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Difference Between Acidosis And Alkalosis Symptoms

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What is ALKALOSIS? What does ALKALOSIS mean? ALKALOSIS meaning - ALKALOSIS pronunciation - ALKALOSIS definition - ALKALOSIS explanation - How to pronounce ALKALOSIS? Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/... license. SUBSCRIBE to our Google Earth flights channel - https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC6Uu... Alkalosis is the result of a process reducing hydrogen ion concentration of arterial blood plasma (alkalemia). In contrast to acidemia (serum pH 7.35 or lower), alkalemia occurs when the serum pH is higher than normal (7.45 or higher). Alkalosis is usually divided into the categories of respiratory alkalosis and metabolic alkalosis or a combined respiratory/metabolic alkalosis. Respiratory alkalosis is caused by hyperventilation, resulting in a loss of carbon dioxide. Compensatory mechanisms for this would include increased dissociation of the carbonic acid buffering intermediate into hydrogen ions, and the related excretion of bicarbonate, both of which lower blood pH. Hyperventilation-induced alkalosis can be seen in several deadly central nervous system diseases such as strokes or Rett syndrome. Metabolic alkalosis can be caused by repeated vomiting, resulting in a loss of hydrochloric acid within the stomach content. Severe dehydration, and the consumption of alkali are other causes. It can also be caused by administration of diuretics and endocrine disorders such as Cushing's syndrome. Compensatory mechanism for metabolic alkalosis involve slowed breathing by the lungs to increase serum carbon dioxide, a condition leaning toward respiratory acidosis. As respiratory acidosis often accompanies the compensation for metabolic alkalosis, and vice versa, a delicate balance is created between these two conditions. Metabolic alkalosis is usually accompanied by low blood potassium concentration, causing, e.g., muscular weakness, muscle pain, and muscle cramps (from disturbed function of the skeletal muscles), and muscle spasms (from disturbed function of smooth muscles). It may also cause low blood calcium concentration. As the blood pH increases, blood transport proteins, such as albumin, become more ionized into anions. This causes the free calcium present in blood to bind more strongly with albumin. If severe, it may cause tetany.

Metabolic Alkalosis - Endocrine And Metabolic Disorders - Merck Manuals Professional Edition

(Video) Overview of Buffering and the Henderson-Hasselbalch Equation By James L. Lewis, III, MD, Attending Physician, Brookwood Baptist Health and Saint Vincents Ascension Health, Birmingham Metabolic alkalosis is primary increase in bicarbonate (HCO3) with or without compensatory increase in carbon dioxide partial pressure (Pco2); pH may be high or nearly normal. Common causes include prolonged vomiting, hypovolemia, diuretic use, and hypokalemia. Renal impairment of HCO3 excretion must be present to sustain alkalosis. Symptoms and signs in severe cases include headache, lethargy, and tetany. Diagnosis is clinical and with arterial blood gas and serum electrolyte measurement. The underlying condition is treated; oral or IV acetazolamide or hydrochloric acid is sometimes indicated. Metabolic alkalosis is bicarbonate (HCO3) accumulation due to Intracellular shift of hydrogen ion (H+as occurs in hypokalemia ) Regardless of initial cause, persistence of metabolic alkalosis indicates that the kidneys have increased their HCO3 reabsorption, because HCO3 is normally freely filtered by the kidneys and hence excreted. Volume depletion and hypokalemia are the most common stimuli for increa Continue reading >>

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Popular Questions

  1. SopranoKris

    Think about what is occurring physiologically in the body during each: acidosis is an abundance of H+. What is that going to do to the body? If it's respiratory acidosis, what is the body going to do naturally to correct it? (Hint: think too much CO2). If it's metabolic acidosis, elevated K+ can lead to seizures, coma or can even be fatal, for example diabetic ketoacidosis. The body has gained too much acid or lost too much base (e.g. diarrhea)
    If it's alkalosis, the body has lost too much acid or gained too much base (e.g. vomiting). Having too little K+ can cause cramping, weakness, etc.
    What other effects can you think of?

