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Dka And Hhs Nclex Questions

Hyperglycemic Hyperosmolar Nonketotic Syndrome Nclex Questions

Hyperglycemic Hyperosmolar Nonketotic Syndrome Nclex Questions

Hyperglycemic Hyperosmolar Nonketotic Syndrome NCLEX Questions This quiz on HHNS(Hyperglycemic Hyperosmolar Nonketotic Syndrome NCLEX Questions) will test you on how to care for the diabetic patient who is experiencing this condition. As the nurse, you must know typical signs and symptoms of HHNSpatient teaching, and expected medical treatments. Diabetic Ketoacidosis and Hyperglycemic Hyperosmolar Nonketotic Syndrome (HHNS) are both complication of diabetes mellitus, but there are differences between the two complications that you must know as a nurse. This endocrine teaching series will test your knowledge on how to differentiate between the two conditions, along with a video lecture. This HHNS quiz will test you on the following for the NCLEX exam: This NCLEX quiz will test your knowledge on Hyperglycemic Hyperosmolar Nonketotic Syndrome (HHNS). Which of the following patients is MOST LIKELY experiencing Hyperglycemic Hyperosmolar Nonketotic Syndrome based on their symptoms?* A 72 year old with a health history of diabetes who has a blood glucose of 300 mg/dL and is complaining of thirst and frequent urination. A 66 year old with type I diabetes that has ketones present in their urine. A 69 year old admitted with an infection of the right foot with a health history of diabetes that reports missing several doses of Metformin and has a blood glucose of 600 mg/dL. A 6 year old that is presenting with polyuria, polydipsia, abdominal pain, and vomiting. Which of the following is NOT a typical finding in HHNS?* True or False: Treatment of Hyperglycemic Hyperosmolar Nonketotic Syndrome is similar to the treatment of Diabetic Ketoacidosis.* A patient is being discharged home after recovering from HHNS. Which statement by the patient requires patient re-education about this c Continue reading >>

Ncelx/haad/dha/moh -study Help: Diabetic Ketoacidosis And Hyperglycemic Hyperosmolar Nonketotic Syndrome

Ncelx/haad/dha/moh -study Help: Diabetic Ketoacidosis And Hyperglycemic Hyperosmolar Nonketotic Syndrome

NCELX/HAAD/DHA/MOH -STUDY HELP: Diabetic ketoacidosis and Hyperglycemic Hyperosmolar Nonketotic Syndrome Diabetic ketoacidosis and Hyperglycemic Hyperosmolar Nonketotic Syndrome Causes: no insulin present in the body or illness/infection Main problems arehyperglycemia,ketones, andacidosis(blood pH <7.35) Clinical signs/symptoms:Kussmaul breathing,fruity breath,abdominal pain Treatment is the sameas in HHNS (fluids, electrolyte replacement, and insulin) Watchpotassium levelsclosely when giving insulin and make sure the level is at least3before administrating. DKA is an acute complication of diabetes mellitus (usually type 1 diabetes) characterized by hyperglycemia, ketonuria, acidosis, and dehydration. Late Kussmauls respirations (deep respirations). Serum glucose level is usually elevated over 300 mg/dL; may be as high as 1,000 mg/dL. Serum and urine ketone bodies are present. Serum bicarbonate and pH are decreased due to metabolic acidosis, and partial pressure of carbon dioxide is decreased as a respiratory compensation mechanism. Serum sodium and potassium levels may be low, normal, or high due to fluid shifts and dehydration, despite total body depletion. BUN, creatinine, hemoglobin, and hematocrit are elevated due to dehydration. Urine glucose is present in high concentration and specific gravity is increased, reflecting osmotic diuresis and dehydration. Assess skin for dehydrationpoor turgor, flushing, or dry mucous membranes. Observe for cardiac changes reflecting dehydration, metabolic acidosis, and electrolyte imbalancehypotension; tachycardia; weak pulse; electrocardiographic changes, including elevated P wave, flattened T wave or inverted, prolonged QT interval. Assess respiratory statusKussmauls respirations, acetone breath characteristic of metabolic acido Continue reading >>

