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Difference Between Dka And Hhs Table

Hyperosmolar Non Ketotic Hypergycaemic Coma (honk) - Deranged Physiology

Hyperosmolar Non Ketotic Hypergycaemic Coma (honk) - Deranged Physiology

Hyperosmolar Non Ketotic Hypergycaemic Coma (HONK) Though a distinction is being made between diabetic ketoacidosis and HONK, the two really form a part of the same disease spectrum. Some ketoacidosis is present in HONK, and some hyperosmolarity is present in DKA. However, different mechanisms are at play. HONK is distinct form DKA, and the distinction is not entirely arbitrary, at least from the management point of view. For instance, even though the conditions co-exist 30% of the time, it is possible to treat pure HONK without any supplemental insulin (because there is a satisfactory amount of it in circulation already).DKA is 3 times more common, but HONK has 3 times greater mortality. The chapter on DKA presents a table of discriminating features to help distinguish HONK from DKA. Past CICM SAQs involving HONk have included the following: Question 24 from the first paper of 2017 (management strategy) Question 1 from the second paper of 2016 (DKA vs HONK) Question 17 from the first paper of 2014 (DKA vs HONK) Question 18.1 from the second paper of 2008 (diagnosis and complications) Question 13 from the first paper of 2002 (pathophysiology, complications and treatment) Similarly to DKA, a stress response which mobilises metabolic substrates in a Type 2 diabetic will result in HONK. Precipitating Factors for Hyperosmolar Hyperglycaemia The key distinction between DKA and HONK seems to be the fact that in HONk, there is still enough insulin to overcome the ketogenic effects of glucagon. Glucagon inhibits acetyl-CoA carboxylase, which normally converts acetyl-CoA into malonyl-CoA. Malonyl CoA inhibits acyl-carnitine synthesis; if this is uninhibited, it results in a stream of fatty acids being sucked up into the mitochondria to be converted into ketones. Thus, we have a Continue reading >>

Treatment Of Diabetic Ketoacidosis (dka)/hyperglycemic Hyperosmolar State (hhs): Novel Advances In The Management Of Hyperglycemic Crises (uk Versus Usa)

Treatment Of Diabetic Ketoacidosis (dka)/hyperglycemic Hyperosmolar State (hhs): Novel Advances In The Management Of Hyperglycemic Crises (uk Versus Usa)

Go to: Diabetic Ketoacidosis Prior to the discovery and isolation of insulin in 1922 by Banting and Best, type 1 diabetes was universally fatal within a few months of initial diagnosis. Once mass production was started, the challenge to those early pioneers of insulin treatment was learning how to use this new wonder drug, e.g., how much to give and how often to give it, in order to treat the hyperglycemia without raising the inherent risk of hypoglycemia. In 1945, Howard Root in Boston described how they had improved the outcomes for people with diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA), reducing mortality to 12% by 1940 and to 1.6% by 1945 using high doses of insulin—giving an average of 83 units within the first 3 h of treatment in 1940 and 216 units by 1945 [3]. They described how in 1945, they used an average of 287 units in the first 24 h, but this ranged from 50 to 1770 units [3]. In Birmingham, UK, high-dose insulin was also being used with similar success—doses varying depending on the degree of consciousness, with those unarousable on admission given doses between 500 and 1400 units per 24 h [4]. DKA remains a medical emergency; over time, mortality has continued to fall but remains a significant risk, especially amongst the young, socially isolated and when care provision is fragmented [5•, 6•]. Overall, the diagnosis and treatment of DKA are very similar in the UK and USA with a few differences. The UK has separate guidelines on the management of DKA [7], while the USA has a position statement on DKA and HHS that was updated in 2009 [8]. The UK guideline differs in several ways from the US position statement. The concept of low-dose intravenous insulin was established in the late 1960s and early 1970s by teams on both sides of the Atlantic. The UK championed the u Continue reading >>

