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Difference Between Lactic Acidosis And Ketoacidosis

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Anion gap usmle - anion gap metabolic acidosis normal anion gap metabolic acidosis

Clinical Significance Of The Fractional Excretion Of Anions In Metabolic Acidosis.

Clinical significance of the fractional excretion of anions in metabolic acidosis. Clinical Nephrology [01 Jun 2001, 55(6):448-452] Type: Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't, Journal Article The fractional excretion of anions has been proposed as a new index for the differential diagnosis of metabolic acidosis, identifying the properties of the conjugate base by examining the renal handling of the anion. Here, we investigated clinical significance of the fractional excretion of anions in pathophysiologic diagnosis of metabolic acidosis by measuring urine ammonium (NH4+) excretion, the ratio of A plasma anion gap/delta plasma HCO3- concentration (deltaAG/deltaHCO3-), and fractional excretion of anions in three different groups of metabolic acidosis: acid overproduction (8 patients with lactic acidosis, 8 with diabetic ketoacidosis, 3 with hippuric acidosis following glue sniffing), acid underexcretion (10 patients with chronic renal failure) and normal controls (10 normal volunteers who underwent 3-day NH4Cl loading). As expected, urine NH4+ excretion was higher in overproduction acidosis than in acid-loaded normal controls (88.1 +/- 12.3 vs. 54.0 +/- 3.7 mmol/day, p < 0.05), and it w Continue reading >>

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  1. meriheart

    This was from a post by JulieRN on 9/5/06. She did such a great job, I wanted it here for the record.
    Metabolic Acidosis:
    Definition
    Metabolic acidosis is a pH imbalance in which the body has accumulated too much acid and does not have enough bicarbonate to effectively neutralize the effects of the acid.
    Description
    Metabolic acidosis, as a disruption of the body's acid/base balance, can be a mild symptom brought on by a lack of insulin, a starvation diet, or a gastrointestinal disorder like vomiting and diarrhea. Metabolic acidosis can indicate a more serious problem with a major organ like the liver, heart, or kidneys. It can also be one of the first signs of drug overdose or poisoning.
    Causes and symptoms
    Metabolic acidosis occurs when the body has more acid than base in it. Chemists use the term "pH" to describe how acidic or basic a substance is. Based on a scale of 14, a pH of 7.0 is neutral. A pH below 7.0 is an acid; the lower the number, the stronger the acid. A pH above 7.0 is a base; the higher the number, the stronger the base. Blood pH is slightly basic (alkaline), with a normal range of 7.36-7.44.
    Acid is a natural by-product of the breakdown of fats and other processes in the body; however, in some conditions, the body does not have enough bicarbonate, an acid neutralizer, to balance the acids produced. This can occur when the body uses fats for energy instead of carbohydrates. Conditions where metabolic acidosis can occur include chronic alcoholism, malnutrition, and diabetic ketoacidosis. Consuming a diet low in carbohydrates and high in fats can also produce metabolic acidosis. The disorder may also be a symptom of another condition like kidney failure, liver failure, or severe diarrhea. The build up of lactic acid in the blood due to such conditions as heart failure, shock, or cancer, induces metabolic acidosis. Some poisonings and overdoses (aspirin, methanol, or ethylene glycol) also produce symptoms of metabolic acidosis.
