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Difference Between Acidosis And Alkalosis

Difference Between Acidosis And Alkalosis | Acidosis Vs Alkalosis

Difference Between Acidosis And Alkalosis | Acidosis Vs Alkalosis

Difference Between Acidosis and Alkalosis | Acidosis vs Alkalosis Summary:Difference Between Acidosis and Alkalosis is thatAcidosis is the reduction in pH (increase in H+ concentration) below normal range. WhileAlkalosis is the increase in pH (decrease in H+ concentration) above the normal range. Acidosis is the reduction in pH (increase in H+ concentration) below normal range.Acidosis is produced by: Increase in partial pressure of CO2 in the body fluids particularly in arterial blood Alkalosis is the increase in pH (decrease in H+ concentration) above the normal range.Alkalosis is produced by: Decrease in partial pressure of CO2 in the arterial blood Since the partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2 ) in arterial blood is controlled by lungs, the acid-base disturbances produced by the change in arterial pCO2 are called the respiratory disturbances. On the other hand, the disturbances in acid-base status produced by the change in HCO3 concentration are generally called the metabolic disturbances.Thus the acid-base disturbances are: Respiratory acidosis is the acidosis that is caused by alveolar hypoventilation. During hypoventilation the lungs fail to expel CO2 , which is produced in the tissues. CO2 is the major end product of oxidation of carbohydrates, proteins and fats. CO2 accumulates in blood where it reacts with water to form carbonic acid, which is called respiratory acid. Carbonic acid dissociates into H+ and HCO3 . The increased H+ concentration in blood leads to decrease in pH and acidosis. Normal partial pressure of CO2 in arterial blood is about 40 mm Hg. When it increases above 60 mm Hg acidosis occurs. Respiratory alkalosis is the alkalosis that is caused by alveolar hyperventilation. Hyperventilation causes excess loss of CO2 from the body. Loss of CO2 leads to Continue reading >>

Metabolic And Respiratory Acidosis And Alkalosis

Metabolic And Respiratory Acidosis And Alkalosis

There are two main types of pH imbalances in the body: acidosis and alkalosis. An increase in H+ ion levels in the blood causes pH levels to fall resulting in acidosis. A decrease in H+ levels causes pH levels to rise, making the blood more basic, or alkaline. These conditions can be caused by two kinds of disturbances to the buffers that control the body’s pH levels, which alter the acid-base balance. Metabolic and respiratory acidosis and alkalosis are the results of disruptions to the bicarbonate and carbonic acid components of the chemical buffers. Metabolic and respiratory acidosis result when pH levels fall due to an increase in H+ ions or a loss of bases causing the bodily fluids to become slightly acidic. Insufficient bicarbonate levels lower the pH levels of fluids in the digestive tract, resulting in metabolic acidosis. Respiratory acidosis is caused by excessive carbonic acid in the respiratory system, which lowers pH levels through the retention of CO2. Alkalosis is the result of opposite changes to the acid-base balance: excessive bicarbonate levels in the digestive system increases pH as H+ ion concentrations decrease, which causes fluids to become more basic. Insufficient carbonic acid levels are caused by excessive exhalation of CO2, resulting in respiratory alkalosis. Treatment for metabolic and respiratory acidosis and alkalosis varies depending on the underlying cause of the imbalance. Respiratory acidosis caused by hypoventilation can be treated with oxygen therapy and the help of breathing machines to help restore normal oxygen/carbon dioxide exchange, allowing the kidneys time to increase production of bicarbonate and reestablish the acid-base balance of the blood. Respiratory alkalosis caused by hyperventilation can be treated with inhalation of Continue reading >>

Acidosis/alkalosis Flashcards | Quizlet

Acidosis/alkalosis Flashcards | Quizlet

What is the difference between acidosis and acidemia? What about alkalosis and alkalemia? Acidemia: increase in blood H+, decrease pH Acidosis: process leading to increased blood H+ Alkalemia: decrease in blood H+, increased pH Alkalosis: process leading to decreased blood pH decreased HCO3- concentration in blood, therefore gain of H+ ex: increased fixed acid production (ketoacids, lactic acid), ingestion fixed acids, inability of kidney to excreted fixed acids produced during metabolism, loss of HCO3- via kidneys or GI tract What is the arterial blood profile (pH, [HCO3-], PCO2) of metabolic acidosis? Decrease in pH, decrease in HCO3-, decrease in PCO2 What happens to [H+] in metabolic acidosis, and what occurs during buffering? - this must be buffered by HCO3- primarily, causing a DECREASE in [HCO3-] What is the primary compensation to metabolic acidosis? Secondary? Primary: HYPERVENTILATION is stimulated in order to decrease pH, decrease the PCO2 - new HCO3- synthesized and reabsorbed by kidneys What is the cause of metabolic alkalosis? ex: Vomiting!, loss of fixed H+ from GI tract, kidney, administration of solutions containing HCO3-, ECF volume contraction (diuretics) What is the arterial blood profile (pH, [HCO3-], PCO2) of metabolic alkalosis? Increased pH, Increased [HCO3-], Increased PCO2 What happens to [H+] in metabolic alkalosis? Loss of fixed acid decreased [H+] in blood and increased HCO3- What is the primary compensation to metabolic alkalosis? Secondary? Primary: HYPOVENTILATION, increase in PCO2 - HCO3- secreted from kidney once reabsorptive capacity in renal tubule is reached, HCO3- excreted in urine therefore - However, ECF volume contraction will occur, so it is not so simple Maintain metabolic alkalosis (contraction alkalosis) by not allowing exce Continue reading >>

