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Dka Algorithm

68..............................................................................................................................................................................navc Clinician’s Brief / April 2011 / Diagnostic Tree

68..............................................................................................................................................................................navc Clinician’s Brief / April 2011 / Diagnostic Tree

1. IV Isotonic Crystalloid Therapy • Shock fluid therapy is warranted if cardiovascular instability is present: Full shock dose of fluids is 90 mL/kg; start with ¼ to 1/3 dose and reassess until stable • Correct dehydration, provide maintenance needs, and replace ongoing losses over 6 to 24 hours: - % dehydration × body weight (kg) × 1000 plus - 20 mL/kg/day (insensible losses) plus - 20 to 40 mL/kg/day (maintenance sensible losses) plus - Account for vomiting, diarrhea, & polyuria (ongoing sensible losses) Alice Huang, VMD, & J. Catharine Scott-Moncrieff, Vet MB, MS, MA, Diplomate ACVIM & ECVIM Purdue University Canine Diabetic Ketoacidosis D i a gno s t i c Tre e / ENDOCRINOLOGY Peer Reviewed Physical Examination • Polyuria • Weight loss • Polydipsia • Vomiting • Polyphagia • Lethargy Patient may have only 1 or more of these signs. Laboratory Results • Blood glucose (BG): Hyperglycemia (> 200 mg/dL) • Blood gas (venous or arterial): Metabolic acidosis • Urine dipstick: Glucosuria; ketonuria or ketonemia Serum ketones can be measured if urine is unavailable. Diabetic Ketoacidosis Treatment 2. Electrolyte Supplementation (see Table 1, page 70) • Monitor serum potassium Q 4–6 H until within reference interval and stable; then Q 12–24 H • Monitor serum phosphorus Q 4–6 H until > 1.5; then Q 6–24 H • When supplementing potassium and phosphorus concurrently, take into account the amount of potassium contained in the potassium phosphate • Consider magnesium supplementation in instances of refractory hypokalemia 3. Regular Insulin • Continuous rate infusion (CRI) protocol:1 - Add 2.2 U/kg of regular insulin to 250 mL of 0.9% saline - Allow 50 Continue reading >>

M A N A G E M E N T A N D T R E A T M E N T O F

M A N A G E M E N T A N D T R E A T M E N T O F

This care process model (CPM) was developed by Intermountain Healthcare’s Pediatric Clinical Specialties Program. It provides guidance for identifying and managing type 1 diabetes in children, educating and supporting patients and their families in every phase of development and treatment, and preparing our pediatric patients to transition successfully to adulthood and adult diabetes self-management. This CPM is based on guidelines from the American Diabetes Association (ADA), particularly the 2014 position statement Type 1 Diabetes Through the Life Span, as well as the opinion of local clinical experts in pediatric diabetes.ADA1,CHI Pediatric Type 1 Diabetes C a r e P r o c e s s M o d e l F E B R U A R Y 2 0 1 7 2 0 17 U p d a t e Why Focus on PEDIATRIC TYPE 1 DIABETES? Diabetes in childhood carries an enormous burden for patients and their families and represents significant cost to our healthcare system. In 2008, Intermountain Healthcare published the first CPM on the management of pediatric diabetes with the overall goal of helping providers deliver the best clinical care in a consistent and integrated way. What’s new: • Separate CPMs for type 1 and type 2 pediatric diabetes to promote more- accurate diagnosis and more-focused education and treatment. • Updated recommendations for diagnostic testing, blood glucose control, and follow-up care specifically related to pediatric type 1 diabetes. • A more comprehensive view of treatment for pediatric type 1 diabetes — one that emphasizes psychosocial wellness for patient and family and lays a foundation for better health over the lifespan. • Information and tools to support pediatric type 1 diabetes care by nonspecialist providers — important for coping with the ongoin Continue reading >>

