Dka Criteria

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What is DIABETIC KETOACIDOSIS? What does DIABETIC KETOACIDOSIS mean? DIABETIC KETOACIDOSIS meaning - DIABETIC KETOACIDOSIS definition - DIABETIC KETOACIDOSIS explanation. Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/... license. SUBSCRIBE to our Google Earth flights channel - https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC6Uu... Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a potentially life-threatening complication of diabetes mellitus. Signs and symptoms may include vomiting, abdominal pain, deep gasping breathing, increased urination, weakness, confusion, and occasionally loss of consciousness. A person's breath may develop a specific smell. Onset of symptoms is usually rapid. In some cases people may not realize they previously had diabetes. DKA happens most often in those with type 1 diabetes, but can also occur in those with other types of diabetes under certain circumstances. Triggers may include infection, not taking insulin correctly, stroke, and certain medications such as steroids. DKA results from a shortage of insulin; in response the body switches to burning fatty acids which produces acidic ketone bodies. DKA is typically diagnosed when testing finds high blood sugar, low blood pH, and ketoacids in either the blood or urine. The primary treatment of DKA is with intravenous fluids and insulin. Depending on the severity, insulin may be given intravenously or by injection under the skin. Usually potassium is also needed to prevent the development of low blood potassium. Throughout treatment blood sugar and potassium levels should be regularly checked. Antibiotics may be required in those with an underlying infection. In those with severely low blood pH, sodium bicarbonate may be given; however, its use is of unclear benefit and typically not recommended. Rates of DKA vary around the world. About 4% of people with type 1 diabetes in United Kingdom develop DKA a year, while in Malaysia the condition affects about 25% a year. DKA was first described in 1886 and, until the introduction of insulin therapy in the 1920s, it was almost universally fatal. The risk of death with adequate and timely treatment is currently around 1–4%. Up to 1% of children with DKA develop a complication known as cerebral edema. The symptoms of an episode of diabetic ketoacidosis usually evolve over a period of about 24 hours. Predominant symptoms are nausea and vomiting, pronounced thirst, excessive urine production and abdominal pain that may be severe. Those who measure their glucose levels themselves may notice hyperglycemia (high blood sugar levels). In severe DKA, breathing becomes labored and of a deep, gasping character (a state referred to as "Kussmaul respiration"). The abdomen may be tender to the point that an acute abdomen may be suspected, such as acute pancreatitis, appendicitis or gastrointestinal perforation. Coffee ground vomiting (vomiting of altered blood) occurs in a minority of people; this tends to originate from erosion of the esophagus. In severe DKA, there may be confusion, lethargy, stupor or even coma (a marked decrease in the level of consciousness). On physical examination there is usually clinical evidence of dehydration, such as a dry mouth and decreased skin turgor. If the dehydration is profound enough to cause a decrease in the circulating blood volume, tachycardia (a fast heart rate) and low blood pressure may be observed. Often, a "ketotic" odor is present, which is often described as "fruity", often compared to the smell of pear drops whose scent is a ketone. If Kussmaul respiration is present, this is reflected in an increased respiratory rate.....

Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a potentially life-threatening complication of diabetes mellitus.[1] Signs and symptoms may include vomiting, abdominal pain, deep gasping breathing, increased urination, weakness, confusion, and occasionally loss of consciousness.[1] A person's breath may develop a specific smell.[1] Onset of symptoms is usually rapid.[1] In some cases people may not realize they previously had diabetes.[1] DKA happens most often in those with type 1 diabetes, but can also occur in those with other types of diabetes under certain circumstances.[1] Triggers may include infection, not taking insulin correctly, stroke, and certain medications such as steroids.[1] DKA results from a shortage of insulin; in response the body switches to burning fatty acids which produces acidic ketone bodies.[3] DKA is typically diagnosed when testing finds high blood sugar, low blood pH, and ketoacids in either the blood or urine.[1] The primary treatment of DKA is with intravenous fluids and insulin.[1] Depending on the severity, insulin may be given intravenously or by injection under the skin.[3] Usually potassium is also needed to prevent the development of low blood potassium.[1] Th Continue reading >>

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  1. Jen100

    > Bladder Pain and Ketosis

    I dont know if I am imagining this or not but, but everytime I go into Ketosis, my bladder seems to hurt. Does anyone know if bladder pain can be a symptom of ketosis?? I have bladder pain and some burning sensations when I pee (I know this is a symptom of bladder infection too, but it seems to come and go with ketosis)

  2. mj's page

    Is it possible that you're reading a strong positive for ketosis partially because you're not drinking enough?

