnancy hormones from the placenta. How do these changes effect preexisting diabetes? Insulin needs may be decreased in the first trimester due to these changes as well as the nausea and vomiting pregnant women experience. There will be an progressive increased need for insulin during the second and third trimester. Post partum needs will be decreased dramatically Preconception health and diabetes This is a concept in which a mother receives care before she becomes pregnant in order to achieve optimal results for her and her baby. Primary goal in diabetes is a HbA1c of less than 7% at pre conception. To continue on birth control until it is at that level. However, remember that it is recommended that ALL women receive preconception care. Additional preconception testing Pap CBC Serum creatinine Thyroid 24 hour urine Lipid panel Retinal exam Neurological exam Medication usage Insulin regimen Referral to diabetes educator Referral to dietician Maternal Consequences of preexisting diabetes Preeclampsia Bacterial infections Polyhydraminos Birth trauma from macrosomic infants Preterm labor Cesarean delivery Postpartum hemorrhage DKA A word about DKA and pregnancies DKA is seen in 5-10% of pregnancies complicated by diabet Continue reading >>

Diabetes Mellitus And Pregnancy

Diabetes Mellitus And Pregnancy

Practice Essentials Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is defined as glucose intolerance of variable degree with onset or first recognition during pregnancy. A study by Stuebe et al found this condition to be associated with persistent metabolic dysfunction in women at 3 years after delivery, separate from other clinical risk factors. [1] Infants of mothers with preexisting diabetes mellitus experience double the risk of serious injury at birth, triple the likelihood of cesarean delivery, and quadruple the incidence of newborn intensive care unit (NICU) admission. Gestational diabetes mellitus accounts for 90% of cases of diabetes mellitus in pregnancy, while preexisting type 2 diabetes accounts for 8% of such cases. Screening for diabetes mellitus during pregnancy Gestational diabetes The following 2-step screening system for gestational diabetes is currently recommended in the United States: Alternatively, for high-risk women or in areas in which the prevalence of insulin resistance is 5% or higher (eg, the southwestern and southeastern United States), a 1-step approach can be used by proceeding directly to the 100-g, 3-hour OGTT. The US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) recommends screening for gestational diabetes mellitus after 24 weeks of pregnancy. The recommendation applies to asymptomatic women with no previous diagnosis of type 1 or type 2 diabetes mellitus. [2, 3] The recommendation does not specify whether the 1-step or 2-step screening approach would be preferable. Type 1 diabetes The disease is typically diagnosed during an episode of hyperglycemia, ketosis, and dehydration It is most commonly diagnosed in childhood or adolescence; the disease is rarely diagnosed during pregnancy Patients diagnosed during pregnancy most often present with unexpected Continue reading >>

Management Of Pregnancy In Women With Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus: Guidelines Of The French-speaking Diabetes Society (société Francophone Du Diabète [sfd])

Management Of Pregnancy In Women With Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus: Guidelines Of The French-speaking Diabetes Society (société Francophone Du Diabète [sfd])

The clinical guidelines reported by the French-Speaking Diabetes Society (Société francophone du diabète) include updated recommendations for preconceptual planning and care in the management of pregnancy in women with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). The working group included diabetologists, as well as an obstetrician, a nurse and a dietician. A review of the literature was performed using PubMed and Cochrane databases. Guidelines published by foreign diabetes societies were also consulted. In women with T1DM, pregnancy increased the risks of hypoglycaemia, diabetic ketoacidosis, pregnancy-induced hypertension, infections and worsening of diabetic microvascular disease. Moreover, T1DM during pregnancy had an impact on the embryo and the fetus, and may have increased the risk of spontaneous miscarriages, malformations, premature births, and fetal and neonatal complications. However, intensive glycaemic control and preconceptual care have been shown to decrease the rate of fetal demise and malformations. Also, the use of insulin analogues during pregnancy is now regarded as safe. Tight glucose control and frequent follow-up are recommended throughout pregnancy in women with T1DM. Their obstetric management should take place in a maternity hospital with an appropriate perinatal environment and in close collaboration with diabetologists. Pregnancy planning and adequate management during pregnancy are mandatory for improving the outcomes of women with T1DM. The full text of this article is available in PDF format. Ce référentiel de la Société francophone du diabète a pour objet de préciser les modalités de la prise en charge préconceptionnelle et pendant la grossesse des femmes atteintes de diabète de type 1 (DT1). Le groupe de travail a été constitué de dia Continue reading >>

Diabetic Ketoacidosis In Pregnancy.