Management Of Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Management Of Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Diabetic ketoacidosis is an emergency medical condition that can be life-threatening if not treated properly. The incidence of this condition may be increasing, and a 1 to 2 percent mortality rate has stubbornly persisted since the 1970s. Diabetic ketoacidosis occurs most often in patients with type 1 diabetes (formerly called insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus); however, its occurrence in patients with type 2 diabetes (formerly called non–insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus), particularly obese black patients, is not as rare as was once thought. The management of patients with diabetic ketoacidosis includes obtaining a thorough but rapid history and performing a physical examination in an attempt to identify possible precipitating factors. The major treatment of this condition is initial rehydration (using isotonic saline) with subsequent potassium replacement and low-dose insulin therapy. The use of bicarbonate is not recommended in most patients. Cerebral edema, one of the most dire complications of diabetic ketoacidosis, occurs more commonly in children and adolescents than in adults. Continuous follow-up of patients using treatment algorithms and flow sheets can help to minimize adverse outcomes. Preventive measures include patient education and instructions for the patient to contact the physician early during an illness. Diabetic ketoacidosis is a triad of hyperglycemia, ketonemia and acidemia, each of which may be caused by other conditions (Figure 1).1 Although diabetic ketoacidosis most often occurs in patients with type 1 diabetes (formerly called insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus), more recent studies suggest that it can sometimes be the presenting condition in obese black patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes (formerly called non–insulin-depe Continue reading >>

Children's Hospital Of Philadelphia

Children's Hospital Of Philadelphia

If you have questions about any of the clinical pathways or about the process of creating a clinical pathway please contact us. ©2017 by Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, all rights reserved. Use of this site is subject to the Terms of Use. The clinical pathways are based upon publicly available medical evidence and/or a consensus of medical practitioners at The Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia (“CHOP”) and are current at the time of publication. These clinical pathways are intended to be a guide for practitioners and may need to be adapted for each specific patient based on the practitioner’s professional judgment, consideration of any unique circumstances, the needs of each patient and their family, and/or the availability of various resources at the health care institution where the patient is located. Accordingly, these clinical pathways are not intended to constitute medical advice or treatment, or to create a doctor-patient relationship between/among The Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia (“CHOP”), its physicians and the individual patients in question. CHOP does not represent or warrant that the clinical pathways are in every respect accurate or complete, or that one or more of them apply to a particular patient or medical condition. CHOP is not responsible for any errors or omissions in the clinical pathways, or for any outcomes a patient might experience where a clinician consulted one or more such pathways in connection with providing care for that patient. Continue reading >>

Dka Without The Icu

Dka Without The Icu

As we discussed yesterday, the treatment algorithm for DKA is fairly straightforward with a few subtleties we rarely appreciate, until now. Yesterday we focused on fluids, today we move on to the insulin. Can we offer the patient anything else beside an insulin drip? Obviously the answer is yes, or else this pearl wouldn’t exist. In 2004, Umpierrez et al conducted an RCT of 20 patients comparing subcutaneous lispro (0.3U/kg bolus followed by 0.1U/kg/h) vs. an IV insulin (0.1 u/kg bolus followed by 0.1 U/kg/h drip). They found that there was no difference in time to correction of hyperglycemia, time to resolution of DKA, length of hospital stay, or rates of hypoglycemia. Later that year, they conducted a second study of 45 patients comparing doses of 0.1U/kg/h subcutaneous insulin to 0.2U/kg/h subcutaneous insulin to standard therapy. Not surprisingly, they showed that no protocol was more efficacious than another, however they did show a 39% high hospitalization charges in the IV insulin group due to the ICU setting necessary to manage the insulin drip. Since then the Cochrane collaborative has addressed the same question. They reviewed 5 trials including 201 total patients (some children). They found “low to very low-quality evidence that there are neither advantages nor disadvantages when comparing the effects of subcutaneous rapid-acting insulin analogues vs. IV regular insulin when treating mild to moderate DKA.” As long as the nurses are comfortable with q1 fingersticks, its something to consider next time you treat DKA. References Andrade-Castellanos CA, Colunga-Lozano LE, Delgado-Figueroa N, Gonzalez-Padilla DA. Subcutaneous rapid-acting insulin analogues for diabetic ketoacidosis. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2016, Issue 1. Art. No.: CD011281. D Continue reading >>