Dka Vs Hhs (hhns) Nclex Review

Dka Vs Hhs (hhns) Nclex Review

Diabetic ketoacidosis vs hyperglycemic hyperosmolar nonketotic syndrome (HHNS or HHS): What are the differences between these two complications of diabetes mellitus? This NCLEX review will simplify the differences between DKA and HHNS and give you a video lecture that easily explains their differences. Many students get these two complications confused due to their similarities, but there are major differences between these two complications. After reviewing this NCLEX review, don’t forget to take the quiz on DKA vs HHNS. Lecture on DKA and HHS DKA vs HHNS Diabetic Ketoacidosis Affects mainly Type 1 diabetics Ketones and Acidosis present Hyperglycemia presents >300 mg/dL Variable osmolality Happens Suddenly Causes: no insulin present in the body or illness/infection Seen in young or undiagnosed diabetics Main problems are hyperglycemia, ketones, and acidosis (blood pH <7.35) Clinical signs/symptoms: Kussmaul breathing, fruity breath, abdominal pain Treatment is the same as in HHNS (fluids, electrolyte replacement, and insulin) Watch potassium levels closely when giving insulin and make sure the level is at least 3.3 before administrating. Hyperglycemic Hyperosmolar Nonketotic Syndrome Affects mainly Type 2 diabetics No ketones or acidosis present EXTREME Hyperglycemia (remember heavy-duty hyperglycemia) >600 mg/dL sometimes four digits High Osmolality (more of an issue in HHNS than DKA) Happens Gradually Causes: mainly illness or infection and there is some insulin present which prevents the breakdown of ketones Seen in older adults due to illness or infection Main problems are dehydration & heavy-duty hyperglycemia and hyperosmolarity (because the glucose is so high it makes the blood very concentrated) More likely to have mental status changes due to severe dehydrat Continue reading >>

Management Of Diabetic Ketoacidosis And Hyperglycemic Hyperosmolar State In Adults

Management Of Diabetic Ketoacidosis And Hyperglycemic Hyperosmolar State In Adults

Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) and hyperosmolar hyperglycemic syndrome (HHS) are two acute complications of diabetes associated with high mortality rate if not efficiently and effectively treated. Both entities are characterized by insulinopenia, hyperglycemia and dehydration. DKA and HHS are two serious complications of diabetes associated with significant mortality and a high healthcare costs. The overall DKA mortality in the US is less than 1%, but a rate higher than 5% is reported in the elderly and in patients with concomitant life-threatening illnesses. Mortality in patients with HHS is reported between 5% and 16%, which is about 10 times higher than the mortality in patients with DKA. Objectives of management include restoration circulatory volume and tissue perfusion, resolution of hyperglycemia, correction of electrolyte imbalance and increased ketogenesis. Continue reading >>

Diabetic Ketoacidosis And Hyperglycaemic Hyperosmolar State

Diabetic Ketoacidosis And Hyperglycaemic Hyperosmolar State

The hallmark of diabetes is a raised plasma glucose resulting from an absolute or relative lack of insulin action. Untreated, this can lead to two distinct yet overlapping life-threatening emergencies. Near-complete lack of insulin will result in diabetic ketoacidosis, which is therefore more characteristic of type 1 diabetes, whereas partial insulin deficiency will suppress hepatic ketogenesis but not hepatic glucose output, resulting in hyperglycaemia and dehydration, and culminating in the hyperglycaemic hyperosmolar state. Hyperglycaemia is characteristic of diabetic ketoacidosis, particularly in the previously undiagnosed, but it is the acidosis and the associated electrolyte disorders that make this a life-threatening condition. Hyperglycaemia is the dominant feature of the hyperglycaemic hyperosmolar state, causing severe polyuria and fluid loss and leading to cellular dehydration. Progression from uncontrolled diabetes to a metabolic emergency may result from unrecognised diabetes, sometimes aggravated by glucose containing drinks, or metabolic stress due to infection or intercurrent illness and associated with increased levels of counter-regulatory hormones. Since diabetic ketoacidosis and the hyperglycaemic hyperosmolar state have a similar underlying pathophysiology the principles of treatment are similar (but not identical), and the conditions may be considered two extremes of a spectrum of disease, with individual patients often showing aspects of both. Pathogenesis of DKA and HHS Insulin is a powerful anabolic hormone which helps nutrients to enter the cells, where these nutrients can be used either as fuel or as building blocks for cell growth and expansion. The complementary action of insulin is to antagonise the breakdown of fuel stores. Thus, the relea Continue reading >>

