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Difference Between Respiratory And Metabolic Acidosis And Alkalosis

Metabolic Vs. Respiratory Acidosis

Metabolic Vs. Respiratory Acidosis

Watch short & fun videos Start Your Free Trial Today Log in or sign up to add this lesson to a Custom Course. Custom Courses are courses that you create from Study.com lessons. Use them just like other courses to track progress, access quizzes and exams, and share content. Organize and share selected lessons with your class. Make planning easier by creating your own custom course. Create a new course from any lesson page or your dashboard. Click "Add to" located below the video player and follow the prompts to name your course and save your lesson. Click on the "Custom Courses" tab, then click "Create course". Next, go to any lesson page and begin adding lessons. Edit your Custom Course directly from your dashboard. Name your Custom Course and add an optional description or learning objective. Create chapters to group lesson within your course. Remove and reorder chapters and lessons at any time. Share your Custom Course or assign lessons and chapters. Share or assign lessons and chapters by clicking the "Teacher" tab on the lesson or chapter page you want to assign. Students' quiz scores and video views will be trackable in your "Teacher" tab. You can share your Custom Course by copying and pasting the course URL. Only Study.com members will be able to access the entire course. We are going to learn about the two different types of acidosis and how they develop. This lesson will explain the differences and similarities that exist between the symptoms and treatments. What comes to mind when you think about acid? You might think about foods that contain acid, such as citrus fruit, or you may think about the battery in your car that contains acid. What probably didn't come to mind is your blood. Our blood is nowhere near as acidic as battery acid or citrus fruit, but the Continue reading >>

Metabolic/ Respiratory Acidosis And Alkalosis

Metabolic/ Respiratory Acidosis And Alkalosis

Metabolic/ respiratory acidosis and alkalosis Call me stupid--but I'm having such a time with determining whether a person is in respiratory or metabolic acidosis/alkalosis based on the ABG levels. I know how to determine the acidosis/ alkalosis part---its the difference between metabolic and respiratory that screws me up. If anyone has any suggestions on how to tell the two apart--please share!!!! Ummm, I can't help you without "refreshing." That was last semester for me, and I've already forgotten. You don't use it, you will lose it. Ugggg. I was able to figure it out back then (like, 4 months ago), but I never understood the dynamics between the 2. So, if someone is in Resp Acidosis, what does it mean, what will I objectively see, what will they report, what will I do to help them??? Metabolic Alkalosis Vs. Resp Acidosis - I have no idea how the sx differ. Ya me. Call me stupid--but I'm having such a time with determining whether a person is in respiratory or metabolic acidosis/alkalosis based on the ABG levels. I know how to determine the acidosis/ alkalosis part---its the difference between metabolic and respiratory that screws me up. If anyone has any suggestions on how to tell the two apart--please share!!!! It is hard sometimes, and one can forget easily with out looking at ABGS frequently. co2 might be hco3 in some labs and the 18 or 22 might be 1-2 numbers different. Just write down this down and then circle which ones apply to your ABG results. Then what it is called is the one that caused the acidosis or alkalosis. pco is resp and co2 is metabolic ex your pt abgs are Ph 7.30, pco2, 40 co2 10 This is metabolic acidosis. Call me stupid--but I'm having such a time with determining whether a person is in respiratory or metabolic acidosis/alkalosis based on the Continue reading >>

Uncompensated, Partially Compensated, Or Combined Abg Problems

Uncompensated, Partially Compensated, Or Combined Abg Problems

Arterial Blood Gas (ABG) analysis requires in-depth expertise. If the results are not understood right, or are wrongly interpreted, it can result in wrong diagnosis and end up in an inappropriate management of the patient. ABG analysis is carried out when the patient is dealing with the following conditions: • Breathing problems • Lung diseases (asthma, cystic fibrosis, COPD) • Heart failure • Kidney failure ABG reports help in answering the following questions: 1. Is there acidosis or alkalosis? 2. If acidosis is present, whether it is in an uncompensated state, partially compensated state, or in fully compensated state? 3. Whether acidosis is respiratory or metabolic? ABG reports provide the following descriptions: PaCO2 (partial pressure of dissolved CO2 in the blood) and PaO2 (partial pressure of dissolved O2 in the blood) describe the efficiency of exchange of gas in the alveolar level into the blood. Any change in these levels causes changes in the pH. HCO3 (bicarbonate in the blood) maintains the pH of the blood within normal range by compensatory mechanisms, which is either by retaining or increasing HCO3 excretion by the kidney. When PaCO2 increases, HCO3 decreases to compensate the pH. The following table summarizes the changes: ABG can be interpreted using the following analysis points: Finding acidosis or alkalosis: • If pH is more it is acidosis, if pH is less it is alkalosis. Finding compensated, partially compensated, or uncompensated ABG problems: • When PaCO2 is high, but pH is normal instead of being acidic, and if HCO3 levels are also increased, then it means that the compensatory mechanism has retained more HCO3 to maintain the pH. • When PaCO2 and HCO3 values are high but pH is acidic, then it indicates partial compensation. It means t Continue reading >>

