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Childhood Ketoacidosis

Patient professional reference Professional Reference articles are written by UK doctors and are based on research evidence, UK and European Guidelines. They are designed for health professionals to use. You may find one of our health articles more useful. Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is the leading cause of mortality in childhood diabetes.[1]The primary cause of DKA is absolute or relative insulin deficiency: Absolute - eg, previously undiagnosed type 1 diabetes mellitus or a patient with known type 1 diabetes who does not take their insulin. Relative - stress causes a rise in counter-regulatory hormones with relative insulin deficiency. DKA can be fatal The usual causes of death are: Cerebral oedema - associated with 25% mortality (see 'Cerebral odedema', below). Hypokalaemia - which is preventable with good monitoring. Aspiration pneumonia - thus, use of a nasogastric tube in the semi-conscious or unconscious is advised. Deficiency of insulin. Rise in counter-regulatory hormones, including glucagon, cortisol, growth hormone, and catecholamines. Thus, inappropriate gluconeogenesis and liver glycogenolysis occur compounding the hyperglycaemia, which causes hyperosmolarity and ensui Continue reading >>

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Popular Questions

  1. hnakhi

    I've been on keto for about 4.5-5 months and I've lost 15 KGs. lately my mom (I'm 16) told me that my hair is getting less and it seems than I'm losing hair. also, a couple of friends pointed it out. I'm doing phase 2 of Atkins and I take no supplements because I don't know what to take and if there are any kinds that would ruin my diet. please help; I don't want to be bald. is there a way to fix it and get my hair back? thanks.
    **one more question since I already made a thread: is it okay to have monster energy 'rehab'?? it has tea in it thanks again.

  2. gogge

    Make sure you eat "enough" protein (0.7-0.8g per lb of lean mass should be enough even on a serious caloric deficit), make sure you're getting enough zinc and iron (iron isn't usually a problem if you eat meat).
    Nutritional causes of diffuse telogen hair loss are zinc deficiency and iron deficiency.11,14 Severe protein, fatty acid and caloric restriction with chronic starvation2,11,14 and crash dieting12 can also induce diffuse telogen hair loss. Malabsorption syndromes and pancreatic disease can precipitate telogen hair shedding.11 Essential fatty acid deficiency can also be associated with diffuse telogen hair shedding usually 2 to 4 months after inadequate intake.11 Vitamin D is an essential vitamin in cell growth, and vitamin D deficiency may be associated with diffuse hair loss.1,7 Biotin deficiency can result in alopecia, but this is a very rare cause of hair loss.14
    Harrison S, Bergfeld W. "Diffuse hair loss: its triggers and management" Cleve Clin J Med. 2009 Jun;76(6):361-7.
    I posted this in another thread:
    Actually keto and low carb is usually good for avoiding the hair loss.
    The increase in protein and the multivitamin will probably fix the problem:
    We1 and others2 have observed the increased telogen hair counts but only in patients in whom weight loss was associated with loss of body cell mass (eg, significant negative nitrogen balance). With an increase in protein intake during fasting to preserve nitrogen balance, hair loss has been almost completely eliminated.We would conclude that when mobilized body protein plus dietary protein are insufficient to meet requirements, the low priority of hair growth for available protein accounts for the telogen effluvium and not the rapidity of weight loss per se.
    ...
    Since hair lost is restored with refeeding and repletion of body cell mass, long-term consequences on hair growth are not likely to result from rapid weight loss even if associated with negative nitrogen balance (loss of lean body mass).
    Blackburn GL, et al. "Hair loss with rapid weight loss" Arch Dermatol. 1977 Feb;113(2):234.
    The Zinc in the multivitamin will probably help (gastroplasty is a weight loss surgery):
    Significant hair loss occurred in about one-third of patients after VG, and was reversed by zinc supplementation.
    Neve HJ, et al. "Reversal of Hair Loss following Vertical Gastroplasty when Treated with Zinc Sulphate" Obes Surg. 1996 Feb;6(1):63-65.
    An iron deficiency could also make things worse, but the research on this seems less conclusive, it's probably best to check with your doctor before doing anything other than a multivitamin:
    Although this practice is not evidence based per se, we believe that treatment for hair loss is enhanced when iron deficiency, with or without anemia, is treated.
    Trost LB, et al. "The diagnosis and treatment of iron deficiency and its potential relationship to hair loss" J Am Acad Dermatol. 2006 May;54(5):824-44.

  3. mystimel

    The biotin supplement can help with hair and nail growth/strength. I used to take it when I was losing hair after a surgery I had... but I don't know if it has carbs...

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