  2. EmxoRenee

    Thanks for your response!
    This is what I've been trying to do. I try to think about why the imbalance has happened, and what is causing it to help me determine signs and symptoms. I think where I get confused is because the body then tries to compensate through whichever system is not causing the imbalance.
    For example, with respiratory alkalosis. I know it can be caused by hyperventilation. But then my thought process is that the body would try to hypoventilate to hold onto some CO2 to gain acid and bring the ph back into balance. But I'm not sure if this is actually correct or not.
    I dont know if i just overthink it, or if I'm getting the different signs and symptoms mixed up. This topic just overwhelms me a bit!
    Thanks so much for your help! ☺

  3. Esme12

    Normal values:
    PH = 7.35 - 7.45
    C02 = 35 - 45
    HC03 = 21-26
    Respiratory acidosis = low ph and high C02
    hypoventilation (eg: COPD, narcs or sedatives, atelectasis)
    *Compensated by metabolic alkalosis (increased HC03)
    For example:
    ph 7.20 C02 60 HC03 24 (uncompensated respiratory acidosis)
    ph 7.33 C02 55 HC03 29 (partially compensated respiratory acidosis)
    ph 7.37 C02 60 HC03 37 (compensated respiratory acidosis)
    Respiratory alkalosis : high ph and low C02
    hyperventilation (eg: anxiety, PE, pain, sepsis, brain injury)
    *Compensated by metabolic acidosis (decreased HC03)
    examples:
    ph 7.51 C02 26 HC03 25 (uncompensated respiratory alkalosis)
    ph 7.47 C02 32 HC03 20 (partially compensated respiratory alkalosis)
    ph 7.43 C02 30 HC03 19 (compensated respiratory alkalosis)
    Metabolic acidosis : low ph and low HC03
    diabetic ketoacidosis, starvation, severe diarrhea
    *Compensated by respiratory alkalosis (decreased C02)
    examples:
    ph 7.23 C02 36 HC03 14 (uncompensated metabolic acidosis)
    ph 7.31 C02 30 HC03 17 (partially compensated metabolic acidosis)
    ph 7.38 C02 26 HC03 20 (compensated metabolic acidosis)
    Metabloic alkalosis = high ph and high HC03
    severe vomiting, potassium deficit, diuretics
    *Compensated by respiratory acidosis (increased C02)
    example:
    ph 7.54 C02 44 HC03 29 (uncompensated metabolic alkalosis)
    ph 7.50 C02 49 HC03 32 (partially compensated metabolic alkalosis)
    ph 7.44 C02 52 HC02 35 (compensated metabolic alkalosis)
    *Remember that compensation corrects the ph.
    Now a simple way to remember this......
    CO2 = acid, makes things acidic
    HCO3 = base, makes things alkalotic
    Remember ROME
    R-Respiratory
    O-Opposite
    M-Metabolic
    E-Equal
    Ok always look at the pH first...
    pH<7.35 = acidosis
    pH>7.45 = alkalosis
    Then, if the CO2 is high or low, then it is respiratory...If the HCO3 is high or low then it is metabolic. How you remember that is that the respiratory system is involved with CO2 (blowing air off or slowing RR), and the kidneys (metabolic) are involved with HCO3 (excreting or not excreting).
    Here is how you think thru it: pH = 7.25 CO2 = 40 HCO3 = 17
    Ok, first, the pH is low so think acidosis. CO2 is WNL. HCO3 is low. Draw arrows if it helps. The abnormal values are both low (think Equal). Metabolic imbalances are equal. So, this must be metabolic acidosis!
    Now, for compensation...If you have a metabolic imbalance, the respiratory system is going to try to compensate. Respiratory = CO2. If the CO2 is normal in the ABG, then there is no compensation going on. Compensation in acidosis will decrease the CO2 because you want to get rid of the acid (CO2). In alkalosis, it will increase because you want to add more acid (CO2)
    If you have a respiratory imbalance, the kidneys will try to compensate. Kidneys = HCO3. If the HCO3 is normal in the ABG, then there is no compensation going on. Compensation in acidosis will increase HCO3 because you want to hold on to the base to make it more alkalotic. In alkalosis, it will decrease because you want to excrete the base to make it more acidic.