Metabolic Acidosis Or Respiratory Alkalosis? Evaluation Of A Low Plasmabicarbonate Using The Urine Anion Gap.

Metabolic Acidosis Or Respiratory Alkalosis? Evaluation Of A Low Plasmabicarbonate Using The Urine Anion Gap.

1. Am J Kidney Dis. 2017 Sep;70(3):440-444. doi: 10.1053/j.ajkd.2017.04.017. Epub2017 Jun 7. Metabolic Acidosis or Respiratory Alkalosis? Evaluation of a Low PlasmaBicarbonate Using the Urine Anion Gap. Batlle D(1), Chin-Theodorou J(2), Tucker BM(3). (1)Division of Nephrology & Hypertension, Department of Medicine, The Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL. Electronic address: [email protected] (2)Division of Nephrology & Hypertension, Department of Medicine, The Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL. (3)Section of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT. Hypobicarbonatemia, or a reduced bicarbonate concentration in plasma, is afinding seen in 3 acid-base disorders: metabolic acidosis, chronic respiratoryalkalosis and mixed metabolic acidosis and chronic respiratory alkalosis.Hypobicarbonatemia due to chronic respiratory alkalosis is often misdiagnosed as a metabolic acidosis and mistreated with the administration of alkali therapy.Proper diagnosis of the cause of hypobicarbonatemia requires integration of thelaboratory values, arterial blood gas, and clinical history. The informationderived from the urinary response to the prevailing acid-base disorder is useful to arrive at the correct diagnosis. We discuss the use of urine anion gap, as asurrogate marker of urine ammonium excretion, in the evaluation of a patient withlow plasma bicarbonate concentration to differentiate between metabolic acidosis and chronic respiratory alkalosis. The interpretation and limitations of urineacid-base indexes at bedside (urine pH, urine bicarbonate, and urine anion gap)to evaluate urine acidification are discussed.Copyright 2017 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by E Continue reading >>

What Is The Difference Between Alkalosis And Acidosis?

What Is The Difference Between Alkalosis And Acidosis?

What Is the Difference between Alkalosis and Acidosis? The primary difference between alkalosis and acidosis is that alkalosis places blood pH above normal, while acidosis places blood pH below normal. The levels of bicarbonate (HCO3) and carbon dioxide (CO2) vary as well, being influenced by whether the acidosis or alkalosis is respiratory or metabolic in nature. Metabolic alkalosis and acidosis connects to diseases or conditions impacting HCO3, while respiratory alkalosis and acidosis connect to diseases or conditions impacting CO2. When people talk about pH or potential of hydrogen, they are talking about how acidic or alkaline a substance is. Blood normally has a very narrow pH range, which goes from 7.35 to 7.45. This is just above neutral, or a pH of 7. This range is optimal for metabolic processes and proper oxygen delivery, so anything outside of the normal range can result in health impairments. Alkalosis means that a person's blood pH has exceeded the upper range limit of 7.45, while acidosis means that a person's blood pH has fallen below the lower range limit of 7.35. Blood pH is connected to the lungs and kidneys to a high degree, because these organs are responsible for disposing of CO2 and HCO3 or acid, respectively. The pH level with respiratory acidosis is low, but levels of CO2 and HCO3 are high. Respiratory alkalosis gives the exact opposite results, having a high pH with low C02 and HCO3. When acidosis is metabolic, pH, CO2 and HCO3 are low, but when alkalosis is metabolic, pH, CO2 and HCO3 are all high. Looking only at respiratory alkalosis and acidosis, the causes are not the same. Respiratory alkalosis may stem from issues such as hyperventilation, fever, exercise, liver failure, or central nervous system problems. Acidosis that is respiratory in Continue reading >>