Safety And Efficacy Of An Algorithm-based Protocol In The Management Of Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Safety And Efficacy Of An Algorithm-based Protocol In The Management Of Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Objective: To determine the efficacy of an algorithm-based protocol to manage diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA). Methods: Our study is a retrospective chart review of patients with DKA managed before and after implementation of an algorithm-based DKA protocol at a tertiary care hospital. Results: There were 88 patients managed 1 year prior (control group) and 70 patients managed one year after (study group) implementation of the algorithm-based DKA protocol. The DKA resolution time was significantly shorter (11.5 [8.1 to 17.1] hours versus 8.5 [5.8 to 12] hours; P = 0.008) and the hypoglycemic events were significantly less (P = 0.042) in the study group in comparison with the control group. There was no difference in the potassium abnormalities and rate of decline of glucose. A survey on a scale of 1 to 10 found the majority of physicians and nurses rated the protocol as safe (83%) and effective (96%). Fifty-four percent of the nurses, however, found the protocol difficult to follow. Conclusion: Our study showed that implementation of an algorithm-based protocol reduced the DKA resolution time and hypoglycemic events without compromising electrolyte imbalance, and was associated with improved clinical measures of DKA management. Continue reading >>

Myths In Dka Management

Myths In Dka Management

Anand Swaminathan, MD, MPH (@EMSwami) is an assistant professor and assistant program director at the NYU/Bellevue Department of Emergency Medicine in New York City. Review questions are available at the end of this post. Background Each year, roughly 10,000 patients present to the Emergency Department in diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA). Prior to the advent of insulin, the mortality rate of DKA was 100% although in recent years, that rate has dropped to approximately 2-5%.1 Despite clinical advances, the mortality rate has remained constant over the last 10 years. With aggressive resuscitative measures and appropriate continued management this trend may change. DKA is defined as: Hyperglycemia (glucose > 250 mg/dl) Acidosis (pH < 7.3) Ketosis In the absence of insulin, serum glucose rises leading to osmotic diuresis. This diuresis leads to loss of electrolytes including sodium, magnesium, calcium and phosphorous. The resultant volume depletion leads to impaired glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and acute renal failure. In patients with DKA, fatty acid breakdown produces 2 different ketone bodies, first acetoacetate, which then further converts to beta-hydroxybutyrate, the latter being the ketone body largely produced in DKA patients. With this background in mind, let’s take a look at four urban legends in the management of DKA and the evidence that dispels these legends. Here’s our case: Although this presentation likely represents DKA, a blood gas is typically obtained to confirm the diagnosis. Often, the question arises as to whether an arterial or venous blood gas is adequate. Urban Legend #1 – An ABG is necessary for the diagnosis and treatment of DKA ABG gets you pH, PaO2, PaCO2, HCO3, Lactate, electrolytes and O2Sat VBG gets all this except for PaO2 (but we have Continue reading >>

Hyperglycemic Crises In Adult Patients With Diabetes

Hyperglycemic Crises In Adult Patients With Diabetes

Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) and the hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state (HHS) are the two most serious acute metabolic complications of diabetes. DKA is responsible for more than 500,000 hospital days per year (1,2) at an estimated annual direct medical expense and indirect cost of 2.4 billion USD (2,3). Table 1 outlines the diagnostic criteria for DKA and HHS. The triad of uncontrolled hyperglycemia, metabolic acidosis, and increased total body ketone concentration characterizes DKA. HHS is characterized by severe hyperglycemia, hyperosmolality, and dehydration in the absence of significant ketoacidosis. These metabolic derangements result from the combination of absolute or relative insulin deficiency and an increase in counterregulatory hormones (glucagon, catecholamines, cortisol, and growth hormone). Most patients with DKA have autoimmune type 1 diabetes; however, patients with type 2 diabetes are also at risk during the catabolic stress of acute illness such as trauma, surgery, or infections. This consensus statement will outline precipitating factors and recommendations for the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of DKA and HHS in adult subjects. It is based on a previous technical review (4) and more recently published peer-reviewed articles since 2001, which should be consulted for further information. Recent epidemiological studies indicate that hospitalizations for DKA in the U.S. are increasing. In the decade from 1996 to 2006, there was a 35% increase in the number of cases, with a total of 136,510 cases with a primary diagnosis of DKA in 2006—a rate of increase perhaps more rapid than the overall increase in the diagnosis of diabetes (1). Most patients with DKA were between the ages of 18 and 44 years (56%) and 45 and 65 years (24%), with only 18% of patie Continue reading >>