Hyperosmolar Hyperglycemic State

Hyperosmolar Hyperglycemic State

Background Hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state (HHS) is one of two serious metabolic derangements that occurs in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM). [1] It is a life-threatening emergency that, although less common than its counterpart, diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA), has a much higher mortality rate, reaching up to 5-10%. (See Epidemiology.) HHS was previously termed hyperosmolar hyperglycemic nonketotic coma (HHNC); however, the terminology was changed because coma is found in fewer than 20% of patients with HHS. [2] HHS is most commonly seen in patients with type 2 DM who have some concomitant illness that leads to reduced fluid intake, as seen, for example, in elderly institutionalized persons with decreased thirst perception and reduced ability to drink water. [3] Infection is the most common preceding illness, but many other conditions, such as stroke or myocardial infarction, can cause this state. [3] Once HHS has developed, it may be difficult to identify or differentiate it from the antecedent illness. (See Etiology.) HHS is characterized by hyperglycemia, hyperosmolarity, and dehydration without significant ketoacidosis. Most patients present with severe dehydration and focal or global neurologic deficits. [2, 4, 5] The clinical features of HHS and DKA overlap and are observed simultaneously (overlap cases) in up to one third of cases. According to the consensus statement published by the American Diabetes Association, diagnostic features of HHS may include the following (see Workup) [4, 6] : Effective serum osmolality of 320 mOsm/kg or greater Profound dehydration, up to an average of 9L Detection and treatment of an underlying illness are critical. Standard care for dehydration and altered mental status is appropriate, including airway management, intravenous (I Continue reading >>

What Is The Difference Between Hyperglycemia And Hypoglycemia?

What Is The Difference Between Hyperglycemia And Hypoglycemia?

By Debra A. Sokol-McKay, MS, CVRT, CDE, CLVT, OTR/L, SCLV What Is Hyperglycemia? In relation to diabetes, hyperglycemia refers to chronically high blood glucose levels. Most medical professionals define hyperglycemia by using the blood glucose goals that you and your physician have established and combining those goals with the blood glucose target ranges set by the American Diabetes Association. It's important to understand that you'll probably experience high blood glucose levels from time to time, despite your best efforts at control. As with any chronic disease, talk with your physician and diabetes care team if the pattern of your blood glucose readings is consistently higher or lower than your blood glucose goals. Complications from Hyperglycemia Persistent hyperglycemia can cause a wide range of chronic complications that affect almost every system in your body. When large blood vessels are affected, it can lead to: Stroke (cerebral vascular disease) Heart attack or Congestive Heart Failure (coronary heart disease) Circulation disorders and possible amputation (peripheral vascular disease) When smaller blood vessels are affected, it can lead to: Kidney disease (nephropathy) Nerve damage (neuropathy) Diabetic eye disease (retinopathy) Joseph Monks: Writer, Producer, and Film Director Joseph Monks, who has diabetic retinopathy, creates and produces films for his production company Sight Unseen Pictures. He is also the first blind filmmaker to direct a feature film. Says Joe, "I'm not uncomfortable with the term 'blind.' I'm not thrilled about it, of course, but it's accurate. The lights went out for me in early 2002 as a result of diabetic retinopathy—the death of my retinas. It is what it is, so when it happened, I decided that I wasn't going to let it put an en Continue reading >>

Difference Between Dka And Hhs

Difference Between Dka And Hhs

DKA vs HHS “DKA” means “diabetic ketoacidosis” and “HHS” means “Hyperosmolar Hyperglycemic Syndrome.” Both DKA and HHS are the two complications of diabetes mellitus. Though there are many differences between DKA and HHS, the basic problem is associated with insulin deficiency. When comparing the two, HHS has a higher mortality rate. When DKA has a mortality rate of 2 to 5 per cent, HHS has a 15 per cent mortality rate. Diabetic ketoacidosis is seen mainly in type 1 diabetic patients but is also seen in some type 2 diabetic patients. Hyperosmolar Hyperglycemic Syndrome is mainly seen in older patients having type 2 diabetes. DKA is mainly characterized by hyperglycemia, acidosis-producing derangements, and dehydration. Infection, disruption of insulin, and onset of diabetes are some of the common causes of DKA. Hyperglycemia, dehydration and hyperosmolarity are some of the common characteristics of Hyperosmolar Hyperglycemic Syndrome. But HHS does not have ketoacidosis. Some of the early symptoms of diabetic ketoacidosis include increased thirst and increased urination. Other symptoms include malaise, weakness, and fatigue. Bacterial infection, illness, insulin deficiency, stress, and insulin infusion catheter blockage are some of the causes that lead to DKA. When compared to diabetic ketoacidosis, the Hyperosmolar Hyperglycemic Syndrome develops only over the course of a week. Diabetic ketoacidosis develops rapidly. Increased dehydration, acute illness, vomiting, dementia, pneumonia, immobility, and urinary tract infections are some of the common causes of Hyperosmolar Hyperglycemic Syndrome. One of the main goals of treatment of DKA involves correcting high blood glucose levels by injecting insulin as well as replacing fluid lost because of vomiting an Continue reading >>