Acidosis

Acidosis

For acidosis referring to acidity of the urine, see renal tubular acidosis. "Acidemia" redirects here. It is not to be confused with Academia. Acidosis is a process causing increased acidity in the blood and other body tissues (i.e., an increased hydrogen ion concentration). If not further qualified, it usually refers to acidity of the blood plasma. The term acidemia describes the state of low blood pH, while acidosis is used to describe the processes leading to these states. Nevertheless, the terms are sometimes used interchangeably. The distinction may be relevant where a patient has factors causing both acidosis and alkalosis, wherein the relative severity of both determines whether the result is a high, low, or normal pH. Acidosis is said to occur when arterial pH falls below 7.35 (except in the fetus – see below), while its counterpart (alkalosis) occurs at a pH over 7.45. Arterial blood gas analysis and other tests are required to separate the main causes. The rate of cellular metabolic activity affects and, at the same time, is affected by the pH of the body fluids. In mammals, the normal pH of arterial blood lies between 7.35 and 7.50 depending on the species (e.g., healthy human-arterial blood pH varies between 7.35 and 7.45). Blood pH values compatible with life in mammals are limited to a pH range between 6.8 and 7.8. Changes in the pH of arterial blood (and therefore the extracellular fluid) outside this range result in irreversible cell damage.[1] Signs and symptoms[edit] General symptoms of acidosis.[2] These usually accompany symptoms of another primary defect (respiratory or metabolic). Nervous system involvement may be seen with acidosis and occurs more often with respiratory acidosis than with metabolic acidosis. Signs and symptoms that may be seen i Continue reading >>

Metabolic And Respiratory Acidosis And Alkalosis

Metabolic And Respiratory Acidosis And Alkalosis

There are two main types of pH imbalances in the body: acidosis and alkalosis. An increase in H+ ion levels in the blood causes pH levels to fall resulting in acidosis. A decrease in H+ levels causes pH levels to rise, making the blood more basic, or alkaline. These conditions can be caused by two kinds of disturbances to the buffers that control the body’s pH levels, which alter the acid-base balance. Metabolic and respiratory acidosis and alkalosis are the results of disruptions to the bicarbonate and carbonic acid components of the chemical buffers. Metabolic and respiratory acidosis result when pH levels fall due to an increase in H+ ions or a loss of bases causing the bodily fluids to become slightly acidic. Insufficient bicarbonate levels lower the pH levels of fluids in the digestive tract, resulting in metabolic acidosis. Respiratory acidosis is caused by excessive carbonic acid in the respiratory system, which lowers pH levels through the retention of CO2. Alkalosis is the result of opposite changes to the acid-base balance: excessive bicarbonate levels in the digestive system increases pH as H+ ion concentrations decrease, which causes fluids to become more basic. Insufficient carbonic acid levels are caused by excessive exhalation of CO2, resulting in respiratory alkalosis. Treatment for metabolic and respiratory acidosis and alkalosis varies depending on the underlying cause of the imbalance. Respiratory acidosis caused by hypoventilation can be treated with oxygen therapy and the help of breathing machines to help restore normal oxygen/carbon dioxide exchange, allowing the kidneys time to increase production of bicarbonate and reestablish the acid-base balance of the blood. Respiratory alkalosis caused by hyperventilation can be treated with inhalation of Continue reading >>

Difference Between Metabolic Alkalosis And Respiratory Alkalosis | Acid-base Regulation

Difference Between Metabolic Alkalosis And Respiratory Alkalosis | Acid-base Regulation

Difference between Metabolic Alkalosis and Respiratory Alkalosis | Acid-Base Regulation The upcoming discussion will update you about the difference between Metabolic Alkalosis and Respiratory Alkalosis. 3. Disproportionate increase in [HCO3 ], [H2CO3], PCO2, pH. 4. Depression of respiratory centre and hyperventilation leading to retention of CO2. 5. In renal mechanism, there is increased NH3 formation and H+ Na+ exchange, increased K+ excretion, decreased reabsorption, retention of CI. 6. Urine shows alkaline, decreased NH3, and decreased titratable acidity. 7. Low Ca++ leading to tetany, hypokalemia, ketosis and ketonuria, degenerative changes in tubules leading to nitrogen retention. 8. Causes are excessive loss of HCI, high intestinal obstruction, pyloric obstruction, alkali ingestion, excessive loss of K+, X-ray therapy, ultra violet radiation. 3. Disproportionate decrease in [HCO3], [H2CO3], PCO2, pH. 4. In renal mechanism, there is decreased H+-Na+ exchange, decreased excretion of acid and ammonia, increased excretion of HCO3 and K+, retention of CI. 5. Hypoventilation due to respiratory high pH and low PCO2 and increase in H2CO3. 6. Urine shows alkaline, decreased NH3 and decreased titratable acidity. 7. Low Ca++ leading to tetany, hypokalemia, ketosis and ketonuria, kidney damage leading to nitrogen retention. 8. Causes are CNS diseases like meningitis and encephalitis, salicylate poisoning, hyperpyrexia, hysteria, high altitude ascending, apprehensive blood donors, injudicious use of respirator, some cases of hepatic coma. Continue reading >>