Diabetic Ketoacidosis In Pregnancy.

Abstract Pregnancies complicated by diabetic ketoacidosis are associated with increased rates of perinatal morbidity and mortality. A high index of suspicion is required, because diabetic ketoacidosis onset in pregnancy can be insidious, usually at lower glucose levels, and often progresses more rapidly as compared with nonpregnancy. Morbidity and mortality can be reduced with early detection of precipitating factors (ie, infection, intractable vomiting, inadequate insulin management or inappropriate insulin cessation, β-sympathomimetic use, steroid administration for fetal lung maturation), prompt hospitalization, and targeted therapy with intensive monitoring. A multidisciplinary approach including a maternal-fetal medicine physician, medical endocrinology specialists familiar with the physiologic changes in pregnancy, an obstetric anesthesiologist, and skilled nursing is paramount. Management principles include aggressive volume replacement, initiation of intravenous insulin therapy, correction of acidosis, correction of electrolyte abnormalities and management of precipitating factors, as well as monitoring of maternal-fetal response to treatment. When diabetic ketoacidosis occurs after 24 weeks of gestation, fetal status should be continuously monitored given associated fetal hypoxemia and acidosis. The decision for delivery can be challenging and must be based on gestational age as well as maternal-fetal responses to therapy. The natural inclination is to proceed with emergent delivery for nonreassuring fetal status that is frequently present during the acute episode, but it is imperative to correct the maternal metabolic abnormalities first, because both maternal and fetal conditions will likewise improve. Prevention strategies should include education of diabet Continue reading >>

357: Diabetic Ketoacidosis Complicating Pregnancy

357: Diabetic Ketoacidosis Complicating Pregnancy

Jump to Section Objective Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) in pregnancy can result in significant consequences for both the mother and the fetus, however, the time course of recovery with treatment has not been well characterized. Our aim was to examine the precipitating factors, laboratory abnormalities, treatment strategies, and clinical recovery in pregnancies complicated by DKA. Jump to Section Results A total of 20 episodes of DKA in pregnancy were reviewed and analyzed. Clinical features of these women are shown in Table 1. Two thirds of these women had Type 1 diabetes. All women presented with nausea and vomiting (90%), poor compliance (50%), and/or concomitant infection (30%) between 6 and 34 weeks gestation. No cases were precipitated by insulin pump failure. Figure 1 displays the laboratory values at admission and during treatment. The initial blood glucose averaged 386 mg/dL(range 158-776 mg/dL). These women received 3.1 L of intravenous crystalloid within the first 4 hours of treatment, and an average of 90 units of insulin by 24 hours. The glucose was <200 mg/dL in most women by 6 hours of treatment. The anion gap acidosis resolved by 16 hours in 90% of patients, however urine ketones remained positive at 24 hours in 90%. There were no fetal deaths in this limited cohort. Jump to Section Conclusion Nausea and vomiting is the most prominent presenting feature of DKA in pregnancy, and should prompt thorough evaluation in women with diabetes, regardless of gestational age. With early, aggressive insulin therapy and fluid resuscitation, hyperglycemia and acidosis improve rapidly with subsequent resolution of DKA. Continue reading >>