Diabetic Ketoacidosis And Hyperosmolar Hyperglycemic State In Adults: Clinical Features, Evaluation, And Diagnosis

Diabetic Ketoacidosis And Hyperosmolar Hyperglycemic State In Adults: Clinical Features, Evaluation, And Diagnosis

INTRODUCTION Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) and hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state (HHS, also known as hyperosmotic hyperglycemic nonketotic state [HHNK]) are two of the most serious acute complications of diabetes. DKA is characterized by ketoacidosis and hyperglycemia, while HHS usually has more severe hyperglycemia but no ketoacidosis (table 1). Each represents an extreme in the spectrum of hyperglycemia. The precipitating factors, clinical features, evaluation, and diagnosis of DKA and HHS in adults will be reviewed here. The epidemiology, pathogenesis, and treatment of these disorders are discussed separately. DKA in children is also reviewed separately. (See "Diabetic ketoacidosis and hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state in adults: Epidemiology and pathogenesis".) Continue reading >>

Diabetic Ketoacidosis And Hyperosmolar Hyperglycemia — A Brief Review

Diabetic Ketoacidosis And Hyperosmolar Hyperglycemia — A Brief Review

Diabetic Ketoacidosis and Hyperosmolar Hyperglycemia — A Brief Review SPECIAL FEATURE By Richard J. Wall, MD, MPH, Pulmonary Critical Care & Sleep Disorders Medicine, Southlake Clinic, Valley Medical Center, Renton, WA. Dr. Wall reports no financial relationships relevant to this field of study. Financial Disclosure: Critical Care Alert's editor, David J. Pierson, MD, nurse planner Leslie A. Hoffman, PhD, RN, peer reviewer William Thompson, MD, executive editor Leslie Coplin, and managing editor Neill Kimball report no financial relationships relevant to this field of study. INTRODUCTION Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) and hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state (HHS) are two of the most common and serious acute complications of diabetes mellitus. DKA is responsible for more than 500,000 hospital days annually in the United States, at an estimated annual cost of $2.4 billion. Both conditions are part of the spectrum of uncontrolled hyperglycemia, and there is sometimes overlap between them. This article will discuss and compare the two conditions, with a focus on key clinical features, diagnosis, and treatment. DIAGNOSTIC FEATURES In DKA, there is an accumulation of ketoacids along with a high anion gap metabolic acidosis (see Table below).1 The acidosis usually evolves quickly over a 24-hour period. The pH is often < 7.20 and initial bicarbonate levels are often < 20 mEq/L. DKA patients (especially children) often present with nausea, vomiting, hyperventilation, and abdominal pain. Blood sugar levels in DKA tend to be 300-800 mg/dL, but they are sometimes much higher when patients present in a comatose state. In HHS, there is no (or little) ketonemia but the plasma osmolality may reach 380 mOsm/kg, and as a result, patients often have neurologic complications such as coma. Bica Continue reading >>