Difference Between Acidosis And Alkalosis

Difference Between Acidosis And Alkalosis

Home Science Chemistry Biochemistry Difference Between Acidosis and Alkalosis Difference Between Acidosis and Alkalosis The terms acidosis and alkalosis describe the abnormal condition of blood having either a higher or a lower pH than the required value. These conditions may occur due to several reasons, but most often this is caused by a disease. Acidosis indicates a lower pH than the normal pH of the blood. Alkalosis is the opposite of acidosis. It indicates a higher pH in the blood than the normal pH. The main difference between acidosis and alkalosis is that acidosis is the condition of having a lower pH than 7.35 in the blood whereas alkalosis is the condition of having a higher pH than 7.45 in blood. Key Terms: Acidosis, Alkalosis, Metabolic Acidosis, Metabolic Alkalosis, Respiratory Acidosis, Respiratory Alkalosis Acidosis is the condition of having a lower pH than the usual value in blood. If a persons blood has a pH value lower than 7.35, that person has academia, the disease caused by acidosis. Acidosis indicates a lower pH and an increased acidic nature in blood. In mammals, the normal blood pH range is given as 7.35 7.50. The build-up of acids in the blood causes the blood pH to be shifted into a lower level. The addition of acids into the bloodstream may occur in two major ways: from the digestive system and from the respiratory system. Acidosis that occurs due to the influences from digestive system is called metabolic acidosis. This is a result of consumption of highly acidic food and beverages. Excessive production of acids or reduced filtration of acids through kidneys results in acidosis. Acidosis that occurs due to the influences from respiratory system is called respiratory acidosis. The malfunctioning of the respiratory system causes respiratory a Continue reading >>

Simple Method Of Acid Base Balance Interpretation

Simple Method Of Acid Base Balance Interpretation

A FOUR STEP METHOD FOR INTERPRETATION OF ABGS Usefulness This method is simple, easy and can be used for the majority of ABGs. It only addresses acid-base balance and considers just 3 values. pH, PaCO2 HCO3- Step 1. Use pH to determine Acidosis or Alkalosis. ph < 7.35 7.35-7.45 > 7.45 Acidosis Normal or Compensated Alkalosis Step 2. Use PaCO2 to determine respiratory effect. PaCO2 < 35 35 -45 > 45 Tends toward alkalosis Causes high pH Neutralizes low pH Normal or Compensated Tends toward acidosis Causes low pH Neutralizes high pH Step 3. Assume metabolic cause when respiratory is ruled out. You'll be right most of the time if you remember this simple table: High pH Low pH Alkalosis Acidosis High PaCO2 Low PaCO2 High PaCO2 Low PaCO2 Metabolic Respiratory Respiratory Metabolic If PaCO2 is abnormal and pH is normal, it indicates compensation. pH > 7.4 would be a compensated alkalosis. pH < 7.4 would be a compensated acidosis. These steps will make more sense if we apply them to actual ABG values. Click here to interpret some ABG values using these steps. You may want to refer back to these steps (click on "linked" steps or use "BACK" button on your browser) or print out this page for reference. Step 4. Use HC03 to verify metabolic effect Normal HCO3- is 22-26 Please note: Remember, the first three steps apply to the majority of cases, but do not take into account: the possibility of complete compensation, but those cases are usually less serious, and instances of combined respiratory and metabolic imbalance, but those cases are pretty rare. "Combined" disturbance means HCO3- alters the pH in the same direction as the PaCO2. High PaCO2 and low HCO3- (acidosis) or Low PaCO2 and high HCO3- (alkalosis). Continue reading >>

What Is The Difference Between Respiratory And Metabolic Acidosis And Alkalosis?

What Is The Difference Between Respiratory And Metabolic Acidosis And Alkalosis?