Pregnancy Complicated By Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Pregnancy Complicated By Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Maternal and fetal outcomes Despite intensified insulin treatment and strict surveillance of metabolic control in diabetic women during pregnancy, diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) complicates 2–9% of diabetic pregnancies (1) and represents the leading cause of fetal loss, with a fetal mortality rate of 30–90% (1–3). From August 1991 to December 2001, 2,025 pregnant women with diabetes were admitted to the University of Tennessee Women’s Hospital. Of these, 888 women (44%) received insulin therapy, and 11 women (1.2%) presented with DKA (blood glucose: 377 ± 27 mg/dl, pH: 7.22 ± 0.01, bicarbonate 7.9 ± 3 mEq/l, and positive serum ketones). White’s diabetic classification included class A2, four patients (27%); class B, five patients (45%); class C, one patient (9%); and class D, one patient (9%). The four women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) were African-American, had a mean age of 25 ± 1 year, a BMI of 34 ± 3 kg/m2, and an estimated gestational age of 29 ± 1 weeks. Patients with a previous history of diabetes had a mean duration of diabetes of 6 ± 1 year, a mean age of 27 ± 1 year, a BMI of 30 ± 2 kg/m2, and a gestational age of 28 ± 1 weeks. Infection (27%) and a history of the omission of insulin therapy (18%) were the most common precipitating causes. There were no maternal deaths, and the mean maternal length of hospital stay was 7 ± 2 days. Two patients presented with intrauterine fetal demise, and there was one additional fetal death giving an overall fetal death rate of 27%. During labor, four patients had nonreassuring fetal heart rate tracings in the form of late decelerations that resolved with correction of DKA. At birth, the mean (5 min) Apgar was 8.7 ± 0.4, and fetal weight was 1,278 ± 202 g. Four obese women with DKA had newly d Continue reading >>

Diabetic Ketoacidosis In Pregnancy ( Ahmed Walid Anwar Morad)

Diabetic Ketoacidosis In Pregnancy ( Ahmed Walid Anwar Morad)

1. Management of diabetic ketoacidosis in pregnancy Dr/ Ahmed Walid Anwar Morad Assistant professor of OB/GYN Benha University 2017 2. This talk spotlights on • Definition • Epidemiology • Pathophysiology • Diagnosis • Differential diagnosis • Prevention • Treatment • Pitfalls in DKS 3. Epidemiology • DKA is an acute medical emergency associated with: - Fetal loss rates more than 50%. - Maternal mortality rates less than 1%. 4. Epidemiology • DKA in pregnancy most commonly occurs in women with: - Poorly controlled : *T1DM *T2DM or GDM under - Glucocorticoids - B-agonists / tocolytics - First presentation of T1DM in pregnancy 6. Glucose Homeostasis 7. DKA is common during pregnancy WHY? • Pregnancy is a stat of Relative insulin resistance especially in 2nd & 3rd trimesters. • Increased levels of HPL ,E, P & Cortisol act as insulin antagonists& impair maternal insulin sensitivity. • Pregnancy is a state of respiratory alkalosis associated with a compensatory drop in bicarbonate levels; this impairs the renal buffering capacity. 8. Precipitating factors of DKA in pregnancy • Insufficient or no insulin • Protracted vomiting • Hyperemesis gravidarum • Starvation • Infections • Medications precipitating DKP • Conditions such as diabetic gastroparesis 9. Diagnosis of DKA in pregnancy • DKP may be the first presentatio n of diabetes in pregnancy 10. Laboratory confirmation of DKA in pregnancy 11. Pitfalls in DKA • Potassium level may be falsely normal/elevated. • High – WBC count without infection. – Blood urea with prerenal azotemia due to dehydration. – Creatinine in absence of true impairment of renal function. – Serum amylase even in absence of pancreatitis. 12. What is different in pregnancy? • DKA occurs at lower blo Continue reading >>

Diabetic Ketoacidosis Poses Fetal Risk During / After Event

Diabetic Ketoacidosis Poses Fetal Risk During / After Event

(HealthDay)—Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) during pregnancy poses risk for the fetus during and after the event, according to research published online June 12 in Diabetes Care. Fritha J.R. Morrison, M.P.H., from Tulane University in New Orleans, and colleagues conducted a retrospective cohort study involving pregnancies between 1996 and 2015 with at least one DKA event in women with type 1 diabetes. Data were included for 77 DKA events in 64 pregnancies among 62 women. The researchers found that fetal demise, preterm birth, and neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) admissions occurred in 15.6, 46.3, and 59 percent of pregnancies, respectively. In 60 and 40 percent of the cases, fetal demise occurred at the time of or within one week of DKA and between one and 11 weeks after DKA, respectively. The risk of fetal demise was significantly increased with maternal ICU admission and higher serum osmolality during the DKA event. Maternal smoking and higher pre-DKA hemoglobin A1c levels correlated with increased risk of preterm birth. Higher risk of NICU admission was seen with maternal smoking, preeclampsia during pregnancy, higher anion gap during DKA event, and preterm birth. "Further research is needed to identify effective methods for prevention, early recognition, and timely treatment of DKA in pregnancy to mitigate risk of fetal demise and other adverse fetal outcomes," the authors write. More information: Abstract/Full Text (subscription or payment may be required) Continue reading >>

