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Dka And Heart Failure

Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Diabetic Ketoacidosis

The Facts Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a condition that may occur in people who have diabetes, most often in those who have type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes. It involves the buildup of toxic substances called ketones that make the blood too acidic. High ketone levels can be readily managed, but if they aren't detected and treated in time, a person can eventually slip into a fatal coma. DKA can occur in people who are newly diagnosed with type 1 diabetes and have had ketones building up in their blood prior to the start of treatment. It can also occur in people already diagnosed with type 1 diabetes that have missed an insulin dose, have an infection, or have suffered a traumatic event or injury. Although much less common, DKA can occasionally occur in people with type 2 diabetes under extreme physiologic stress. Causes With type 1 diabetes, the pancreas is unable to make the hormone insulin, which the body's cells need in order to take in glucose from the blood. In the case of type 2 diabetes, the pancreas is unable to make sufficient amounts of insulin in order to take in glucose from the blood. Glucose, a simple sugar we get from the foods we eat, is necessary for making the energy our cells need to function. People with diabetes can't get glucose into their cells, so their bodies look for alternative energy sources. Meanwhile, glucose builds up in the bloodstream, and by the time DKA occurs, blood glucose levels are often greater than 22 mmol/L (400 mg/dL) while insulin levels are very low. Since glucose isn't available for cells to use, fat from fat cells is broken down for energy instead, releasing ketones. Ketones accumulate in the blood, causing it to become more acidic. As a result, many of the enzymes that control the body's metabolic processes aren't able Continue reading >>

Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a potentially life-threatening complication of diabetes mellitus.[1] Signs and symptoms may include vomiting, abdominal pain, deep gasping breathing, increased urination, weakness, confusion, and occasionally loss of consciousness.[1] A person's breath may develop a specific smell.[1] Onset of symptoms is usually rapid.[1] In some cases people may not realize they previously had diabetes.[1] DKA happens most often in those with type 1 diabetes, but can also occur in those with other types of diabetes under certain circumstances.[1] Triggers may include infection, not taking insulin correctly, stroke, and certain medications such as steroids.[1] DKA results from a shortage of insulin; in response the body switches to burning fatty acids which produces acidic ketone bodies.[3] DKA is typically diagnosed when testing finds high blood sugar, low blood pH, and ketoacids in either the blood or urine.[1] The primary treatment of DKA is with intravenous fluids and insulin.[1] Depending on the severity, insulin may be given intravenously or by injection under the skin.[3] Usually potassium is also needed to prevent the development of low blood potassium.[1] Throughout treatment blood sugar and potassium levels should be regularly checked.[1] Antibiotics may be required in those with an underlying infection.[6] In those with severely low blood pH, sodium bicarbonate may be given; however, its use is of unclear benefit and typically not recommended.[1][6] Rates of DKA vary around the world.[5] In the United Kingdom, about 4% of people with type 1 diabetes develop DKA each year, while in Malaysia the condition affects about 25% a year.[1][5] DKA was first described in 1886 and, until the introduction of insulin therapy in the 1920s, it was almost univ Continue reading >>

Management Of Adult Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Management Of Adult Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Go to: Abstract Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a rare yet potentially fatal hyperglycemic crisis that can occur in patients with both type 1 and 2 diabetes mellitus. Due to its increasing incidence and economic impact related to the treatment and associated morbidity, effective management and prevention is key. Elements of management include making the appropriate diagnosis using current laboratory tools and clinical criteria and coordinating fluid resuscitation, insulin therapy, and electrolyte replacement through feedback obtained from timely patient monitoring and knowledge of resolution criteria. In addition, awareness of special populations such as patients with renal disease presenting with DKA is important. During the DKA therapy, complications may arise and appropriate strategies to prevent these complications are required. DKA prevention strategies including patient and provider education are important. This review aims to provide a brief overview of DKA from its pathophysiology to clinical presentation with in depth focus on up-to-date therapeutic management. Keywords: DKA treatment, insulin, prevention, ESKD Go to: Introduction In 2009, there were 140,000 hospitalizations for diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) with an average length of stay of 3.4 days.1 The direct and indirect annual cost of DKA hospitalizations is 2.4 billion US dollars. Omission of insulin is the most common precipitant of DKA.2,3 Infections, acute medical illnesses involving the cardiovascular system (myocardial infarction, stroke) and gastrointestinal tract (bleeding, pancreatitis), diseases of the endocrine axis (acromegaly, Cushing’s syndrome), and stress of recent surgical procedures can contribute to the development of DKA by causing dehydration, increase in insulin counter-regulatory hor Continue reading >>