    In mild cases of metabolic acidosis, symptoms include headache, lack of energy, and sleepiness. Breathing may become fast and shallow. Nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, dehydration, and loss of appetite are also associated with metabolic acidosis. Diabetic patients with symptoms of metabolic acidosis may also have breath that smells fruity. The patient may lose consciousness or become disoriented. Severe cases can produce coma and death.
    Diagnosis
    Metabolic acidosis is suspected based on symptoms, but is usually confirmed by laboratory tests on blood and urine samples. Blood pH below 7.35 confirms the condition. Levels of other blood components, including potassium, glucose, ketones, or lactic acid, may also be above normal ranges. The level of bicarbonate in the blood will be low, usually less than 22 mEq/L. Urine pH may fall below 4.5 in metabolic acidosis.
    Treatment
    Treatment focuses first on correcting the acid imbalance. If the patient is diabetic, insulin may be administered. Drugs to regulate blood pressure or heart rate, to prevent seizures, or to control nausea and vomiting might be given. Vital signs like pulse, respiration, blood pressure, and body temperature will be monitored. The underlying cause of the metabolic acidosis must also be diagnosed and corrected.
    OK, THAT WAS A DIRECT QUOTE OF METABOLIC ACIDOSIS, NOW LET ME TELL YOU THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN THAT AND KETO-ACIDOSIS (DIET CAUSED).
    First let me differentiate between Metabolic Acidosis and Keto-Acidosis. BIG DIFFERENCE!!!
    Metabolic Acidosis is a life threatening state that if left untreated can cause death. Yes, Topamax had an alert on 12/18/03 by the FDA added that it "can cause decreased serum bicarbonate" as a risk (this is Metabolic Acidosis). However, this is really only to alert patients that have a predisposed medical condition that puts them at risk of metabolic acidosis already such as: Diabetics, renal disease, respiratory disorders, status epilepticus, diarrhea, vomiting, surgery, or a ketogenic diet (such as Atkins). Here is a link to define Metabolic Acidosis: www.findarticles.com/p/ar...2601000894
    If one is in Metabolic Acidosis for a long period of time undiagnosed it can result in Kidney stones, ostolysis (bone) (which might be something our members that are complaining of bone pain might want to get checked out for). Severe can cause respiratory failure or death. Metabolic Acidosis is a side effect of keto-acidosis, but by itself, in no way causes weight loss.
    Now for the Keto-Acidosis. This is a state that one goes into to cause weight loss. This is the Atkins diet theory. Low carb, high protein. It is similar (but not exact) to what happens to a diabetic when they are in Diabetic Ketosis, however we "cause" it to happen by our diet. Topamax DOES NOT CAUSE THIS. This can only be brought on by diet or starvation. Again, Metabolic Acidosis is a side effect when we are in Keto-Acidosis. We need to watch for the severe signs and symptoms while in this state. Keto-Acidosis CAUSES WEIGHT LOSS. Our body uses carbs for energy, when we don't have them our body then uses fat. The bi-product when we are (burning) using fat is Ketones in our urine. Thus - Keto-Acidosis.
    In general: Topamax does not cause one to go into Metabolic Acidosis (for the most part) but it can be a risk to some patients. Metabolic Acidosis DOES NOT cause weight loss. It can be life threatening if severe, and should be monitored for periodically by your PCP while on Topamax.
    Keto-Acidosis is the Atkins type of Acidosis that most people are familiar with. NO Topamax does not cause this either. Diet is the only thing that can bring this state on. Being in Keto-Acidosis puts you at increased risk of Metabolic Acidosis.
    I hope I was able to explain this so everyone was able to understand, if not let me know. I will try again!!!
    Julie
    >