Diabetic Ketoacidosis In Pregnancy.

Diabetic Ketoacidosis In Pregnancy.

Abstract Episodes of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) can represent a life-threatening emergency for mother and fetus. The cornerstones of treatment of DKA are aggressive fluid replacement and insulin administration while ascertaining which precipitating factors brought about the current episode of DKA, and then treating accordingly to mitigate those factors. The incidence of DKA and factors unique to pregnancy are discussed in this article, along with the effects of the disease process on pregnancy. Clinical presentation, diagnosis, and treatment modalities are covered in detail to offer ideas to improve maternal and fetal outcome. Continue reading >>

Chapter 11: Diabetic Ketoacidosis In Pregnancy

Chapter 11: Diabetic Ketoacidosis In Pregnancy

Despite recent advances in the evaluation and medical treatment of diabetes in pregnancy, diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) remains a matter of significant concern. The fetal loss rate in most contemporary series has been estimated to range from 10% to 25%. Fortunately, since the advent and implementation of insulin therapy, the maternal mortality rate has declined to 1% or less. In order to favorably influence the outcome in these high-risk patients, it is imperative that the obstetrician/provider be familiar with the basics of the pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment of DKA in pregnancy. DKA is characterized by hyperglycemia and accelerated ketogenesis. Both a lack of insulin and an excess of glucagon and other counter-regulatory hormones significantly contribute to these problems and their resultant clinical manifestations. Glucose normally enters the cell secondary to the effects of insulin. The cell then may use glucose for nutrition and energy production. When insulin is lacking, glucose fails to enter the cell. The cell responds to this starvation by facilitating the release of counter-regulatory hormones, including glucagon, catecholamines, and cortisol. These counter-regulatory hormones are responsible for providing the cell with an alternative substrate for nutrition and energy production. By the process of gluconeogenesis, fatty acids from adipose tissue are broken down by hepatocytes to ketones (acetone, acetoacetate, and β-hydroxybutyrate [BHB] = ketone bodies), which are then used by the body cells for nutrition and energy production (Fig. 11-1). The lack of insulin also contributes to increased lipolysis and decreased reutilization of free fatty acids, thereby providing more substrate for hepatic ketogenesis. A basic review of the biochemistry involving D Continue reading >>

Retrospective Analysis Of Diabetic Ketoacidosis In Pregnant Women Over A Period Of 3 Years

Retrospective Analysis Of Diabetic Ketoacidosis In Pregnant Women Over A Period Of 3 Years

1Department of Diabetes and Endocrine, Hamad Medical Corporation, Doha, Qatar 2Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Hamad Medical Corporation, Doha, Qatar 3Department of Obstetrics, Sidra Medical and Research Center, Doha, Qatar Corresponding Author: Khaled Ahmed Baagar Department of Diabetes and Endocrine Hamad Medical Corporation, P.O. Box 3050, Doha, Qatar Tel: +974-66049423 E-mail: [email protected] Citation: Baagar KA, Aboudi AK, Khaldi HM, Alowinati BI, Abou-Samra AB, et al. (2017) Retrospective Analysis of Diabetic Ketoacidosis in Pregnant Women over a Period of 3 Years . Endocrinol Metab Syndr 6:265. doi:10.4172/2161-1017.1000265 Copyright: © 2017 Baagar KA, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. Visit for more related articles at Endocrinology & Metabolic Syndrome Abstract Objective: The incidence of diabetic ketoacidosis in pregnancy (DKP) varies from 0.5%, the lowest reported rate in western countries, to 8.9% in a study conducted in China. The associated fetal mortality is 9-36%. This study aimed to assess the current incidence, causes, and outcomes of diabetic ketoacidosis in pregnancy and identify factors associated with favorable outcomes. Methods: A retrospective chart review of 20 diabetic ketoacidosis hospital admissions of 19 pregnant women from 3,679 diabetic pregnancies delivered between June 2012 and May 2015 was conducted. Those with successful DKP management (group A) or with intrauterine fetal death or urgent delivery during diabetic ketoacidosis management (group B) were compared. Results: Thirteen cases had type 1 diabetes, and 6 cases had Continue reading >>