Diabetic Ketoacidosis Causes, Symptoms, Treatment, And Complications

Diabetic Ketoacidosis Causes, Symptoms, Treatment, And Complications

Diabetic ketoacidosis definition and facts Diabetic ketoacidosis is a life-threatening complication of type 1 diabetes (though rare, it can occur in people with type 2 diabetes) that occurs when the body produces high levels of ketones due to lack of insulin. Diabetic ketoacidosis occurs when the body cannot produce enough insulin. The signs and symptoms of diabetic ketoacidosis include Risk factors for diabetic ketoacidosis are type 1 diabetes, and missing insulin doses frequently, or being exposed to a stressor requiring higher insulin doses (infection, etc). Diabetic ketoacidosis is diagnosed by an elevated blood sugar (glucose) level, elevated blood ketones and acidity of the blood (acidosis). The treatment for diabetic ketoacidosis is insulin, fluids and electrolyte therapy. Diabetic ketoacidosis can be prevented by taking insulin as prescribed and monitoring glucose and ketone levels. The prognosis for a person with diabetic ketoacidosis depends on the severity of the disease and the other underlying medical conditions. Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a severe and life-threatening complication of diabetes. Diabetic ketoacidosis occurs when the cells in our body do not receive the sugar (glucose) they need for energy. This happens while there is plenty of glucose in the bloodstream, but not enough insulin to help convert glucose for use in the cells. The body recognizes this and starts breaking down muscle and fat for energy. This breakdown produces ketones (also called fatty acids), which cause an imbalance in our electrolyte system leading to the ketoacidosis (a metabolic acidosis). The sugar that cannot be used because of the lack of insulin stays in the bloodstream (rather than going into the cell and provide energy). The kidneys filter some of the glucose (suga Continue reading >>

Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a serious problem that can occur in people with diabetes if their body starts to run out of insulin. This causes harmful substances called ketones to build up in the body, which can be life-threatening if not spotted and treated quickly. DKA mainly affects people with type 1 diabetes, but can sometimes occur in people with type 2 diabetes. If you have diabetes, it's important to be aware of the risk and know what to do if DKA occurs. Symptoms of diabetic ketoacidosis Signs of DKA include: needing to pee more than usual being sick breath that smells fruity (like pear drop sweets or nail varnish) deep or fast breathing feeling very tired or sleepy passing out DKA can also cause high blood sugar (hyperglycaemia) and a high level of ketones in your blood or urine, which you can check for using home-testing kits. Symptoms usually develop over 24 hours, but can come on faster. Check your blood sugar and ketone levels Check your blood sugar level if you have symptoms of DKA. If your blood sugar is 11mmol/L or over and you have a blood or urine ketone testing kit, check your ketone level. If you do a blood ketone test: lower than 0.6mmol/L is a normal reading 0.6 to 1.5mmol/L means you're at a slightly increased risk of DKA and should test again in a couple of hours 1.6 to 2.9mmol/L means you're at an increased risk of DKA and should contact your diabetes team or GP as soon as possible 3mmol/L or over means you have a very high risk of DKA and should get medical help immediately If you do a urine ketone test, a result of more than 2+ means there's a high chance you have DKA. When to get medical help Go to your nearest accident and emergency (A&E) department straight away if you think you have DKA, especially if you have a high level of ketones in Continue reading >>

Lessons From Euroheart Failure Survey

Lessons From Euroheart Failure Survey

In some instances, acute myocardial infarction (AMI) may be the precipitating factor both for acute heart failure (AHF) and for diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA), with the consequence that the two disorders may occasionally co-exist in the same individual.1,2 When de novo AHF has cardiogenic pulmonary oedema as its presenting feature, its co-existence with DKA can pose unique diagnostic and therapeutic challenges. On the one hand, if the onset of AMI has escaped detection, due to a pain-free presentation, it may be difficult to differentiate between AMI-related cardiogenic pulmonary oedema and DKA-related adult respiratory distress syndrome, a diagnostic dilemna compounded by the fact that stigmata such as ST-segment elevation and a rise in cardiac troponin levels may be a feature, not only of AMI, but also of DKA per se.3 In the context of undisputable de novo AHF, the therapeutic challenge is one of managing cardiogenic pulmonary oedema and its aftermath, chronic heart failure, with minimal use of diuretics so as to reduce the risk of activation of the renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system (RAAS),4 with its attendant adverse sequelae.5 Although participants in the EuroHeart Failure study managed cardiogenic pulmonary oedema with intravenous diuretics and with intravenous nitrates, in 94 and 70.6% of instances, respectively,6 implying co-prescription of the two agents in some of those instances, the ideal strategy may well have been the sole use of intravenous nitrates7 given the fact that patients with new-onset cardiogenic pulmonary oedema are unlikely to have a net increase in blood volume, the latter eventuality rendered even less likely by the co-existence of DKA. Following the resolution of pulmonary oedema, the subsequent management of these patients should, theref Continue reading >>