Diabetic Ketoacidosis And Hyperosmolar Hyperglycemia — A Brief Review

Diabetic Ketoacidosis And Hyperosmolar Hyperglycemia — A Brief Review

Diabetic Ketoacidosis and Hyperosmolar Hyperglycemia — A Brief Review SPECIAL FEATURE By Richard J. Wall, MD, MPH, Pulmonary Critical Care & Sleep Disorders Medicine, Southlake Clinic, Valley Medical Center, Renton, WA. Dr. Wall reports no financial relationships relevant to this field of study. Financial Disclosure: Critical Care Alert's editor, David J. Pierson, MD, nurse planner Leslie A. Hoffman, PhD, RN, peer reviewer William Thompson, MD, executive editor Leslie Coplin, and managing editor Neill Kimball report no financial relationships relevant to this field of study. INTRODUCTION Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) and hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state (HHS) are two of the most common and serious acute complications of diabetes mellitus. DKA is responsible for more than 500,000 hospital days annually in the United States, at an estimated annual cost of $2.4 billion. Both conditions are part of the spectrum of uncontrolled hyperglycemia, and there is sometimes overlap between them. This article will discuss and compare the two conditions, with a focus on key clinical features, diagnosis, and treatment. DIAGNOSTIC FEATURES In DKA, there is an accumulation of ketoacids along with a high anion gap metabolic acidosis (see Table below).1 The acidosis usually evolves quickly over a 24-hour period. The pH is often < 7.20 and initial bicarbonate levels are often < 20 mEq/L. DKA patients (especially children) often present with nausea, vomiting, hyperventilation, and abdominal pain. Blood sugar levels in DKA tend to be 300-800 mg/dL, but they are sometimes much higher when patients present in a comatose state. In HHS, there is no (or little) ketonemia but the plasma osmolality may reach 380 mOsm/kg, and as a result, patients often have neurologic complications such as coma. Bica Continue reading >>

Nclex Review

Nclex Review

A nurse is providing education to a group of young adults regarding development of type 2 diabetes. Which information should be included? Select all that apply. While hospitalized for a myocardial infarction, the patient is diagnosed with type 2 diabetes and is started on an oral antidiabetic medication. Which patient statement should the nurse correct? An insulin-dependent type 1 diabetic patient is admitted in a diabetic coma with a blood glucose of 65 mg/dL. The client's spouse says, "I don't see how this can have happened. We were working in the yard together and she seemed just fine until she collapsed." What explanation would the nurse offer? A patient is brought to the Emergency Department with suspected diabetic ketoacidosis. Which clinical manifestations would support this diagnosis? Select all that apply. It is suspected that a patient has diabetic ketoacidosis. Which anion gap measurement would support that supposition? Which patient history would the nurse evaluate as increasing risk for development of hyperglycemic hyperosmolar state (HHS)? Select all that apply. A patient is being treated for diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA). Acidosis is being corrected and the client's urine output is approaching normal. Which lab value is most important for the nurse to monitor? A patient is being treated for diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA). Which cardiac monitor changes would the nurse evaluate as most significant? Select all that apply. Continue reading >>

Diabetic Ketoacidosis Nclex Questions

Diabetic Ketoacidosis Nclex Questions

This quiz on DKA (Diabetic Ketoacidosis NCLEX Questions) will test you on how to care for the diabetic patient who is experiencing this condition. As the nurse, you must know typical signs and symptoms of DKA, patient teaching, and expected medical treatments. 1 Relapsed Multiple Myeloma - Get The Facts Learn More About Relapsed Multiple Myeloma at the Official Physician Site. Prescription treatment website 2 Login to Your Account Sign In To Your Email! emailloginnow.com Diabetic Ketoacidosis and Hyperglycemic Hyperosmolar Nonketotic Syndrome (HHNS) are both complication of diabetes mellitus, but there are differences between the two complications that you must know as a nurse. This endocrine teaching series will test your knowledge on how to differentiate between the two conditions, along with a video lecture. This DKA quiz will test you on the following for the NCLEX exam: Signs and Symptoms of Diabetic Ketoacidosis Causes of Diabetic Ketoacidosis Patient education for DKA Treatments of Diabetic Ketoacidosis NCLEX Review Nursing Lecture on DKA (NOTE: When you hit submit, it will refresh this same page. Scroll down to see your results.) 1. Which of the following is not a sign or symptom of Diabetic Ketoacidosis? A. Positive Ketones in the urine B. Oliguria C. Polydipsia D. Abdominal Pain 2. A patient is admitted with Diabetic Ketoacidosis. The physician orders intravenous fluids of 0.9% Normal Saline and 10 units of intravenous regular insulin IV bolus and then to start an insulin drip per protocol. The patient’s labs are the following: pH 7.25, Glucose 455, potassium 2.5. Which of the following is the most appropriate nursing intervention to perform next? A. Start the IV fluids and administer the insulin bolus and drip as ordered B. Hold the insulin and notify the d Continue reading >>