Acidosis/alkalosis:

Acidosis/alkalosis:

Bases: Have a higher affinity for protons than water and easily acquire protons in aqueous solution. charged (+1) when protonated (Acids uncharged) uncharged when de-protonated (Acids -1 charge) Most common biological weak base is the amino group, -NH2 Despite the differences between acids and bases the pKa concept can be used to quantitate the relative strength of amino groups. Notice: pKa values for carboxylic acid are less than < 7, pka values for amino groups are >7 (usually 9-11) i.e. a simple biologically important 10 amine, ethanolamine, pKa = 9.5 or choline, a quaternary (40) amine, pKa = 13.9 Choline is a good compound for systems in which a permanent positive charge is desirable, i.e. membranes (hydrophilic head groups) Phosphatidylcholine (lecithin) a key amphiphilic compound in biological membranes Buffering: At or near their pKa both weak acids and weak bases will resist changes in pH, thus acting as buffers Buffering is very important in biological systems, for rapid pH changes have disastrous consequences. The buffering capacity of ethanolamine and acetic acid occur well outside of the pH range normally seen in human blood (pH 7.35-7.45). Thus, other ionizable compounds must serve this function in biological fluids. The most important single buffer in human is the bicarbonate ion -CO2 is added to the system at varying rates by metabolic processes -rate of formation of H2CO3 from CO2 and H2O is slow, so is enhanced by the enzyme, carbonic anhydrase, found in red blood cells (RBC) -CO2 is expired by the lungs at varying rates (respiration) -levels of HCO3- can be adjusted by the kidney via excretion CO2Production: -normally balanced by CO2 expired from the lungs However, certain medical conditions can throw the equation out of balance... Respiratory Acidosi Continue reading >>

Difference Between Acidosis And Alkalosis

Difference Between Acidosis And Alkalosis

Home Science Chemistry Biochemistry Difference Between Acidosis and Alkalosis Difference Between Acidosis and Alkalosis The terms acidosis and alkalosis describe the abnormal condition of blood having either a higher or a lower pH than the required value. These conditions may occur due to several reasons, but most often this is caused by a disease. Acidosis indicates a lower pH than the normal pH of the blood. Alkalosis is the opposite of acidosis. It indicates a higher pH in the blood than the normal pH. The main difference between acidosis and alkalosis is that acidosis is the condition of having a lower pH than 7.35 in the blood whereas alkalosis is the condition of having a higher pH than 7.45 in blood. Key Terms: Acidosis, Alkalosis, Metabolic Acidosis, Metabolic Alkalosis, Respiratory Acidosis, Respiratory Alkalosis Acidosis is the condition of having a lower pH than the usual value in blood. If a persons blood has a pH value lower than 7.35, that person has academia, the disease caused by acidosis. Acidosis indicates a lower pH and an increased acidic nature in blood. In mammals, the normal blood pH range is given as 7.35 7.50. The build-up of acids in the blood causes the blood pH to be shifted into a lower level. The addition of acids into the bloodstream may occur in two major ways: from the digestive system and from the respiratory system. Acidosis that occurs due to the influences from digestive system is called metabolic acidosis. This is a result of consumption of highly acidic food and beverages. Excessive production of acids or reduced filtration of acids through kidneys results in acidosis. Acidosis that occurs due to the influences from respiratory system is called respiratory acidosis. The malfunctioning of the respiratory system causes respiratory a Continue reading >>

Alkalosis

Alkalosis

The kidneys and lungs maintain the proper balance (proper pH level) of chemicals called acids and bases in the body. Decreased carbon dioxide (an acid) level or increased bicarbonate (a base) level makes the body too alkaline, a condition called alkalosis. There are different types of alkalosis. These are described below. Respiratory alkalosis is caused by a low carbon dioxide level in the blood. This can be due to: Fever Being at a high altitude Lack of oxygen Liver disease Metabolic alkalosis is caused by too much bicarbonate in the blood. It can also occur due to certain kidney diseases. Hypochloremic alkalosis is caused by an extreme lack or loss of chloride, such as from prolonged vomiting. Hypokalemic alkalosis is caused by the kidneys' response to an extreme lack or loss of potassium. This can occur from taking certain water pills (diuretics). Compensated alkalosis occurs when the body returns the acid-base balance to normal in cases of alkalosis, but bicarbonate and carbon dioxide levels remain abnormal. Continue reading >>