Management Of Adult Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Management Of Adult Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Go to: Abstract Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a rare yet potentially fatal hyperglycemic crisis that can occur in patients with both type 1 and 2 diabetes mellitus. Due to its increasing incidence and economic impact related to the treatment and associated morbidity, effective management and prevention is key. Elements of management include making the appropriate diagnosis using current laboratory tools and clinical criteria and coordinating fluid resuscitation, insulin therapy, and electrolyte replacement through feedback obtained from timely patient monitoring and knowledge of resolution criteria. In addition, awareness of special populations such as patients with renal disease presenting with DKA is important. During the DKA therapy, complications may arise and appropriate strategies to prevent these complications are required. DKA prevention strategies including patient and provider education are important. This review aims to provide a brief overview of DKA from its pathophysiology to clinical presentation with in depth focus on up-to-date therapeutic management. Keywords: DKA treatment, insulin, prevention, ESKD Go to: Introduction In 2009, there were 140,000 hospitalizations for diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) with an average length of stay of 3.4 days.1 The direct and indirect annual cost of DKA hospitalizations is 2.4 billion US dollars. Omission of insulin is the most common precipitant of DKA.2,3 Infections, acute medical illnesses involving the cardiovascular system (myocardial infarction, stroke) and gastrointestinal tract (bleeding, pancreatitis), diseases of the endocrine axis (acromegaly, Cushing’s syndrome), and stress of recent surgical procedures can contribute to the development of DKA by causing dehydration, increase in insulin counter-regulatory hor Continue reading >>

Diabetes Mellitus

Diabetes Mellitus

See also: Background: Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is the combination of hyperglycemia, metabolic acidosis, and ketonaemia. It may be the first presentation for a child with previously undiagnosed diabetes. It can also be precipitated by illness, or poor compliance with taking insulin. All patients presenting with a blood glucose level (BGL) ≥ 11.1mmol/l should have blood ketones tested on a capillary sample using a bedside OptiumTM meter. If this test is positive (>0.6 mmol/l), assess for acidosis to determine further management. Urinalysis can be used for initial assessment if blood ketone testing is not available. The biochemical criteria for DKA are: 1. Venous pH < 7.3 or bicarbonate <15 mmol/l 2. Presence of blood or urinary ketones If ketones are negative, or the pH is normal in the presence of ketones, patients can be managed with subcutaneous (s.c.) insulin (see ' new presentation, mildly ill' below). Assessment of children and adolescents with DKA 1. Degree Of Dehydration (often over-estimated) None/Mild ( < 4%): no clinical signs Moderate (4-7%): easily detectable dehydration eg. reduced skin turgor, poor capillary return Severe(>7%): poor perfusion, rapid pulse, reduced blood pressure i.e. shock 3. Investigations Venous blood sample (place an i.v. line if possible as this will be needed if DKA is confirmed) for the following: FBE Blood glucose, urea, electrolytes (sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, phosphate) Blood ketones (bedside test) Venous blood gas (including bicarbonate) Investigations for precipitating cause: if clinical signs of infection consider septic work up including blood culture For all newly diagnosed patients: Insulin antibodies, GAD antibodies, coeliac screen (total IgA, anti-gliadin Ab, tissue transglutaminase Ab) and thyroid function Continue reading >>