Diabetes Mellitus Complications (hhns And Dka) Nclex

Diabetes Mellitus Complications (hhns And Dka) Nclex

HHS is typically seen in patients with type 2 diabetes and infection, such as pneumonia. The main presenting sign is a glucose level above 600 mg/dL. Enough evidence of dehydration already exists that orthostatic vital sign assessments are not a priority, and they are often inaccurate in the elderly due to poor vascular tone. Patients with HHS do not have elevated ketone levels, which is a key distinction between HHS and DKA. Temperature will eventually be taken but is often blunted in the elderly and diabetics. An infectious diagnosis has already been made. The glucose level for appropriate fluid and insulin treatment is the priority. The patient with HHS presented with a glucose level of 800 mg/dL and is started on IV fluids and insulin. What action do you anticipate when the patient's glucose reaches 250 mg/dL? A. Administer an intravenous (IV) solution with 5% dextrose. B. Administer sodium polystyrene sulfate (Kayexalate). C. Slow the IV infusion rate to 40 mL/hour. D. Assess cardiac monitoring for peaked T waves. A. Administer an intravenous (IV) solution with 5% dextrose. When blood glucose levels fall to approximately 250 mg/dL, IV fluids containing glucose are administered to prevent hypoglycemia. Kayexalate (for cation exchange) is used in the treatment of hyperkalemia, which causes peaked T waves on cardiac monitoring. In HHS hypokalemia may result from insulin moving the potassium intracellularly. Fluid replacement remains a priority, but it is given with dextrose. The infusion rate of 40 mL/hour keeps the vein open, but it is not the appropriate replacement rate. What is a typical finding of hyperosmolar hyperglycemic syndrome (HHS)? A. Occurs in type 1 diabetes as the presenting symptom B. Slow onset resulting in a blood glucose level greater than 600 mg/ Continue reading >>

Diabetes Mellitus Nclex Practice Quiz #1 (40 Questions)

Diabetes Mellitus Nclex Practice Quiz #1 (40 Questions)

This exam is all about Diabetes Mellitus! The purpose of this exam is to provide nurses and future nurses an overview of the disease, including its management, impact, and complications. Accomplish this 40-item NCLEX style examination and guarantee a good performance on your NCLEX. Though no one can go back and make a brand new start, anyone can start from now and make a brand new ending. ~ Carl Bard Topics Included topics in this practice quiz are: Guidelines Follow the guidelines below to make the most out of this exam: Read each question carefully and choose the best answer. You are given one minute per question. Spend your time wisely! Answers and rationales are given below. Be sure to read them. If you need more clarifications, please direct them to the comments section. Questions See Also You may also like these quizzes: 3,500+ NCLEX-RN Practice Questions for Free – Tons of practice questions for various topics in the NCLEX-RN! Study Guides Cardiovascular System Respiratory System Nervous System Digestive and Gastrointestinal System Endocrine System Urinary System Homeostasis: Fluids and Electrolytes Cancer and Oncology Nursing Burns and Burn Injury Management Emergency Nursing Miscellaneous Recommended Books and Resources Selected NCLEX-RN review books: MUST HAVE: Saunders Comprehensive Review for the NCLEX-RN® Examination, 7th Edition – A must have book if you're taking the NCLEX-RN. You need to have this. Saunders Strategies for Success for the NCLEX – An invaluable guide that will help you master what matters most in passing nursing school and the NCLEX. Mosby's Comprehensive Review of Nursing for NCLEX-RN – This book has helped nurses pass the NCLEX exam for over 60 years. Practice with over 600 alternative item question formats. Prioritization, Dele Continue reading >>

Hyperosmolar Hyperglycemic State: A Historic Review Of The Clinical Presentation, Diagnosis, And Treatment

Hyperosmolar Hyperglycemic State: A Historic Review Of The Clinical Presentation, Diagnosis, And Treatment

The hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state (HHS) is the most serious acute hyperglycemic emergency in patients with type 2 diabetes. von Frerichs and Dreschfeld described the first cases of HHS in the 1880s in patients with an “unusual diabetic coma” characterized by severe hyperglycemia and glycosuria in the absence of Kussmaul breathing, with a fruity breath odor or positive acetone test in the urine. Current diagnostic HHS criteria include a plasma glucose level >600 mg/dL and increased effective plasma osmolality >320 mOsm/kg in the absence of ketoacidosis. The incidence of HHS is estimated to be <1% of hospital admissions of patients with diabetes. The reported mortality is between 10 and 20%, which is about 10 times higher than the mortality rate in patients with diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA). Despite the severity of this condition, no prospective, randomized studies have determined best treatment strategies in patients with HHS, and its management has largely been extrapolated from studies of patients with DKA. There are many unresolved questions that need to be addressed in prospective clinical trials regarding the pathogenesis and treatment of pediatric and adult patients with HHS. The hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state (HHS) is a syndrome characterized by severe hyperglycemia, hyperosmolality, and dehydration in the absence of ketoacidosis. The exact incidence of HHS is not known, but it is estimated to account for <1% of hospital admissions in patients with diabetes (1). Most cases of HHS are seen in elderly patients with type 2 diabetes; however, it has also been reported in children and young adults (2). The overall mortality rate is estimated to be as high as 20%, which is about 10 times higher than the mortality in patients with diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) (3 Continue reading >>

Nclex Review And Secrets

Nclex Review And Secrets

46. A client with a diagnosis of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is being treated in an emergency room. Which finding would a nurse expect to note as confirming this diagnosis? c) increased respiration and an increase in pH d) elevated blood glucose level and low plasma bicarbonate level 47. A nurse teaches a client with diabetes mellitus about differentiating between hypoglycemia and ketoacidosis. The client demonstrates an understanding of the teaching by stating that glucose will be taken if which of the following symptoms develops? 48. A client with diabetes mellitus demonstrates acute anxiety when first admitted for the treatment of hyperglycemia. The appropriate intervention to decrease the client's anxiety is to: b) convey empathy, trust, and respect toward the client c) ignore the signs and symptoms of anxiety so that they will soon disappear d) make sure that the client knows all the correct medical terms to understand what is happening 49. A nurse provides instructions to a client newly diagnosed with type 1 diabetes mellitus. The nurse recognizes accurate understanding of measures to prevent diabetic ketoacidosis is when the client states: a) I will stop taking my insulin if I'm too sick to eat b) I will decrease my insulin dose during times of illness c) I will adjust my insulin dose according to the level of glucose in my urine d) I will notify my physician if my blood glucose level is higher than 250 mg/dL 50. A client is admitted to a hospital with a diagnosis of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA). The initial blood glucose level was 950 mg/dL. A continuous intravenous infusion of regular insulin is intiated, along with intravenous rehydration with normal saline. The serum glucose level is now 240 mg/dL. The nurse would next prepare to administer which of the follo Continue reading >>

Endocrine Nclex Questions - The Nurse Is Collecting Data...

Endocrine Nclex Questions - The Nurse Is Collecting Data...

Endocrine NCLEX questions - The nurse is collecting data regarding a client after a thyroidectomy and notes that the client has developed hoarseness Endocrine NCLEX questions - The nurse is collecting data... 88% (41) 36 out of 41 people found this document helpful This preview shows page 1 - 20 out of 20 pages. The nurse is collecting data regarding a client after a thyroidectomy and notes that the client has developed hoarseness and a weak voice. Which nursing action is appropriate?Reassure the client that this is usually a temporary condition.The nurse is assisting with preparing a teaching plan for the clientwith diabetes mellitus regarding proper foot care. Which instruction should be included in the plan of care?Apply a moisturizing lotion to dry feet, but not between the toes.The nurse provides dietary instructions to a client with diabetes mellitus regarding the prescribed diabetic diet. Which statement made by the client indicates the need for further teaching?"I need to buy special dietetic foods."A client who has been newly diagnosed with diabetes mellitus hasbeen stabilized with daily insulin injections. Which teaching information should the nurse reinforce upon discharge?Rotate the insulin injection sites systematically.The nurse reinforces teaching with a client with diabetes mellitus regarding differentiating between hypoglycemia and ketoacidosis.The client demonstrates an understanding of the teaching by stating that glucose will be taken if which symptom develops?ShakinessWhen the nurse is reinforcing instructions to a client who has been newly diagnosed with type 1 diabetes mellitus, which statement by the client would indicate that teaching has been effective?"I will notify my health care provider if my blood glucose level is consistently greater tha Continue reading >>