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Learn more on how the body absorbs and uses medicine: http://www.merckmanuals.com/home/drug... How rapidly drugs are absorbed into the body depends on factors such as the speed of the gastrointestinal tract, how acidic it is, and whether the drug is designed to be absorbed slowly (called slow- or sustained-release preparations). Drugs come in tablets, capsules, skin (transdermal) patches, suppositories, and liquids (solutions). Drugs are transformed (metabolized) in the body by enzymes such as those in the liver or kidneys. Drugs that are inactive when taken, but become active after being metabolized, are called pro-drugs. Drugs are eliminated from the body in the urine (for example, if they are soluble in water or after being metabolized) or feces. About The Merck Manuals: First published in 1899 as a small reference book for physicians and pharmacists, The Merck Manual grew in size and scope to become one of the world's most widely used comprehensive medical resources for professionals and consumers. As The Manual evolved, it continually expanded the reach and depth of its offerings to reflect the mission of providing the best medical information to a wide cross-section of users, including medical professionals and students, veterinarians and veterinary students, and consumers. Merck Manual Consumer Version: http://www.MerckManuals.com/Home Facebook for Consumers: http://www.Facebook.com/MerckManualHome Twitter for Consumers: http://www.Twitter.com/MerckManualHome

Alkalosis - Hormonal And Metabolic Disorders - Merck Manuals Consumer Version

By James L. Lewis, III, MD, Attending Physician, Brookwood Baptist Health and Saint Vincents Ascension Health, Birmingham Alkalosis is excessive blood alkalinity caused by an overabundance of bicarbonate in the blood or a loss of acid from the blood (metabolic alkalosis), or by a low level of carbon dioxide in the blood that results from rapid or deep breathing (respiratory alkalosis). People may have irritability, muscle twitching, muscle cramps, or even muscle spasms. Metabolic alkalosis is treated by replacing water and mineral salts such as sodium and potassium (electrolytes) and correcting the cause. Respiratory alkalosis is treated by correcting the cause. The acidity or alkalinity of any solution, including blood, is indicated on the pH scale . Acidity and alkalinity are expressed on the pH scale, which ranges from 0 (strongly acidic) to 14 (strongly basic or alkaline). A pH of 7.0, in the middle of this scale, is neutral. Blood is normally slightly basic, with a normal pH range of 7.35 to 7.45. Usually the body maintains the pH of blood close to 7.40. If too much bicarbonate in the blood, a loss of acid from the blood or a low level of carbon dioxide in the blood overwhelm Continue reading >>

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Popular Questions

  1. SopranoKris

    Think about what is occurring physiologically in the body during each: acidosis is an abundance of H+. What is that going to do to the body? If it's respiratory acidosis, what is the body going to do naturally to correct it? (Hint: think too much CO2). If it's metabolic acidosis, elevated K+ can lead to seizures, coma or can even be fatal, for example diabetic ketoacidosis. The body has gained too much acid or lost too much base (e.g. diarrhea)
    If it's alkalosis, the body has lost too much acid or gained too much base (e.g. vomiting). Having too little K+ can cause cramping, weakness, etc.
    What other effects can you think of?

  2. EmxoRenee

    Thanks for your response!
    This is what I've been trying to do. I try to think about why the imbalance has happened, and what is causing it to help me determine signs and symptoms. I think where I get confused is because the body then tries to compensate through whichever system is not causing the imbalance.
    For example, with respiratory alkalosis. I know it can be caused by hyperventilation. But then my thought process is that the body would try to hypoventilate to hold onto some CO2 to gain acid and bring the ph back into balance. But I'm not sure if this is actually correct or not.
    I dont know if i just overthink it, or if I'm getting the different signs and symptoms mixed up. This topic just overwhelms me a bit!
    Thanks so much for your help! ☺