Diabetic Ketoacidosis: Evaluation And Treatment

Diabetic Ketoacidosis: Evaluation And Treatment

Diabetic ketoacidosis is characterized by a serum glucose level greater than 250 mg per dL, a pH less than 7.3, a serum bicarbonate level less than 18 mEq per L, an elevated serum ketone level, and dehydration. Insulin deficiency is the main precipitating factor. Diabetic ketoacidosis can occur in persons of all ages, with 14 percent of cases occurring in persons older than 70 years, 23 percent in persons 51 to 70 years of age, 27 percent in persons 30 to 50 years of age, and 36 percent in persons younger than 30 years. The case fatality rate is 1 to 5 percent. About one-third of all cases are in persons without a history of diabetes mellitus. Common symptoms include polyuria with polydipsia (98 percent), weight loss (81 percent), fatigue (62 percent), dyspnea (57 percent), vomiting (46 percent), preceding febrile illness (40 percent), abdominal pain (32 percent), and polyphagia (23 percent). Measurement of A1C, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, serum glucose, electrolytes, pH, and serum ketones; complete blood count; urinalysis; electrocardiography; and calculation of anion gap and osmolar gap can differentiate diabetic ketoacidosis from hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state, gastroenteritis, starvation ketosis, and other metabolic syndromes, and can assist in diagnosing comorbid conditions. Appropriate treatment includes administering intravenous fluids and insulin, and monitoring glucose and electrolyte levels. Cerebral edema is a rare but severe complication that occurs predominantly in children. Physicians should recognize the signs of diabetic ketoacidosis for prompt diagnosis, and identify early symptoms to prevent it. Patient education should include information on how to adjust insulin during times of illness and how to monitor glucose and ketone levels, as well as i Continue reading >>

Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Diabetic Ketoacidosis

As fat is broken down, acids called ketones build up in the blood and urine. In high levels, ketones are poisonous. This condition is known as ketoacidosis. Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is sometimes the first sign of type 1 diabetes in people who have not yet been diagnosed. It can also occur in someone who has already been diagnosed with type 1 diabetes. Infection, injury, a serious illness, missing doses of insulin shots, or surgery can lead to DKA in people with type 1 diabetes. People with type 2 diabetes can also develop DKA, but it is less common. It is usually triggered by uncontrolled blood sugar, missing doses of medicines, or a severe illness. Continue reading >>

Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Diabetic Ketoacidosis

What Is It? Diabetic ketoacidosis is a potentially fatal complication of diabetes that occurs when you have much less insulin than your body needs. This problem causes the blood to become acidic and the body to become dangerously dehydrated. Diabetic ketoacidosis can occur when diabetes is not treated adequately, or it can occur during times of serious sickness. To understand this illness, you need to understand the way your body powers itself with sugar and other fuels. Foods we eat are broken down by the body, and much of what we eat becomes glucose (a type of sugar), which enters the bloodstream. Insulin helps glucose to pass from the bloodstream into body cells, where it is used for energy. Insulin normally is made by the pancreas, but people with type 1 diabetes (insulin-dependent diabetes) don't produce enough insulin and must inject it daily. Subscribe to Harvard Health Online for immediate access to health news and information from Harvard Medical School. Continue reading >>

Myocardial Injury With Biomarker Elevation In Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Myocardial Injury With Biomarker Elevation In Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Abstract We report of two patients with severe ketoacidosis, minute elevations of myocardial biomarkers (troponin T and CK-MB) and initial ECG changes compatible with myocardial infarction (MI). All successive investigations, including coronary arteriography, were normal, and the patients recovered fully without further evidence of ischemic heart disease. We suggest that acidosis and very high levels of free fatty acids could cause membrane instability and biomarker leakage. Regardless of the pathogenesis, these two case stories suggest that nonspecific myocardial injury may occur in severe diabetic ketoacidosis and that the presence of minute biomarker elevation and ECG changes does not necessarily signify MI. Continue reading >>

Am I The Heart Attack?