  3. Deezil

    Well, I googled 'bladder pain and ketosis' and came across this blurb..
    Ketosis is a metabolic state in which the body produces ketones to be used as fuel by some organs so that glycogen can be reserved for organs that depend on it. It is important when looking for information on ketosis that it is not confused for ketoacidosis - a very unhealthy state of being. It is unfortunately all too common for information sources to conflate these two and thus pronounce ketosis as bad.
    Because glucose is commonly accepted as the body's primary fuel source, putting the body into a state where burning something other than glucose for fuel is subsequently regarded as a form of starvation. Yet, the human body has a well-defined mechanism for literally burning fat for fuel (I think it's important to realize that even in the presence of glucose, some tissues in the human body still prefer to use fat for fuel. Ironically, the heart is one of those, despite the fact that the intended purpose of low-fat diets is to save your heart). When the body uses fat as energy, it's in a state of ketosis.
    When you stop eating glucose (ie: carbohydrates), your body begins the process of ketosis. In ketosis, the liver starts unpacking fat cells so that your body can use the fatty acids for fuel. It also produces ketone bodies, which the body also uses for fuel - especially the brain. The benefits of ketosis are numerous - lowered blood pressure, lower cholesterol, low triglycerides, improved insulin sensitivity, and weight loss without regard to calorie count. Other reported benefits are common - lack of hunger, lack of cravings, improved mood, lessened anxiety, and greater mental concentration. Variations on ketogenic diets are used to control various medical conditions including acne, heartburn and acid reflux, thyroid problems, epilepsy, and type 2 diabetes.
    Negative side effects of a ketogenic diet include light-headedness, headache, lethargy, weakness, feeling cold, diarrhea, and nausea. These side effects are only temporary and go away once the body has fully made the switch from burning glucose to burning fat (within the first week). They are almost universally acknowleged as symptoms of withdrawal from sugar.
    The body is very capable of regulating ketone bodies, so unless there is a major problem (Alcoholics and type 1 diabetics often have problems with ketone regulation), you should be just fine. For those people who do have a major problem, however, they can develop ketoacidosis. Essentially, their bodies no longer regulate the ketones in their blood, and they start building up. The more they build up, the more they change the acidity of the blood in your body, and that's very dangerous. The complications of ketoacidosis include halitosis, extreme thirst, frequent urination, contant fatigue, dry skin, abdominal pain, difficulty breathing, and mental confusion.
    If you're looking to lose weight without eating less, improve your mood and mental acuity, or even to solve some common health issues like acne or acid reflux, a ketogenic diet (also called a homeostatic diet) may be exactly the right tool for you. Just keep an eye out for the symptoms of ketoacidosis, and you should have no problems at all once you get past those nasty withdrawal symptoms.

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What is KETOACIDOSIS? What does KETOACIDOSIS mean? KETOACIDOSIS meaning - KETOACIDOSIS definition - KETOACIDOSIS explanation. Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/... license. SUBSCRIBE to our Google Earth flights channel - https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC6Uu... Ketoacidosis is a metabolic state associated with high concentrations of ketone bodies, formed by the breakdown of fatty acids and the deamination of amino acids. The two common ketones produced in humans are acetoacetic acid and ß-hydroxybutyrate. Ketoacidosis is a pathological metabolic state marked by extreme and uncontrolled ketosis. In ketoacidosis, the body fails to adequately regulate ketone production causing such a severe accumulation of keto acids that the pH of the blood is substantially decreased. In extreme cases ketoacidosis can be fatal. Ketoacidosis is most common in untreated type 1 diabetes mellitus, when the liver breaks down fat and proteins in response to a perceived need for respiratory substrate. Prolonged alcoholism may lead to alcoholic ketoacidosis. Ketoacidosis can be smelled on a person's breath. This is due to acetone, a direct by-product of the spontaneous decomposition of acetoacetic acid. It is often described as smelling like fruit or nail polish remover. Ketosis may also smell, but the odor is usually more subtle due to lower concentrations of acetone. Treatment consists most simply of correcting blood sugar and insulin levels, which will halt ketone production. If the severity of the case warrants more aggressive measures, intravenous sodium bicarbonate infusion can be given to raise blood pH back to an acceptable range. However, serious caution must be exercised with IV sodium bicarbonate to avoid the risk of equally life-threatening hypernatremia. Three common causes of ketoacidosis are alcohol, starvation, and diabetes, resulting in alcoholic ketoacidosis, starvation ketoacidosis, and diabetic ketoacidosis respectively. In diabetic ketoacidosis, a high concentration of ketone bodies is usually accompanied by insulin deficiency, hyperglycemia, and dehydration. Particularly in type 1 diabetics the lack of insulin in the bloodstream prevents glucose absorption, thereby inhibiting the production of oxaloacetate (a crucial molecule for processing Acetyl-CoA, the product of beta-oxidation of fatty acids, in the Krebs cycle) through reduced levels of pyruvate (a byproduct of glycolysis), and can cause unchecked ketone body production (through fatty acid metabolism) potentially leading to dangerous glucose and ketone levels in the blood. Hyperglycemia results in glucose overloading the kidneys and spilling into the urine (transport maximum for glucose is exceeded). Dehydration results following the osmotic movement of water into urine (Osmotic diuresis), exacerbating the acidosis. In alcoholic ketoacidosis, alcohol causes dehydration and blocks the first step of gluconeogenesis by depleting oxaloacetate. The body is unable to synthesize enough glucose to meet its needs, thus creating an energy crisis resulting in fatty acid metabolism, and ketone body formation.