Dka And Hhs Flashcards | Quizlet

Dka And Hhs Flashcards | Quizlet

Admin Rapid IV NS or 1/2 NS until HD stable (15-20 mL/kg/hr for 1st hr) (4-14 mL/kg/hr after bolus) Used to reverse ECF volume depletion - restore renal perfusion Average fluid loss for DKA: 6-10 L/24 hrs Fluids alone may initially decrease BG by 35-70 mg/dL When BG reaches 250 mg/dL, add D5W to IV fluids - prevents hypoglycemia Monitor for complications such as pulmonary or cerebral edema (occurs if serum osmolality decreases too rapidly) First Check potassium. If potassium is less than 3.3 mEq/L, delay insulin until K replacement. Admin IV infusion regular insulin @ 0.1 unit/kg/hr Do not decrease blood glucose by more than 75 mg/dL/hr. Decrease between 50-75/hr Avoid too rapid decrease in blood glucose to prevent cerebral edema and increased ICP. Titrate Q1H after checking blood glucose. K+ may be low, high, or normal -> EKG changes. Fluids and insulin can decrease potassium level. Before giving iV potassium, pt must produce urine @ least 30 mL/hr. Phosphate may be low, high or normal. RBC binds O2 more tightly if phosphate is low. Indication: pH < 7.0 and or Bicarb level < 5.0 mEq/L Causes life threatening hypokalemia if acidosis is corrected rapidly. Monitor respiratory status and admin oxygen as needed Monitor GI motility...may need NG for decompression Pt at risk..monitor peripheral circulation and administer prophylactic lovenox. Monitor blood glucose at least every 4 hours Test urine for ketones when blood glucose level is greater than 240 Continue to take insulin or oral antidiabetic agents To prevent dehydration, drink 8-12 ounces of sugar-free liquids every hour that you are awake. Continue to eat meals at regular times. If unable to tolerate solid food because of nausea, consume more easily tolerated foods or liquids equal to carb content of usual meal. Cal Continue reading >>

Uk And Us Differences In Dka Treatment Highlighted

Uk And Us Differences In Dka Treatment Highlighted

A review has flagged up “important differences” in the treatment of two diabetic emergencies in the UK and US. The differences in diagnosis and treatment of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) and hyperglycemic hyperosmolar state (HHS) in both countries have been highlighted in an article published in Current Diabetes Reports. Co-author, Dr Ketan Dhatariya said: “Large-scale studies to determine optimal management of DKA and HHS are lacking. The diagnosis of DKA is based on disease severity in the USA, which differs from the UK. The diagnosis of HHS in the USA is based on total rather than effective osmolality. Unlike the USA, the UK has separate guidelines for DKA and HHS. Treatment of DKA and HHS also differs with respect to timing of fluid and insulin initiation.” Dr Dhatariya, who is a diabetes consultant at Norfolk and Norwich University Hospitals NHS Foundation, concluded: “There is considerable overlap but important differences between the UK and USA guidelines for the management of DKA and HHS. Further research needs to be done to delineate a unifying diagnostic and treatment protocol.” UK USA Mild Moderate Severe “D”—a glucose concentration >11.0 mmol/L (200 mg/dL) or a previous history of diabetes mellitus >13.9 mmol/L (>250 mg/dL) >13.9 mmol/L (>250 mg/dL) >13.9 mmol/L (>250 mg/dL) “K”—the presence of ketones >3.0 mmol/L or significant (>2+) on standard urine ketone sticks Urine or serum ketone positive Urine or serum ketone positive Urine or serum ketone positive “A”—confirmation of an acidosis pH <7.3 7.25 to 7.30 7.00 to <7.24 <7.00 Serum bicarbonate (mmol/L) <15 15 to 18 10 to <15 <10 Anion gap Not applicable >10 >12 >12 To access the paper called Treatment of Diabetic Ketoacidosis (DKA)/Hyperglycemic Hyperosmolar State (HHS): Novel Continue reading >>

Diabetic Ketoacidosis And Hyperglycemic Hyperosmolar Syndrome

Diabetic Ketoacidosis And Hyperglycemic Hyperosmolar Syndrome

In Brief Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) and hyperosmolar hyperglycemic syndrome (HHS) are two acute complications of diabetes that can result in increased morbidity and mortality if not efficiently and effectively treated. Mortality rates are 2–5% for DKA and 15% for HHS, and mortality is usually a consequence of the underlying precipitating cause(s) rather than a result of the metabolic changes of hyperglycemia. Effective standardized treatment protocols, as well as prompt identification and treatment of the precipitating cause, are important factors affecting outcome. The two most common life-threatening complications of diabetes mellitus include diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) and hyperglycemic hyperosmolar syndrome (HHS). Although there are important differences in their pathogenesis, the basic underlying mechanism for both disorders is a reduction in the net effective concentration of circulating insulin coupled with a concomitant elevation of counterregulatory hormones (glucagon, catecholamines, cortisol, and growth hormone). These hyperglycemic emergencies continue to be important causes of morbidity and mortality among patients with diabetes. DKA is reported to be responsible for more than 100,000 hospital admissions per year in the United States1 and accounts for 4–9% of all hospital discharge summaries among patients with diabetes.1 The incidence of HHS is lower than DKA and accounts for <1% of all primary diabetic admissions.1 Most patients with DKA have type 1 diabetes; however, patients with type 2 diabetes are also at risk during the catabolic stress of acute illness.2 Contrary to popular belief, DKA is more common in adults than in children.1 In community-based studies, more than 40% of African-American patients with DKA were >40 years of age and more than 2 Continue reading >>