Am I The Heart Attack?

A few weeks ago, I woke up at 3 a.m. with excruciating chest, arm, neck, and back pain. It was the kind of pain that resembled everything I’d ever read or heard about the pain which precedes a heart attack. I don’t know what the typical response is for a man who senses that he’s experiencing a cardiac emergency, but my response was probably a textbook example of what not to do: I stayed in bed and let my thoughts run wild. This can’t be a heart attack. I’m not breaking out in a cold sweat. I’m a healthy and well-controlled type 1 diabetic. I’m not short of breath. I exercised last night and felt fine. I had carrots and celery for my nighttime snack last night. I can’t afford to have a heart attack. What does a room in the cardiac ICU cost, ten thousand dollars a day? What if I die? What will my wife and son do without me? Why did I neglect my diabetes in my 20s? I ate too much pizza in college. God, I really can’t miss work today. I wonder if I can get to the emergency room and be out in time to get to work. After about 30 minutes of panicking and waiting for things to get better, I vomited. I remembered that my father-in-law had experienced the same symptoms when he’d had a heart attack two years ago – chest pains then vomiting. I woke my wife, Theresa. “I need to get to the hospital,” I said. We dressed quickly and as we were walking out the front door, my compulsive need to know my blood glucose level at all times (which apparently persists even under threat of cardiac arrest) forced me to test. It was 180 mg/dl, quite high for the middle of the night. Before we were out of our neighborhood, my chest pain had worsened. So had my state of mind. I was trying to convince Theresa to drive faster, but she was thinking clearly and decided we shoul Continue reading >>

Extreme Insulin Resistance In A Patient With Diabetes Ketoacidosis And Acute Myocardial Infarction

Extreme Insulin Resistance In A Patient With Diabetes Ketoacidosis And Acute Myocardial Infarction

Case Reports in Endocrinology Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 520904, 7 pages 1Division of Endocrinology, SUNY Downstate Medical Center, Brooklyn, NY 11203, USA 2Division of Endocrinology, Maimonides Medical Center, Brooklyn, NY 11219, USA Academic Editors: O. Isozaki, W. V. Moore, and R. Murray Copyright © 2013 Yin H. Oo et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Abstract Hyperglycemia is common in hospitalized patients and associated with adverse clinical outcomes. In hospitalized patients, multiple factors contribute to hyperglycemia, such as underlying medical conditions, pathophysiological stress, and medications. The development of transient insulin resistance is a known cause of hyperglycemia in both diabetic and nondiabetic patients. Though physicians are familiar with common diseases that are known to be associated with insulin resistance, the majority of us rarely come across a case of extreme insulin resistance. Here, we report a case of prolonged course of extreme insulin resistance in a patient admitted with diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) and acute myocardial infarction (MI). The main purpose of this paper is to review the literature to identify the underlying mechanisms of extreme insulin resistance in a patient with DKA and MI. We will also briefly discuss the different clinical conditions that are associated with insulin resistance and a general approach to a patient with severe insulin resistance. 1. Introduction In hospitalized patients, the development of transient insulin resistance related to different medical conditions such as acute myocardial infarction (MI), sepsis, and Continue reading >>

Severe Diabetic Ketoacidosis Associated With Acute Myocardial Necrosis

Severe Diabetic Ketoacidosis Associated With Acute Myocardial Necrosis

We describe a case of a 28-year-old woman who was admitted to our hospital with severe diabetic ketoacidosis. She was known to have had type 1 diabetes for 10 years. During the previous 2 days, she had gone to a party, drank a considerable amount of alcohol, and did not administer her regular dose of insulin. On admission, she was semicomatose and tachypnoic, her blood pressure was 90/70 mmHg, and her heart rate 80 bpm. Laboratory tests showed severe metabolic acidosis (pH 6.92, bicarbonate 2.2 mmol/l, pCO2 1.49 kPa), very high blood glucose (75 mmol/l), hyponatremia (104.3 mmol/l), hypochloremia (70 mmol/l), severe hyperkalemia (8.5 mmol/l), and elevated blood urea (20.3 mmol/l) and creatinine (317 μmol/l). Blood ethanol level was 0.2 g/l. Screening for possible intoxication, including cocaine, opiates, and amphetamines, was negative. Electrocardiogram (ECG) showed sinus rhythm with wide QRS complexes and diffuse nonspecific ST changes. The patient was treated with continuous intravenous saline and insulin infusion. After 12 h, her blood glucose decreased to 17.5 mmol/l (pH 7.23, bicarbonate 12.0 mmol/l, potassium 5.12 mmol/l, and sodium 127.8 mmol/l). Blood urea decreased to 14.6 mmol/l and creatinine to 154 μmol/l. ECG was also normalized. After 36 h, the patient experienced transient stabbing chest pain, which was partially relieved by the change of body position. Complex ventricular arrhythmias, including short runs of ventricular tachycardia, were noticed. Repeat ECG revealed mild ST elevations in leads II, III, and aVF with negative T-waves in leads V2–V4. Echocardiography revealed somewhat depressed left ventricular systolic function (LVEF 45%) with hypokinesis of the posterior and inferior walls. Serum troponin I increased to 343 ng/ml (normal value ≤0.4 Continue reading >>