What is the difference between respiratory and metabolic acidosis and alkalosis? According to the Merck Manual, alkalosis and acidosis are medical terms that describe the acid and base balance, or pH, of the blood. Acidosis is present when the level of acidic compounds in the blood is too high. When the level of bases in the blood rises, alkalosis occurs. Acidosis and alkalosis are classified as either respiratory or metabolic depending on the physiologic process that creates the abnormality. The Merck Manual explains that the body has several mechanisms to ensure proper acid-base balance. One of these is the regulation of carbon dioxide, which is a mildly acidic waste product of oxygen use when we breathe. This acidic waste accumulates in the blood and is exhaled through the lungs. As blood becomes more acidic, the brain sends a signal to the lungs that causes breathing to speed up and become deeper. Thus, the lungs release more carbon dioxide, which causes a decrease in acidity and an increase in blood pH. When the lungs do not remove carbon dioxide efficiently, respiratory acidosis occurs. Similarly, if breathing speeds up and deepens suddenly, it causes a drop in carbon dioxide levels, resulting in respiratory alkalosis and increased blood pH. According to Bright Hub Education, the kidneys also regulate acid-base balance by retaining or releasing acidic and basic compounds in response to shifts in blood pH. Additionally, the kidneys are responsible for the release of bicarbonate. The body's primary buffer, bicarbonate binds to hydrogen in the body to create carbon dioxide and water, which are then eliminated by the kidneys and the lungs. Acidosis or alkalosis that is caused mainly by a malfunction in the kidneys is referred to as metabolic. Continue reading >>

Difference Between Metabolic And Respiratory Acidosis

Difference Between Metabolic And Respiratory Acidosis

Home / Health / Medicine / Difference Between Metabolic and Respiratory Acidosis Difference Between Metabolic and Respiratory Acidosis Acidosis roughly means something with acidity. Both metabolic and respiratory acidosis are related with changes in acidity of the blood of animals, especially humans. For mammals, there is a tolerable range of pH levels in the blood, which is usually between 7.35 and 7.5 for a healthy individual. However, no individual could tolerate any pH level in blood outside the range of 6.8 7.8. Therefore, acidosis is a very important phenomenon to be concerned of, and it can cause irreversible damage to cells. This article will discuss the exact facts regarding both metabolic and respiratory acidosis with the all-important differences between the two. Metabolic acidosis is generally the increase of acidity or decrease of the pH level of blood and/or any other related body tissue. Metabolic acidosis can mainly take place when acids are produced through metabolism. However, the condition can also occur when the kidneys do not excrete unnecessary acids, or when the rate of excretion process is slowed down. Additionally, the production of acids via other means such as lactic acid formation could also be resulted in metabolic acidosis. Lactic acid formation takes place when there is not enough oxygen being delivered to tissues (especially to muscle fibres), and the exec lactate condition causes lactic acid formation in the tissue that cramp the muscle eventually. However, the condition is usually corrected with proper delivery or diffusion of oxygen to the muscles. The general metabolic acidosis is usually rectified through the lungs by increasing the exhalation process, which is a method of hyperventilation stimulated through chemoreceptors known as Continue reading >>

Acidosis

Acidosis

The kidneys and lungs maintain the balance (proper pH level) of chemicals called acids and bases in the body. Acidosis occurs when acid builds up or when bicarbonate (a base) is lost. Acidosis is classified as either respiratory or metabolic acidosis. Respiratory acidosis develops when there is too much carbon dioxide (an acid) in the body. This type of acidosis is usually caused when the body is unable to remove enough carbon dioxide through breathing. Other names for respiratory acidosis are hypercapnic acidosis and carbon dioxide acidosis. Causes of respiratory acidosis include: Chest deformities, such as kyphosis Chest injuries Chest muscle weakness Chronic lung disease Overuse of sedative drugs Metabolic acidosis develops when too much acid is produced in the body. It can also occur when the kidneys cannot remove enough acid from the body. There are several types of metabolic acidosis: Diabetic acidosis (also called diabetic ketoacidosis and DKA) develops when substances called ketone bodies (which are acidic) build up during uncontrolled diabetes. Hyperchloremic acidosis is caused by the loss of too much sodium bicarbonate from the body, which can happen with severe diarrhea. Poisoning by aspirin, ethylene glycol (found in antifreeze), or methanol Lactic acidosis is a buildup of lactic acid. Lactic acid is mainly produced in muscle cells and red blood cells. It forms when the body breaks down carbohydrates to use for energy when oxygen levels are low. This can be caused by: Cancer Drinking too much alcohol Exercising vigorously for a very long time Liver failure Low blood sugar (hypoglycemia) Medications, such as salicylates MELAS (a very rare genetic mitochondrial disorder that affects energy production) Prolonged lack of oxygen from shock, heart failure, or seve Continue reading >>