My Site - Chapter 15: Hyperglycemic Emergencies In Adults

My Site - Chapter 15: Hyperglycemic Emergencies In Adults

Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) and hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state (HHS) should be suspected in ill patients with diabetes. If either DKA or HHS is diagnosed, precipitating factors must be sought and treated. DKA and HHS are medical emergencies that require treatment and monitoring for multiple metabolic abnormalities and vigilance for complications. A normal blood glucose does not rule out DKA in pregnancy. Ketoacidosis requires insulin administration (0.1 U/kg/h) for resolution; bicarbonate therapy should be considered only for extreme acidosis (pH7.0). Note to readers: Although the diagnosis and treatment of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) in adults and in children share general principles, there are significant differences in their application, largely related to the increased risk of life-threatening cerebral edema with DKA in children and adolescents. The specific issues related to treatment of DKA in children and adolescents are addressed in the Type 1 Diabetes in Children and Adolescents chapter, p. S153. Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) and hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state (HHS) are diabetes emergencies with overlapping features. With insulin deficiency, hyperglycemia causes urinary losses of water and electrolytes (sodium, potassium, chloride) and the resultant extracellular fluid volume (ECFV) depletion. Potassium is shifted out of cells, and ketoacidosis occurs as a result of elevated glucagon levels and absolute insulin deficiency (in the case of type 1 diabetes) or high catecholamine levels suppressing insulin release (in the case of type 2 diabetes). In DKA, ketoacidosis is prominent, while in HHS, the main features are ECFV depletion and hyperosmolarity. Risk factors for DKA include new diagnosis of diabetes mellitus, insulin omission, infection, myocardial infarc Continue reading >>

Episode 63 – Pediatric Dka

Episode 63 – Pediatric Dka

Pediatric DKA was identified as one of key diagnoses that we need to get better at managing in a massive national needs assessment conducted by the fine folks at TREKK – Translating Emergency Knowledge for Kids – one of EM Cases’ partners who’s mission is to improve the care of children in non-pediatric emergency departments across the country. You might be wondering – why was DKA singled out in this needs assessment? It turns out that kids who present to the ED in DKA without a known history of diabetes, can sometimes be tricky to diagnose, as they often present with vague symptoms. When a child does have a known history of diabetes, and the diagnosis of DKA is obvious, the challenge turns to managing severe, life-threatening DKA, so that we avoid the many potential complications of the DKA itself as well as the complications of treatment – cerebral edema being the big bad one. The approach to these patients has evolved over the years, even since I started practicing, from bolusing insulin and super aggressive fluid resuscitation to more gentle fluid management and delayed insulin drips, as examples. There are subtleties and controversies in the management of DKA when it comes to fluid management, correcting serum potassium and acidosis, preventing cerebral edema, as well as airway management for the really sick kids. In this episode we‘ll be asking our guest pediatric emergency medicine experts Dr. Sarah Reid, who you may remember from her powerhouse performance on our recent episodes on pediatric fever and sepsis, and Dr. Sarah Curtis, not only a pediatric emergency physician, but a prominent pediatric emergency researcher in Canada, about the key historical and examination pearls to help pick up this sometimes elusive diagnosis, what the value of serum Continue reading >>

Use Of A Computer-based Insulin Infusion Algorithm To Treat Diabetic Ketoacidosis In The Emergency Department

Use Of A Computer-based Insulin Infusion Algorithm To Treat Diabetic Ketoacidosis In The Emergency Department