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https://www.facebook.com/drinkhealthy... - Do you want to learn how to get rid of lactic acid as an athlete, and start recovering quicker with more energy? Learn how to reduce lactic acid symptoms and increase your performance. Getting rid of lactic acid may be easier than you have imagined. Many professional athletes know the importance of eliminating lactic acid so they can recover quicker and perform at an optimal level. Start flushing out that lactic acid today! Many people suffer from lactic acidosis symptoms and are rigorously searching for a lactic acid treatment. More and more athletes are searching for solutions on how to get rid of lactic acid. In this video you will learn what a professional football player from the Seattle Seahawks is using to eliminate lactic acid after his workouts, practices, and NFL games. Learn how to make lactic acid a symptom of the past. Begin your journey to faster recovery today. See what the pro's are using to reduce lactic acid, recover quicker, and have more energy. Uncertain of what lactic is? Here is the definition https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lactic_... Contact me for more information on getting rid of lactic acid FB: http://www.facebook.com/duncan.fraser... IG: http://www.instagram.com/kangendunc [email protected] See a full demonstration of this solution that helps get rid of lactic acid https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MTxR9... Duncan Fraser 0:00 - 0:13 - Introduction 0:14 - 2:11 - Shan Stratton and Michael Robinson Discuss how to get rid of lactic acid 2:11 - 2:21 - 4 benefits of this incredible technology 2:21 - 2:39 - Conclusion Get in contact with me if you have problems with lactic acid and learn more on my FB page. Visit my Facebook page below. https://www.facebook.com/drinkhealthy...