Management Of Adult Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Go to: Abstract Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a rare yet potentially fatal hyperglycemic crisis that can occur in patients with both type 1 and 2 diabetes mellitus. Due to its increasing incidence and economic impact related to the treatment and associated morbidity, effective management and prevention is key. Elements of management include making the appropriate diagnosis using current laboratory tools and clinical criteria and coordinating fluid resuscitation, insulin therapy, and electrolyte replacement through feedback obtained from timely patient monitoring and knowledge of resolution criteria. In addition, awareness of special populations such as patients with renal disease presenting with DKA is important. During the DKA therapy, complications may arise and appropriate strategies to prevent these complications are required. DKA prevention strategies including patient and provider education are important. This review aims to provide a brief overview of DKA from its pathophysiology to clinical presentation with in depth focus on up-to-date therapeutic management. Keywords: DKA treatment, insulin, prevention, ESKD Go to: Introduction In 2009, there were 140,000 hospitalization Continue reading >>

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  1. Aaron1963

    Ketogenic Cheese

    I was interested to try some feta cheese, being Ann (Comedy) seems to love it with her Greek salads. So I finally broke down and bought some of the stuff here, even though there wasn't any price listed (it ended up being about the same as the other imported cheeses, which is quite expensive here in Korea). I tried it today just by itself, because I wanted to know what the taste was like. It was very salty to me. Most cheese I can eat just straight, and the feta I could if I wanted to, but would be much better in a salad I think where the leafy veggies would offset the saltiness of it.
    So after having a new item I hadn't had before, I looked up the nutritional information and recorded it in my database, where it automatically calculates the KR. I was quite surprised, it came in at only 1.8, which is a bit lower than most of the cheese I'd been eating up till now. Cheddar seems to be the best of what I've tried, at a KR of 2.2 Still all of them aren't really good. I hadn't really paid much attention to the KR of cheeses before, even though I had it calculated in my database. So it got me thinking - what is the best cheese for those of us on a ketogenic diet? I did a bit of research and came up with St. Andre Cheese. It's a French cheese made with triple cream and supposedly has 0 carbs. Sounds like just the thing for me, unfortunately I don't think it's available here. I may try to find a specialty cheese shop, but expect if they have it that it'll cost a small fortune. The KR for the St. Andre comes to a very respectable 4.1. Anyone ever tried it and have any opinion on it? I'm not looking to consume it together with any particular food. In fact, a lot of the time I just like cheese by itself, to help round out a meal. But when I'm striving for a KR of 3.0 or higher, all the cheeses I've been eating till now have a negative effect towards that goal. Well, perhaps that's not totally correct, being I do need protein, and cheddar has a pretty high protein to carb ratio (95% : 5%) vs. feta at 77% : 23%. So if I need some more protein, the cheddar isn't actually a bad way to go, while getting very minimal carbs. But if the St. Andre can do it with zero carbs, it'll be that much easier to reach my target KR.