Hyperosmolar Hyperglycemic State

Hyperosmolar Hyperglycemic State

GREGG D. STONER, MD, University of Illinois College of Medicine, Peoria, Illinois Am Fam Physician.2017Dec1;96(11):729-736. Hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state is a life-threatening emergency manifested by marked elevation of blood glucose and hyperosmolarity with little or no ketosis. Although there are multiple precipitating causes, underlying infections are the most common. Other causes include certain medications, nonadherence to therapy, undiagnosed diabetes mellitus, substance abuse, and coexisting disease. In children and adolescents, hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state is often present when type 2 diabetes is diagnosed. Physical findings include profound dehydration and neurologic symptoms ranging from lethargy to coma. Treatment begins with intensive monitoring of the patient and laboratory values, especially glucose, sodium, and potassium levels. Vigorous correction of dehydration is critical, requiring an average of 9 L of 0.9% saline over 48 hours in adults. After urine output is established, potassium replacement should begin. Once dehydration is partially corrected, adults should receive an initial bolus of 0.1 units of intravenous insulin per kg of body weight, followed by a continuous infusion of 0.1 units per kg per hour (or a continuous infusion of 0.14 units per kg per hour without an initial bolus) until the blood glucose level decreases below 300 mg per dL. In children and adolescents, dehydration should be corrected at a rate of no more than 3 mOsm per hour to avoid cerebral edema. Identification and treatment of underlying and precipitating causes are necessary. Hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state (HHS) is a life-threatening endocrine emergency that most commonly affects adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus. 1 , 2 However, the incidence increased by 52.4% Continue reading >>

Diabetic Emergencies, Part 5: Dka Case Studies

Diabetic Emergencies, Part 5: Dka Case Studies

Case Study 1 A 32-year-old male with type 1 diabetes since the age of 14 years was taken to the emergency room because of drowsiness, fever, cough, diffuse abdominal pain, and vomiting. Fever and cough started 2 days ago and the patient could not eat or drink water. He has been treated with an intensive insulin regimen (insulin glargine 24 IU at bedtime and a rapid-acting insulin analog before each meal). On examination he was tachypneic, his temperature was 39° C (102.2° F), pulse rate 104 beats per minute, respiratory rate 24 breaths per minute, supine blood pressure 100/70 mmHg; he also had dry mucous membranes, poor skin turgor, and rales in the right lower chest. He was slightly confused. Rapid hematology and biochemical tests showed hematocrit 48%, hemoglobin 14.3 g/dl (143 g/L), white blood cell count 18,000/ μ l, glucose 450 mg/dl (25.0 mmol/L), urea 60 mg/dl (10.2 mmol/L), creatinine 1.4 mg/dl (123.7 μ mol/L), Na+ 152 mEq/L, K+ 5.3 mEq/L, PO4 3−2.3 mEq/L (0.74 mmol/L), and Cl− 110 mmol/L. Arterial pH was 6.9, PO 2 95 mmHg, PCO 2 28 mmHg, HCO 3−9 mEq/L, and O 2 sat 98%. The result of the strip for ketone bodies in urine was strongly positive and the concentration of β-OHB in serum was 3.5 mmol/L. Urinalysis showed glucose 800 mg/dl and specific gravity 1030. What is your diagnosis? The patient has hyperglycemia, ketosis, and metabolic acidosis. Therefore, he has DKA. In addition, because of the pre-existing fever, cough, localized rales on auscultation and high white blood cell count, a respiratory tract infection should be considered. The patient is also dehydrated and has impaired renal function. Do you need more tests to confirm the diagnosis? Determination of the effective serum osmolality and anion gap should be performed in all patients presenti Continue reading >>