  3. Esme12

    Normal values:
    PH = 7.35 - 7.45
    C02 = 35 - 45
    HC03 = 21-26
    Respiratory acidosis = low ph and high C02
    hypoventilation (eg: COPD, narcs or sedatives, atelectasis)
    *Compensated by metabolic alkalosis (increased HC03)
    For example:
    ph 7.20 C02 60 HC03 24 (uncompensated respiratory acidosis)
    ph 7.33 C02 55 HC03 29 (partially compensated respiratory acidosis)
    ph 7.37 C02 60 HC03 37 (compensated respiratory acidosis)
    Respiratory alkalosis : high ph and low C02
    hyperventilation (eg: anxiety, PE, pain, sepsis, brain injury)
    *Compensated by metabolic acidosis (decreased HC03)
    examples:
    ph 7.51 C02 26 HC03 25 (uncompensated respiratory alkalosis)
    ph 7.47 C02 32 HC03 20 (partially compensated respiratory alkalosis)
    ph 7.43 C02 30 HC03 19 (compensated respiratory alkalosis)
    Metabolic acidosis : low ph and low HC03
    diabetic ketoacidosis, starvation, severe diarrhea
    *Compensated by respiratory alkalosis (decreased C02)
    examples:
    ph 7.23 C02 36 HC03 14 (uncompensated metabolic acidosis)
    ph 7.31 C02 30 HC03 17 (partially compensated metabolic acidosis)
    ph 7.38 C02 26 HC03 20 (compensated metabolic acidosis)
    Metabloic alkalosis = high ph and high HC03
    severe vomiting, potassium deficit, diuretics
    *Compensated by respiratory acidosis (increased C02)
    example:
    ph 7.54 C02 44 HC03 29 (uncompensated metabolic alkalosis)
    ph 7.50 C02 49 HC03 32 (partially compensated metabolic alkalosis)
    ph 7.44 C02 52 HC02 35 (compensated metabolic alkalosis)
    *Remember that compensation corrects the ph.
    Now a simple way to remember this......
    CO2 = acid, makes things acidic
    HCO3 = base, makes things alkalotic
    Remember ROME
    R-Respiratory
    O-Opposite
    M-Metabolic
    E-Equal
    Ok always look at the pH first...
    pH<7.35 = acidosis
    pH>7.45 = alkalosis
    Then, if the CO2 is high or low, then it is respiratory...If the HCO3 is high or low then it is metabolic. How you remember that is that the respiratory system is involved with CO2 (blowing air off or slowing RR), and the kidneys (metabolic) are involved with HCO3 (excreting or not excreting).
    Here is how you think thru it: pH = 7.25 CO2 = 40 HCO3 = 17
    Ok, first, the pH is low so think acidosis. CO2 is WNL. HCO3 is low. Draw arrows if it helps. The abnormal values are both low (think Equal). Metabolic imbalances are equal. So, this must be metabolic acidosis!
    Now, for compensation...If you have a metabolic imbalance, the respiratory system is going to try to compensate. Respiratory = CO2. If the CO2 is normal in the ABG, then there is no compensation going on. Compensation in acidosis will decrease the CO2 because you want to get rid of the acid (CO2). In alkalosis, it will increase because you want to add more acid (CO2)
    If you have a respiratory imbalance, the kidneys will try to compensate. Kidneys = HCO3. If the HCO3 is normal in the ABG, then there is no compensation going on. Compensation in acidosis will increase HCO3 because you want to hold on to the base to make it more alkalotic. In alkalosis, it will decrease because you want to excrete the base to make it more acidic.

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Simple Method Of Acid Base Balance Interpretation

A FOUR STEP METHOD FOR INTERPRETATION OF ABGS Usefulness This method is simple, easy and can be used for the majority of ABGs. It only addresses acid-base balance and considers just 3 values. pH, PaCO2 HCO3- Step 1. Use pH to determine Acidosis or Alkalosis. ph < 7.35 7.35-7.45 > 7.45 Acidosis Normal or Compensated Alkalosis Step 2. Use PaCO2 to determine respiratory effect. PaCO2 < 35 35 -45 > 45 Tends toward alkalosis Causes high pH Neutralizes low pH Normal or Compensated Tends toward acidosis Causes low pH Neutralizes high pH Step 3. Assume metabolic cause when respiratory is ruled out. You'll be right most of the time if you remember this simple table: High pH Low pH Alkalosis Acidosis High PaCO2 Low PaCO2 High PaCO2 Low PaCO2 Metabolic Respiratory Respiratory Metabolic If PaCO2 is abnormal and pH is normal, it indicates compensation. pH > 7.4 would be a compensated alkalosis. pH < 7.4 would be a compensated acidosis. These steps will make more sense if we apply them to actual ABG values. Click here to interpret some ABG values using these steps. You may want to refer back to these steps (click on "linked" steps or use "BACK" button on your browser) or print out this page for Continue reading >>

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Popular Questions

  1. SopranoKris

    Think about what is occurring physiologically in the body during each: acidosis is an abundance of H+. What is that going to do to the body? If it's respiratory acidosis, what is the body going to do naturally to correct it? (Hint: think too much CO2). If it's metabolic acidosis, elevated K+ can lead to seizures, coma or can even be fatal, for example diabetic ketoacidosis. The body has gained too much acid or lost too much base (e.g. diarrhea)
    If it's alkalosis, the body has lost too much acid or gained too much base (e.g. vomiting). Having too little K+ can cause cramping, weakness, etc.
    What other effects can you think of?