  2. AnnC

    I don't eat a huge amount of cheese any more because of the fat/protein ratio. But I love feta and olives in my salads, so work around it in my meal planning. Mozzarella, sharp cheddar and Parmesan all have places in my meals, and I just adjust to include them when I need to.
    This is the feta I'm currently using:
    south cape feta.jpg
    The herbs mentioned are mostly rosemary, and it's just great in my salad. It goes very well with the kalamata olives I add as well.
    You're much more dedicated than I am, Aaron. I only calculate my KR at the end of the day, and as long as I'm well over 2.0, I'm happy. My general carb and protein limits ensure that, so I have a lot of flexibility within the range of foods I like to eat and look forward to in my meals.

  3. Aaron1963

    I think it's not so much dedication as I'm just an analytical type of person and like to completely analyze everything down to the minutest details. Running the numbers for a meal is more interesting to me than eating the meal itself. So I'm always looking at things and seeing how to tweak the numbers to even better.
    The combination of salty olives plus the salty feta cheese would end up being too salty for my tastes I'm afraid. But not sure if feta cheese is always so salty, or it's just the brand I bought. Some salt in a salad though would be good, just not too much. Maybe I'll soak my olives in fresh water to desalt them some and then use my remaining feta cheese in green leafy salads along with some olives.
    Today I've been experimenting with the cream I've been adding to my coffee. Cream here isn't always the easiest thing to buy, being only a few places even sell it, and if they're out of stock, I'm out of luck. The store that sells it was closed yesterday, so I didn't have any cream today. As a result, I added butter into my coffee instead of cream. The taste wasn't so nice as with the cream, but I actually don't really care for the taste of coffee anyways, so it was fine by me. It's only a matter of degree of how "bad" or "tasteless" it is. Well, in analyzing it, the KR of butter is much higher than cream. Butter has only a trace of carbs in it. Cream, when I pour 100ml into a cup of coffee ends up having significant carbs, as in 2.8g. The KR of butter vs. 38% cream is 8.5 for butter and 4.5 for cream. 9.0 is the maximum KR possible for any food. So butter is almost the maximum, whereas cream is only 50% of the maximum. Quite a difference there. So based on today's test, I think I'll just melt the butter into my coffee everyday, and skip the cream all together. I'll just reserve the cream for my berries. Well, I was experimenting with some other things today as well, so my carbs were a bit higher than my target, but overall by using butter in place of cream, I figure I can end up with a similar KR for the day and cut down on the carbs by 5 ~ 8 g. Looking forward to implementing that all the time so I can get my carbs back down to where they were a few weeks ago, prior to my diet shifting gears into maintenance mode.

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check http://www.diabeticfootindia.org/diab... for more details A callus is the toughened area (thick and hard skin) caused due to repeated pressure or friction. It can occur at any part of the body which is exposed to any kind of constant pressure or irritation but the commonest site is foot since there is maximum pressure. Diabetic are more prone for calluses and there are a very high chances of infective callus as a result of high blood sugars. This video is about excision of callus with aseptic precaution.

Diagnosis And Treatment Of Diabetic Ketoacidosis In Children And Adolescents

The diagnostic criteria for type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) have been detailed elsewhere in “Canadian Diabetes Association 2003 clinical practice guidelines for the prevention and management of diabetes in Canada” (1). It is important to reiterate that a second test on another day is rarely required to make the diagnosis of diabetes in children. In fact, the delay may result in a more severe presentation with diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA). As such, a health care professional trained in the education and management of children and adolescents with diabetes should be contacted as soon as an elevated glucose level is discovered. The guidelines presented in the present article are derived primarily from two sources. The first is the “European Society for Pediatric Endocrinology/Lawson Wilkins Pediatric Endocrine Society consensus statement on diabetic ketoacidosis in children and adolescents” (2). This was developed by an expert panel who convened in June 2003 to review the current literature on DKA. The second is the “ISPAD [International Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Diabetes] consensus guidelines for the management of type 1 diabetes mellitus in children and adolescen Continue reading >>

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  1. Mavec2

    Such as sugar free Lifesavers, Fisherman's Friend, Jolly Ranchers, etc. I have been eating a bunch of these recently (e.g. 6-7 sugar free Jolly Ranchers/day) and am just a bit concerned they are taking me out. Should I stop? Does anyone have any insight? Cheers

  2. anbeav

    No they don't kick you out of ketosis but they can anecdotally affect weight loss as well as make cravings worse. Just curious, why the candy?

  3. Mavec2

    I guess to deal with cravings. When you say they anecdotally affect weight loss, do you mean that some people claim they affect weight loss but don't really have a basis for the claim?

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