Lactic Acidosis

Patient professional reference Professional Reference articles are written by UK doctors and are based on research evidence, UK and European Guidelines. They are designed for health professionals to use. You may find one of our health articles more useful. Description Lactic acidosis is a form of metabolic acidosis due to the inadequate clearance of lactic acid from the blood. Lactate is a byproduct of anaerobic respiration and is normally cleared from the blood by the liver, kidney and skeletal muscle. Lactic acidosis occurs when the body's buffering systems are overloaded and tends to cause a pH of ≤7.25 with plasma lactate ≥5 mmol/L. It is usually caused by a state of tissue hypoperfusion and/or hypoxia. This causes pyruvic acid to be preferentially converted to lactate during anaerobic respiration. Hyperlactataemia is defined as plasma lactate >2 mmol/L. Classification Cohen and Woods devised the following system in 1976 and it is still widely used:[1] Type A: lactic acidosis occurs with clinical evidence of tissue hypoperfusion or hypoxia. Type B: lactic acidosis occurs without clinical evidence of tissue hypoperfusion or hypoxia. It is further subdivided into: Type B1: du Continue reading >>

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  1. meriheart

    This was from a post by JulieRN on 9/5/06. She did such a great job, I wanted it here for the record.
    Metabolic Acidosis:
    Definition
    Metabolic acidosis is a pH imbalance in which the body has accumulated too much acid and does not have enough bicarbonate to effectively neutralize the effects of the acid.
    Description
    Metabolic acidosis, as a disruption of the body's acid/base balance, can be a mild symptom brought on by a lack of insulin, a starvation diet, or a gastrointestinal disorder like vomiting and diarrhea. Metabolic acidosis can indicate a more serious problem with a major organ like the liver, heart, or kidneys. It can also be one of the first signs of drug overdose or poisoning.
    Causes and symptoms
    Metabolic acidosis occurs when the body has more acid than base in it. Chemists use the term "pH" to describe how acidic or basic a substance is. Based on a scale of 14, a pH of 7.0 is neutral. A pH below 7.0 is an acid; the lower the number, the stronger the acid. A pH above 7.0 is a base; the higher the number, the stronger the base. Blood pH is slightly basic (alkaline), with a normal range of 7.36-7.44.
    Acid is a natural by-product of the breakdown of fats and other processes in the body; however, in some conditions, the body does not have enough bicarbonate, an acid neutralizer, to balance the acids produced. This can occur when the body uses fats for energy instead of carbohydrates. Conditions where metabolic acidosis can occur include chronic alcoholism, malnutrition, and diabetic ketoacidosis. Consuming a diet low in carbohydrates and high in fats can also produce metabolic acidosis. The disorder may also be a symptom of another condition like kidney failure, liver failure, or severe diarrhea. The build up of lactic acid in the blood due to such conditions as heart failure, shock, or cancer, induces metabolic acidosis. Some poisonings and overdoses (aspirin, methanol, or ethylene glycol) also produce symptoms of metabolic acidosis.
    In mild cases of metabolic acidosis, symptoms include headache, lack of energy, and sleepiness. Breathing may become fast and shallow. Nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, dehydration, and loss of appetite are also associated with metabolic acidosis. Diabetic patients with symptoms of metabolic acidosis may also have breath that smells fruity. The patient may lose consciousness or become disoriented. Severe cases can produce coma and death.
    Diagnosis
    Metabolic acidosis is suspected based on symptoms, but is usually confirmed by laboratory tests on blood and urine samples. Blood pH below 7.35 confirms the condition. Levels of other blood components, including potassium, glucose, ketones, or lactic acid, may also be above normal ranges. The level of bicarbonate in the blood will be low, usually less than 22 mEq/L. Urine pH may fall below 4.5 in metabolic acidosis.
    Treatment
    Treatment focuses first on correcting the acid imbalance. If the patient is diabetic, insulin may be administered. Drugs to regulate blood pressure or heart rate, to prevent seizures, or to control nausea and vomiting might be given. Vital signs like pulse, respiration, blood pressure, and body temperature will be monitored. The underlying cause of the metabolic acidosis must also be diagnosed and corrected.
    OK, THAT WAS A DIRECT QUOTE OF METABOLIC ACIDOSIS, NOW LET ME TELL YOU THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN THAT AND KETO-ACIDOSIS (DIET CAUSED).
    First let me differentiate between Metabolic Acidosis and Keto-Acidosis. BIG DIFFERENCE!!!
    Metabolic Acidosis is a life threatening state that if left untreated can cause death. Yes, Topamax had an alert on 12/18/03 by the FDA added that it "can cause decreased serum bicarbonate" as a risk (this is Metabolic Acidosis). However, this is really only to alert patients that have a predisposed medical condition that puts them at risk of metabolic acidosis already such as: Diabetics, renal disease, respiratory disorders, status epilepticus, diarrhea, vomiting, surgery, or a ketogenic diet (such as Atkins). Here is a link to define Metabolic Acidosis: www.findarticles.com/p/ar...2601000894
    If one is in Metabolic Acidosis for a long period of time undiagnosed it can result in Kidney stones, ostolysis (bone) (which might be something our members that are complaining of bone pain might want to get checked out for). Severe can cause respiratory failure or death. Metabolic Acidosis is a side effect of keto-acidosis, but by itself, in no way causes weight loss.
    Now for the Keto-Acidosis. This is a state that one goes into to cause weight loss. This is the Atkins diet theory. Low carb, high protein. It is similar (but not exact) to what happens to a diabetic when they are in Diabetic Ketosis, however we "cause" it to happen by our diet. Topamax DOES NOT CAUSE THIS. This can only be brought on by diet or starvation. Again, Metabolic Acidosis is a side effect when we are in Keto-Acidosis. We need to watch for the severe signs and symptoms while in this state. Keto-Acidosis CAUSES WEIGHT LOSS. Our body uses carbs for energy, when we don't have them our body then uses fat. The bi-product when we are (burning) using fat is Ketones in our urine. Thus - Keto-Acidosis.
    In general: Topamax does not cause one to go into Metabolic Acidosis (for the most part) but it can be a risk to some patients. Metabolic Acidosis DOES NOT cause weight loss. It can be life threatening if severe, and should be monitored for periodically by your PCP while on Topamax.
    Keto-Acidosis is the Atkins type of Acidosis that most people are familiar with. NO Topamax does not cause this either. Diet is the only thing that can bring this state on. Being in Keto-Acidosis puts you at increased risk of Metabolic Acidosis.
    I hope I was able to explain this so everyone was able to understand, if not let me know. I will try again!!!
    Julie
    >