Diabetic Ketoacidosis (dka)

Diabetic Ketoacidosis (dka)

Tweet Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a dangerous complication faced by people with diabetes which happens when the body starts running out of insulin. DKA is most commonly associated with type 1 diabetes, however, people with type 2 diabetes that produce very little of their own insulin may also be affected. Ketoacidosis is a serious short term complication which can result in coma or even death if it is not treated quickly. Read about Diabetes and Ketones What is diabetic ketoacidosis? DKA occurs when the body has insufficient insulin to allow enough glucose to enter cells, and so the body switches to burning fatty acids and producing acidic ketone bodies. A high level of ketone bodies in the blood can cause particularly severe illness. Symptoms of DKA Diabetic ketoacidosis may itself be the symptom of undiagnosed type 1 diabetes. Typical symptoms of diabetic ketoacidosis include: Vomiting Dehydration An unusual smell on the breath –sometimes compared to the smell of pear drops Deep laboured breathing (called kussmaul breathing) or hyperventilation Rapid heartbeat Confusion and disorientation Symptoms of diabetic ketoacidosis usually evolve over a 24 hour period if blood glucose levels become and remain too high (hyperglycemia). Causes and risk factors for diabetic ketoacidosis As noted above, DKA is caused by the body having too little insulin to allow cells to take in glucose for energy. This may happen for a number of reasons including: Having blood glucose levels consistently over 15 mmol/l Missing insulin injections If a fault has developed in your insulin pen or insulin pump As a result of illness or infections High or prolonged levels of stress Excessive alcohol consumption DKA may also occur prior to a diagnosis of type 1 diabetes. Ketoacidosis can occasional Continue reading >>

Diabetic Ketoacidosis In Pregnancy

Diabetic Ketoacidosis In Pregnancy

Diabetic ketoacidosis affects only 1% to 3% of pregnancies complicated by diabetes; nonetheless it is an acute medical emergency with a potential for dire consequences for both mother and fetus.9,19,31 The maternal mortality rate secondary to diabetes has fallen remarkably from a preinsulin era high of 50% to less than 1% today.18 The rate of maternal loss owing to diabetic ketoacidosis in pregnancy is unknown but most likely ranges from 4% to 15%.18,24,46 The majority of reports on ketoacidosis in pregnancy contain data on 20 or fewer patients, thus maternal mortality rates once ketoacidosis ensues must be extrapolated from nonpregnant data. In the series reported by Gabbe and co-workers,18 7 of 24 deaths in pregnant diabetic women resulted from metabolic complications, with 4 caused by ketoacidosis. Clements and Vourganti11 and Hollingsworth28 have suggested that many of these deaths could have been prevented by appropriate management. Diabetic ketoacidosis more commonly occurs in the second and third trimesters when increased insulin resistance is present.18,41 Fetal mortality has also decreased markedly since the introduction of insulin; however, it is still excessively high. Historically, fetal loss rates have ranged from 30% to 90%.16,32,33 Recently, Montoro and co-workers39 studied 20 type I diabetic pregnant women with ketoacidosis. On admission, seven women (35%) were diagnosed with a fetal demise. None of the remaining 13 women sustained fetal loss once therapy was begun. Kilvert and colleagues31 reported a fetal loss rate of 22% (including spontaneous abortions), with only one (14%) loss among seven cases occurring after the first trimester. Kent and co-workers30 compared fetal mortality among 21 pregnant women with brittle diabetes (those with recurrent keto Continue reading >>

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