Hyperglycaemic Crises And Lactic Acidosis In Diabetes Mellitus

Hyperglycaemic Crises And Lactic Acidosis In Diabetes Mellitus

Hyperglycaemic crises are discussed together followed by a separate section on lactic acidosis. DIABETIC KETOACIDOSIS (DKA) AND HYPERGLYCAEMIC HYPEROSMOLAR STATE (HHS) Definitions DKA has no universally agreed definition. Alberti proposed the working definition of “severe uncontrolled diabetes requiring emergency treatment with insulin and intravenous fluids and with a blood ketone body concentration of >5 mmol/l”.1 Given the limited availability of blood ketone body assays, a more pragmatic definition comprising a metabolic acidosis (pH <7.3), plasma bicarbonate <15 mmol/l, plasma glucose >13.9 mmol/l, and urine ketostix reaction ++ or plasma ketostix ⩾ + may be more workable in clinical practice.2 Classifying the severity of diabetic ketoacidosis is desirable, since it may assist in determining the management and monitoring of the patient. Such a classification is based on the severity of acidosis (table 1). A caveat to this approach is that the presence of an intercurrent illness, that may not necessarily affect the level of acidosis, may markedly affect outcome: a recent study showed that the two most important factors predicting mortality in DKA were severe intercurrent illness and pH <7.0.3 HHS replaces the older terms, “hyperglycaemic hyperosmolar non-ketotic coma” and “hyperglycaemic hyperosmolar non-ketotic state”, because alterations of sensoria may be present without coma, and mild to moderate ketosis is commonly present in this state.4,5 Definitions vary according to the degree of hyperglycaemia and elevation of osmolality required. Table 1 summarises the definition of Kitabchi et al.5 Epidemiology The annual incidence of DKA among subjects with type 1 diabetes is between 1% and 5% in European and American series6–10 and this incidence appear Continue reading >>

My Site - Chapter 15: Hyperglycemic Emergencies In Adults

My Site - Chapter 15: Hyperglycemic Emergencies In Adults

Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) and hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state (HHS) should be suspected in ill patients with diabetes. If either DKA or HHS is diagnosed, precipitating factors must be sought and treated. DKA and HHS are medical emergencies that require treatment and monitoring for multiple metabolic abnormalities and vigilance for complications. A normal blood glucose does not rule out DKA in pregnancy. Ketoacidosis requires insulin administration (0.1 U/kg/h) for resolution; bicarbonate therapy should be considered only for extreme acidosis (pH7.0). Note to readers: Although the diagnosis and treatment of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) in adults and in children share general principles, there are significant differences in their application, largely related to the increased risk of life-threatening cerebral edema with DKA in children and adolescents. The specific issues related to treatment of DKA in children and adolescents are addressed in the Type 1 Diabetes in Children and Adolescents chapter, p. S153. Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) and hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state (HHS) are diabetes emergencies with overlapping features. With insulin deficiency, hyperglycemia causes urinary losses of water and electrolytes (sodium, potassium, chloride) and the resultant extracellular fluid volume (ECFV) depletion. Potassium is shifted out of cells, and ketoacidosis occurs as a result of elevated glucagon levels and absolute insulin deficiency (in the case of type 1 diabetes) or high catecholamine levels suppressing insulin release (in the case of type 2 diabetes). In DKA, ketoacidosis is prominent, while in HHS, the main features are ECFV depletion and hyperosmolarity. Risk factors for DKA include new diagnosis of diabetes mellitus, insulin omission, infection, myocardial infarc Continue reading >>

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