  2. -> Continue reading
read more
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Acid-base Disorders

Content currently under development Acid-base disorders are a group of conditions characterized by changes in the concentration of hydrogen ions (H+) or bicarbonate (HCO3-), which lead to changes in the arterial blood pH. These conditions can be categorized as acidoses or alkaloses and have a respiratory or metabolic origin, depending on the cause of the imbalance. Diagnosis is made by arterial blood gas (ABG) interpretation. In the setting of metabolic acidosis, calculation of the anion gap is an important resource to narrow down the possible causes and reach a precise diagnosis. Treatment is based on identifying the underlying cause. Continue reading >>

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  1. meriheart

    This was from a post by JulieRN on 9/5/06. She did such a great job, I wanted it here for the record.
    Metabolic Acidosis:
    Definition
    Metabolic acidosis is a pH imbalance in which the body has accumulated too much acid and does not have enough bicarbonate to effectively neutralize the effects of the acid.
    Description
    Metabolic acidosis, as a disruption of the body's acid/base balance, can be a mild symptom brought on by a lack of insulin, a starvation diet, or a gastrointestinal disorder like vomiting and diarrhea. Metabolic acidosis can indicate a more serious problem with a major organ like the liver, heart, or kidneys. It can also be one of the first signs of drug overdose or poisoning.
    Causes and symptoms
    Metabolic acidosis occurs when the body has more acid than base in it. Chemists use the term "pH" to describe how acidic or basic a substance is. Based on a scale of 14, a pH of 7.0 is neutral. A pH below 7.0 is an acid; the lower the number, the stronger the acid. A pH above 7.0 is a base; the higher the number, the stronger the base. Blood pH is slightly basic (alkaline), with a normal range of 7.36-7.44.
    Acid is a natural by-product of the breakdown of fats and other processes in the body; however, in some conditions, the body does not have enough bicarbonate, an acid neutralizer, to balance the acids produced. This can occur when the body uses fats for energy instead of carbohydrates. Conditions where metabolic acidosis can occur include chronic alcoholism, malnutrition, and diabetic ketoacidosis. Consuming a diet low in carbohydrates and high in fats can also produce metabolic acidosis. The disorder may also be a symptom of another condition like kidney failure, liver failure, or severe diarrhea. The build up of lactic acid in the blood due to such conditions as heart failure, shock, or cancer, induces metabolic acidosis. Some poisonings and overdoses (aspirin, methanol, or ethylene glycol) also produce symptoms of metabolic acidosis.
    In mild cases of metabolic acidosis, symptoms include headache, lack of energy, and sleepiness. Breathing may become fast and shallow. Nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, dehydration, and loss of appetite are also associated with metabolic acidosis. Diabetic patients with symptoms of metabolic acidosis may also have breath that smells fruity. The patient may lose consciousness or become disoriented. Severe cases can produce coma and death.
    Diagnosis
    Metabolic acidosis is suspected based on symptoms, but is usually confirmed by laboratory tests on blood and urine samples. Blood pH below 7.35 confirms the condition. Levels of other blood components, including potassium, glucose, ketones, or lactic acid, may also be above normal ranges. The level of bicarbonate in the blood will be low, usually less than 22 mEq/L. Urine pH may fall below 4.5 in metabolic acidosis.
    Treatment
    Treatment focuses first on correcting the acid imbalance. If the patient is diabetic, insulin may be administered. Drugs to regulate blood pressure or heart rate, to prevent seizures, or to control nausea and vomiting might be given. Vital signs like pulse, respiration, blood pressure, and body temperature will be monitored. The underlying cause of the metabolic acidosis must also be diagnosed and corrected.
    OK, THAT WAS A DIRECT QUOTE OF METABOLIC ACIDOSIS, NOW LET ME TELL YOU THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN THAT AND KETO-ACIDOSIS (DIET CAUSED).
    First let me differentiate between Metabolic Acidosis and Keto-Acidosis. BIG DIFFERENCE!!!
    Metabolic Acidosis is a life threatening state that if left untreated can cause death. Yes, Topamax had an alert on 12/18/03 by the FDA added that it "can cause decreased serum bicarbonate" as a risk (this is Metabolic Acidosis). However, this is really only to alert patients that have a predisposed medical condition that puts them at risk of metabolic acidosis already such as: Diabetics, renal disease, respiratory disorders, status epilepticus, diarrhea, vomiting, surgery, or a ketogenic diet (such as Atkins). Here is a link to define Metabolic Acidosis: www.findarticles.com/p/ar...2601000894
    If one is in Metabolic Acidosis for a long period of time undiagnosed it can result in Kidney stones, ostolysis (bone) (which might be something our members that are complaining of bone pain might want to get checked out for). Severe can cause respiratory failure or death. Metabolic Acidosis is a side effect of keto-acidosis, but by itself, in no way causes weight loss.
    Now for the Keto-Acidosis. This is a state that one goes into to cause weight loss. This is the Atkins diet theory. Low carb, high protein. It is similar (but not exact) to what happens to a diabetic when they are in Diabetic Ketosis, however we "cause" it to happen by our diet. Topamax DOES NOT CAUSE THIS. This can only be brought on by diet or starvation. Again, Metabolic Acidosis is a side effect when we are in Keto-Acidosis. We need to watch for the severe signs and symptoms while in this state. Keto-Acidosis CAUSES WEIGHT LOSS. Our body uses carbs for energy, when we don't have them our body then uses fat. The bi-product when we are (burning) using fat is Ketones in our urine. Thus - Keto-Acidosis.
    In general: Topamax does not cause one to go into Metabolic Acidosis (for the most part) but it can be a risk to some patients. Metabolic Acidosis DOES NOT cause weight loss. It can be life threatening if severe, and should be monitored for periodically by your PCP while on Topamax.
    Keto-Acidosis is the Atkins type of Acidosis that most people are familiar with. NO Topamax does not cause this either. Diet is the only thing that can bring this state on. Being in Keto-Acidosis puts you at increased risk of Metabolic Acidosis.
    I hope I was able to explain this so everyone was able to understand, if not let me know. I will try again!!!
    Julie
    >

  2. -> Continue reading
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