Original Article Clinical Outcomes Of Septic Patients With Diabetic Ketoacidosis Between 2004 And 2013 In A Tertiary Hospital In Taiwan

Original Article Clinical Outcomes Of Septic Patients With Diabetic Ketoacidosis Between 2004 And 2013 In A Tertiary Hospital In Taiwan

Infection is the most common predisposing factor for diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA); however, studies are rare that have investigated the clinical outcomes of septic patients with infection-precipitated DKA. A retrospective cohort study was conducted at a tertiary hospital from 2004 to 2013. Patients with DKA in whom the presence of a predisposing infection was confirmed were enrolled. Characteristics at initial presentation, primary infection sources, and causative microorganisms were compared between the nonacute kidney injury (non-AKI) group and acute kidney injury (AKI) group at each stage. Risk factors for the development of failure-stage AKI and its outcomes were also analyzed. One hundred and sixty DKA episodes were assessed. The most common infection sites were the urinary and respiratory tracts. The leading causative microorganism was Escherichia coli, followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae. A complicated/severe infection state [odds ratio (OR), 15.27; p < 0.001] and a high level of C-reactive protein (OR, 1.012; p < 0.001) were independently associated with bacteremia. Corrected sodium (Na; OR, 1.062; p = 0.039), initial plasma glucose (OR, 1.003; p = 0.041), severe grade of DKA (OR, 13.41; p = 0.045), and the Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II score (OR, 1.08; p = 0.033) were identified as independent risk factors for the development of failure-stage AKI among septic patients with infection-precipitated DKA. Patients with failure-stage AKI had a higher frequency of incomplete recovery of renal function (20.4% of patients in failure vs. 5.9% of patients in risk and injury, p = 0.009). Bacteremia independently predicted the absence of complete recovery of renal function (OR, 5.86; p = 0.038). For patients with infection-precipitated DKA, the cli Continue reading >>

New Safety Warnings For Two Classes Of Diabetes Drugs: What Pharmacists Should Know

New Safety Warnings For Two Classes Of Diabetes Drugs: What Pharmacists Should Know

This spring, FDA called attention to two classes of diabetes drugs and potential serious risks associated with them. In April, the Endocrinologic and Metabolic Drugs Advisory Committee advised FDA to add a heart failure warning to labels on dipeptidyl peptidase–4 (DPP-4) inhibitors, also known as gliptins. A month later, FDA issued a drug safety communication warning that another diabetes drug, sodium–glucose linked transporter–2 (SGLT-2) inhibitors, could cause euglycemic diabetic ketoacidosis. When FDA has new information on the safety of a drug, the agency may issue a drug safety communication, or it could deem a label change necessary. In some but not all cases, these warnings warrant a change in the way pharmacists advise prescribers and counsel patients. “All medications come with benefits and risks, and every decision for type 2 diabetes should be based on the patient-specific advantages and disadvantages of the different options available. The potential risks with these two medication classes are something we must consider,” said Jennifer Trujillo, PharmD, BCPS, CDE, Associate Professor of Clinical Pharmacy at University of Colorado Skaggs School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences. New drug safety information FDA has issued 15 drug safety communications this year. There were 16 in 2014 and twice that many in each of the two preceding years. Health care providers learn about these warnings on FDA’s website or through MedWatch Safety Alerts, the Drug Information Listserv, e-mail newsletters, podcasts, and social and traditional media. The communications are distributed to about 573,000 subscribers to e-mail distribution listservs and 451,000 followers to FDA social media accounts. (APhA’s DrugInfoLine at www.aphadruginfoline.com also publishes F Continue reading >>

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