  2. EmxoRenee

    Thanks for your response!
    This is what I've been trying to do. I try to think about why the imbalance has happened, and what is causing it to help me determine signs and symptoms. I think where I get confused is because the body then tries to compensate through whichever system is not causing the imbalance.
    For example, with respiratory alkalosis. I know it can be caused by hyperventilation. But then my thought process is that the body would try to hypoventilate to hold onto some CO2 to gain acid and bring the ph back into balance. But I'm not sure if this is actually correct or not.
    I dont know if i just overthink it, or if I'm getting the different signs and symptoms mixed up. This topic just overwhelms me a bit!
    Thanks so much for your help! ☺

  3. Esme12

    Normal values:
    PH = 7.35 - 7.45
    C02 = 35 - 45
    HC03 = 21-26
    Respiratory acidosis = low ph and high C02
    hypoventilation (eg: COPD, narcs or sedatives, atelectasis)
    *Compensated by metabolic alkalosis (increased HC03)
    For example:
    ph 7.20 C02 60 HC03 24 (uncompensated respiratory acidosis)
    ph 7.33 C02 55 HC03 29 (partially compensated respiratory acidosis)
    ph 7.37 C02 60 HC03 37 (compensated respiratory acidosis)
    Respiratory alkalosis : high ph and low C02
    hyperventilation (eg: anxiety, PE, pain, sepsis, brain injury)
    *Compensated by metabolic acidosis (decreased HC03)
    examples:
    ph 7.51 C02 26 HC03 25 (uncompensated respiratory alkalosis)
    ph 7.47 C02 32 HC03 20 (partially compensated respiratory alkalosis)
    ph 7.43 C02 30 HC03 19 (compensated respiratory alkalosis)
    Metabolic acidosis : low ph and low HC03
    diabetic ketoacidosis, starvation, severe diarrhea
    *Compensated by respiratory alkalosis (decreased C02)
    examples:
    ph 7.23 C02 36 HC03 14 (uncompensated metabolic acidosis)
    ph 7.31 C02 30 HC03 17 (partially compensated metabolic acidosis)
    ph 7.38 C02 26 HC03 20 (compensated metabolic acidosis)
    Metabloic alkalosis = high ph and high HC03
    severe vomiting, potassium deficit, diuretics
    *Compensated by respiratory acidosis (increased C02)
    example:
    ph 7.54 C02 44 HC03 29 (uncompensated metabolic alkalosis)
    ph 7.50 C02 49 HC03 32 (partially compensated metabolic alkalosis)
    ph 7.44 C02 52 HC02 35 (compensated metabolic alkalosis)
    *Remember that compensation corrects the ph.
    Now a simple way to remember this......
    CO2 = acid, makes things acidic
    HCO3 = base, makes things alkalotic
    Remember ROME
    R-Respiratory
    O-Opposite
    M-Metabolic
    E-Equal
    Ok always look at the pH first...
    pH<7.35 = acidosis
    pH>7.45 = alkalosis
    Then, if the CO2 is high or low, then it is respiratory...If the HCO3 is high or low then it is metabolic. How you remember that is that the respiratory system is involved with CO2 (blowing air off or slowing RR), and the kidneys (metabolic) are involved with HCO3 (excreting or not excreting).
    Here is how you think thru it: pH = 7.25 CO2 = 40 HCO3 = 17
    Ok, first, the pH is low so think acidosis. CO2 is WNL. HCO3 is low. Draw arrows if it helps. The abnormal values are both low (think Equal). Metabolic imbalances are equal. So, this must be metabolic acidosis!
    Now, for compensation...If you have a metabolic imbalance, the respiratory system is going to try to compensate. Respiratory = CO2. If the CO2 is normal in the ABG, then there is no compensation going on. Compensation in acidosis will decrease the CO2 because you want to get rid of the acid (CO2). In alkalosis, it will increase because you want to add more acid (CO2)
    If you have a respiratory imbalance, the kidneys will try to compensate. Kidneys = HCO3. If the HCO3 is normal in the ABG, then there is no compensation going on. Compensation in acidosis will increase HCO3 because you want to hold on to the base to make it more alkalotic. In alkalosis, it will decrease because you want to excrete the base to make it more acidic.

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