Lewis Med Surg -diabetes Nclex Review Practice Questions

Lewis Med Surg -diabetes Nclex Review Practice Questions

B. Increased high-density lipoproteins (HDL) C. Decreased low-density lipoproteins (LDL) D. Decreased very-low-density lipoproteins (VLDL) Macrovascular complications of diabetes include changes to large- and medium-sized blood vessels. They include cerebrovascular, cardiovascular, and peripheral vascular disease. Increased triglyceride levels are associated with these macrovascular changes. Increased HDL, decreased LDL, and decreased VLDL are positive in relation to atherosclerosis development. A patient is admitted with diabetes mellitus, malnutrition, and cellulitis. The patients potassium level is 5.6 mEq/L. The nurse understands that what could be contributing factors for this laboratory result (select all that apply)? A. The level may be increased as a result of dehydration that accompanies hyperglycemia. B. The patient may be excreting extra sodium and retaining potassium because of malnutrition. C. The level is consistent with renal insufficiency that can develop with renal nephropathy. D. The level may be raised as a result of metabolic ketoacidosis caused by hyperglycemia. E. This level demonstrates adequate treatment of the cellulitis and effective serum glucose control. The additional stress of cellulitis may lead to an increase in the patients serum glucose levels. Dehydration may cause hemoconcentration, resulting in elevated serum readings. Kidneys may have difficulty excreting potassium if renal insufficiency exists. Finally, the nurse must consider the potential for metabolic ketoacidosis since potassium will leave the cell when hydrogen enters in an attempt to compensate for a low pH. Malnutrition does not cause sodium excretion accompanied by potassium retention. Thus it is not a contributing factor to this patients potassium level. The elevated pota Continue reading >>

Its Back! The Nclex Question Of The Week Ati Nursing Blog

Its Back! The Nclex Question Of The Week Ati Nursing Blog

ITS BACK! THE NCLEX QUESTION OF THE WEEK When it comes to the NCLEX Exam, its best to be as prepared as possible. Each week, the ATI Nursing Education Facebook page will be sharing the NCLEX Question of the Week to help you prep. Each NCLEX-style question is reflective of a question that you could receive on the test, plus its paired with helpful rationales to help explain the answer. Follow along! Follow ATI Nursing on Facebook, here. Question: A client who is diagnosed with diabetic ketoacidosis has a serum glucose level of 580 mg/dL and a potassium level of 5.7 mEq/L. Vital signs include: Blood pressure 88/54 mm Hg; Heart rate 136/min; Respiratory rate 40/min. Which action should the nurse implement first? C. Administer 6 units regular insulin subcutaneously. D. Infuse 1 liter of 0.9% sodium chloride over an hour. A. The nurse should reassess blood glucose every hour to evaluate the effectiveness of therapy. When the blood glucose level reaches 300 mg/dL, IV solutions containing dextrose should be initiated to prevent hypoglycemia and cerebral edema. B. Serum potassium levels drop once therapy is initiated. Potassium replacement is started after serum potassium levels fall below 5.0 mEq/L. The maximum infusion rate for adults should not exceed 10 mEq of potassium per hour. C. Subcutaneous insulin has a delayed onset of action and should be administered once the client can take oral fluids and ketosis has stopped. Therefore, unless DKA is mild, a continuous IV infusion of regular insulin should be started. An initial IV bolus of regular insulin may be given at the beginning of the infusion. D. CORRECT: The priority action is to restore volume and maintain perfusion to the brain, heart and kidneys. Hyperglycemia leads to osmotic diuresis and dehydration resulting in t Continue reading >>

Review Questions Nclex-rn Questions And Answers Flashcards Preview

Review Questions Nclex-rn Questions And Answers Flashcards Preview

3. monitor blood glucose closely, and assess for signs of hypoglycemia 4. monitor blood glucose closely, and assess for signs of hyperglycemia 3. monitor blood glucose closely, and assess for signs of hypoglycemia What priority information regarding diet and exercise should the nurse teach a client newly diagnosed with type 1 diabetes mellitus? 2. Fluid, protein, and electrolytes should be managed 3. Calorie intake should be reduced prior to exercise 4. Dietary goals, dietary composition, and physical activity are key 4. Dietary goals, dietary composition, and physical activity are key A nurse is teaching a client recently diagnosed with type 1 diabetes mellitus about chronic complications associated with the disease. Which information should the nurse include? 3. Exercise will increase insulin resistance 4. Podiatry visits are necessary every five years The nurse is teaching a client newly diagnosed with type 1 diabetes mellitus about the rotation of insulin injection sites. The nurse determines that teaching was effective when the client states: 1. rotate injection sites within on anatomical region 2. Rotate injection sites from one anatomic region to another 3. rotation of injection sites does not affect speed of absorption 4. rotation of injection sites does not prevent lipohypertrophy 1. rotate injection sites within on anatomical region The nurse is providing education to a group of clients newly diagnosed with type 1 diabetes mellitus. One client asks why the glycosylated hemoglobin blood test (HbA1c) is done. What is the nurses's best response? 1. HbA1c measures hemoglobin level in addition to blood glucose level 2. HbA1c is used to assess long-term glycemic control 3. HbA1c provides information about conditions that effect a red blood cell's life span 4. HbA1c Continue reading >>

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