Diabetes Technology & Therapeutics Authors Jagdeesh Ullal,1 Raymie McFarland,2 Margaret Bachand,3 Joseph Aloi4 Abstract Background Efforts at improving quality metrics in diabetes focus on minimizing adverse events and avoiding re-admissions to the hospital. Our experience with Glucommander (Glytec, Greenville, SC), a cloud-based insulin management software system, suggested that its use in the emergency department (ED) would be useful in treating patients with mild diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA). Materials and Methods Thirty-five patients seen in the ED with hyperglycemic crises and diagnosed with DKA during one calendar year were reviewed. A retrospective chart review was performed on patients who were placed on Glucommander for DKA management. We excluded patients with significant acidosis or concomitant medical illnesses. Results Initial average capillary glucose level was 487 + 68mg/dL, average time to target glucose was 5 h 11min, and rate of hypoglycemia (blood glucose level < 70mg/dL) was less than 0.3%. Sixteen patients treated with the protocol were discharged from the ED directly, and 19 were admitted. Patients were maintained for an average of 14 + 1 h on the Glucommander protocol. There was a significantly higher anion gap (P = 0.002) and lower serum bicarbonate level (P= 0.006) in the admitted group. We found very low evidence of re-admission (6%) within 30 days of discharge from the ED for DKA patients. No significant glucose-related adverse events were noted. Conclusions Use of Glucommander for guiding the insulin treatment of mild DKA in the ED can decrease admissions to the hospital for DKA by 45%. Low rates of hypoglycemia make this an option to improve efficiency of utilization of inpatient hospital beds. The cost savings for nonadmissions were estimate Continue reading >>

Diabetic Ketoacidosis In Pregnancy

Diabetic Ketoacidosis In Pregnancy

Diagnosis of DKA: � Initial STAT labs include • CBC with diff • Serum electrolytes • BUN • Creatinine • Glucose • Arterial blood gases • Bicarbonate • Urinalysis • Lactate • Serum ketones • Calculation of the Anion Gap � serum anion gap = serum sodium – (serum chloride + bicarbonate) • Electrocardiogram Treatment Protocol for Diabetic Ketoacidosis Reviewed 5/2/2017 2 Updated 05/02/17 DKA Diagnostic Criteria: � Blood glucose >250 mg/dl � Arterial pH <7.3 � Bicarbonate ≤18 mEq/l � Anion Gap Acidosis � Moderate ketonuria or ketonemia 1. Start IV fluids (1 L of 0.9% NaCl per hr initially) 2. If serum K+ is <3.3 mEq/L hold insulin � Give 40 mEq/h until K ≥ 3.3 mEq/L 3. Initiate DKA Order Set Phase I (*In PREGNANCY utilize OB DKA order set) 4. Start insulin 0.14 units/kg/hr IV infusion (calculate dose) RN will titrate per DKA protocol Insulin Potassium Bicarbonate IVF Look for the Cause - Infection/Inflammation (PNA, UTI, pancreatitis, cholecystitis) - Ischemia/Infarction (myocardial, cerebral, gut) - Intoxication (EtOH, drugs) - Iatrogenic (drugs, lack of insulin) - Insulin deficiency - Pregnancy DKA/HHS Pathway Phase 1 (Adult) Approved by Diabetes Steering Committee, MMC, 2015, Revised DKA Workgroup 1_2016 Initiate and continue insulin gtt until serum glucose reaches 250 mg/dl. RN will titrate per protocol to achieve target. When sugar < 250 mg/dl proceed to DKA Phase II *In PREGNANCY when sugar <200 proceed to OB DKA Phase II *PREGNANCY � Utilize OB DKA order set Phase 1 � When glucose reaches 200mg/dL, Initiate OB DKA Phase 2 � Glucose goals 100-150mg/dL OB DKA Phase 2 Determine hydration status Hypovolemic shock Mild hypotensio Continue reading >>

Diabetic Ketoacidosis And Hyperosmolar Hyperglycemic State In Adults: Treatment

Diabetic Ketoacidosis And Hyperosmolar Hyperglycemic State In Adults: Treatment

INTRODUCTION Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) and hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state (HHS, also known as hyperosmotic hyperglycemic nonketotic state [HHNK]) are two of the most serious acute complications of diabetes. They are part of the spectrum of hyperglycemia, and each represents an extreme in the spectrum. The treatment of DKA and HHS in adults will be reviewed here. The epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical features, evaluation, and diagnosis of these disorders are discussed separately. DKA in children is also reviewed separately. (See "Diabetic ketoacidosis and hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state in adults: Epidemiology and pathogenesis".) (See "Diabetic ketoacidosis and hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state in adults: Clinical features, evaluation, and diagnosis".) Continue reading >>

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