Acidosis/alkalosis Flashcards | Quizlet

Acidosis/alkalosis Flashcards | Quizlet

What is the difference between acidosis and acidemia? What about alkalosis and alkalemia? Acidemia: increase in blood H+, decrease pH Acidosis: process leading to increased blood H+ Alkalemia: decrease in blood H+, increased pH Alkalosis: process leading to decreased blood pH decreased HCO3- concentration in blood, therefore gain of H+ ex: increased fixed acid production (ketoacids, lactic acid), ingestion fixed acids, inability of kidney to excreted fixed acids produced during metabolism, loss of HCO3- via kidneys or GI tract What is the arterial blood profile (pH, [HCO3-], PCO2) of metabolic acidosis? Decrease in pH, decrease in HCO3-, decrease in PCO2 What happens to [H+] in metabolic acidosis, and what occurs during buffering? - this must be buffered by HCO3- primarily, causing a DECREASE in [HCO3-] What is the primary compensation to metabolic acidosis? Secondary? Primary: HYPERVENTILATION is stimulated in order to decrease pH, decrease the PCO2 - new HCO3- synthesized and reabsorbed by kidneys What is the cause of metabolic alkalosis? ex: Vomiting!, loss of fixed H+ from GI tract, kidney, administration of solutions containing HCO3-, ECF volume contraction (diuretics) What is the arterial blood profile (pH, [HCO3-], PCO2) of metabolic alkalosis? Increased pH, Increased [HCO3-], Increased PCO2 What happens to [H+] in metabolic alkalosis? Loss of fixed acid decreased [H+] in blood and increased HCO3- What is the primary compensation to metabolic alkalosis? Secondary? Primary: HYPOVENTILATION, increase in PCO2 - HCO3- secreted from kidney once reabsorptive capacity in renal tubule is reached, HCO3- excreted in urine therefore - However, ECF volume contraction will occur, so it is not so simple Maintain metabolic alkalosis (contraction alkalosis) by not allowing exce Continue reading >>

Acid-base Disorders - Endocrine And Metabolic Disorders - Merck Manuals Professional Edition

Acid-base Disorders - Endocrine And Metabolic Disorders - Merck Manuals Professional Edition

(Video) Overview of Acid-Base Maps and Compensatory Mechanisms By James L. Lewis, III, MD, Attending Physician, Brookwood Baptist Health and Saint Vincents Ascension Health, Birmingham Acid-base disorders are pathologic changes in carbon dioxide partial pressure (Pco2) or serum bicarbonate (HCO3) that typically produce abnormal arterial pH values. Acidosis refers to physiologic processes that cause acid accumulation or alkali loss. Alkalosis refers to physiologic processes that cause alkali accumulation or acid loss. Actual changes in pH depend on the degree of physiologic compensation and whether multiple processes are present. Primary acid-base disturbances are defined as metabolic or respiratory based on clinical context and whether the primary change in pH is due to an alteration in serum HCO3 or in Pco2. Metabolic acidosis is serum HCO3< 24 mEq/L. Causes are Metabolic alkalosis is serum HCO3> 24 mEq/L. Causes are Respiratory acidosis is Pco2> 40 mm Hg (hypercapnia). Cause is Decrease in minute ventilation (hypoventilation) Respiratory alkalosis is Pco2< 40 mm Hg (hypocapnia). Cause is Increase in minute ventilation (hyperventilation) Compensatory mechanisms begin to correct the pH (see Table: Primary Changes and Compensations in Simple Acid-Base Disorders ) whenever an acid-base disorder is present. Compensation cannot return pH completely to normal and never overshoots. A simple acid-base disorder is a single acid-base disturbance with its accompanying compensatory response. Mixed acid-base disorders comprise 2 primary disturbances. Compensatory mechanisms for acid-base disturbances cannot return pH completely to normal and never overshoot. Primary Changes and Compensations in Simple Acid-Base Disorders 1.2 mm Hg decrease in Pco2 for every 1 mmol/L decrease in HC Continue reading >>

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