Metabolic Vs. Respiratory Acidosis

Metabolic Vs. Respiratory Acidosis

Watch short & fun videos Start Your Free Trial Today Log in or sign up to add this lesson to a Custom Course. Custom Courses are courses that you create from Study.com lessons. Use them just like other courses to track progress, access quizzes and exams, and share content. Organize and share selected lessons with your class. Make planning easier by creating your own custom course. Create a new course from any lesson page or your dashboard. Click "Add to" located below the video player and follow the prompts to name your course and save your lesson. Click on the "Custom Courses" tab, then click "Create course". Next, go to any lesson page and begin adding lessons. Edit your Custom Course directly from your dashboard. Name your Custom Course and add an optional description or learning objective. Create chapters to group lesson within your course. Remove and reorder chapters and lessons at any time. Share your Custom Course or assign lessons and chapters. Share or assign lessons and chapters by clicking the "Teacher" tab on the lesson or chapter page you want to assign. Students' quiz scores and video views will be trackable in your "Teacher" tab. You can share your Custom Course by copying and pasting the course URL. Only Study.com members will be able to access the entire course. We are going to learn about the two different types of acidosis and how they develop. This lesson will explain the differences and similarities that exist between the symptoms and treatments. What comes to mind when you think about acid? You might think about foods that contain acid, such as citrus fruit, or you may think about the battery in your car that contains acid. What probably didn't come to mind is your blood. Our blood is nowhere near as acidic as battery acid or citrus fruit, but the Continue reading >>

Difference Between Alkalosis And Acidosis

Difference Between Alkalosis And Acidosis

Home / Science & Nature / Science / Chemistry / Difference Between Alkalosis and Acidosis Difference Between Alkalosis and Acidosis Normal human blood pH is maintained at about 7.4. This is the pH where most of the enzymes show their optimum activity. Also, this is the pH where most of other biological molecules show their maximum functionalities. So it is important to maintain the blood pH at this level. Our bodies have special mechanisms to regulate pH at his level (between 7.35 and 7.45). Alkalosis and acidosis are two abnormal conditions where blood pH varies from the normal value. When the pH is higher than 7.45, blood will be more alkaline. In contrast when the pH is below 7.35, blood will be more acidic. If these values vary largely from the normal level (for example pH 4 or pH 10), it is a very extreme condition. There are many mechanisms in our bodies to regulate the pH level. Kidneys, lungs are the main organs participating in these mechanisms. Any disease that affects the mechanisms of respiration or excretion can cause alkalosis and acidosis. Alkalosis is the condition of having a blood pH more than 7.45 due to excess alkali in blood. Ideally, this is referred to the blood in arteries. Alkalosis can occur due to several reasons. One reason is due to hyperventilation. This can cause loss of carbon dioxide, which needs to maintain proper acidity. Metabolic alkalosis results due to disturbances in the electrolyte content of the body. This can be because of prolonged vomiting, extreme dehydration conditions, etc. Further, when high amounts of basic compounds are consumed, alkalosis can occur. Acidosis refers to the condition of having a pH lower than 7.35 in blood. As by-products of metabolism in cells, large quantities of acidic compounds are produced. Carbon Continue reading >>

Respiratory Vs Metabolic Acidosis/alkalosis

Respiratory Vs Metabolic Acidosis/alkalosis

Respiratory vs metabolic acidosis/alkalosis For discussing the functions of different structures of all organisms. Moderators: honeev, Leonid, amiradm, BioTeam Post by shorty7805 Wed Apr 13, 2011 10:24 am Just wondering if anyone can help me with understanding respiratory and metabolic acidosis/alkalosis. I understand the acidosis/alkalisos part, just not how to determine whether it is respiratory or metabolic. The types of questions I have been asked in quiz's are: Blood analysis indicates a low pH, and the patient is breathing rapidly. which of the following is most likely? respiratory acidosis, metabolic acidosis, metabolic alkalosis or respiratory alkalosis (answer, metabolic acidosis) A patient is breathing slowly and blood pH analysis indicates an abnormally high value. What is the likely diagnosis? respiratory acidosis, metabolic acidosis, metabolic alkalosis or respiratory alkalosis (answer, metabolic alkalosis) Post by CarlosG Thu Jul 28, 2011 5:03 am This is an old question, but I will answer it for the sake of people doing searches. Respiratory acidosis/alkalosis is normally a result of a deviation from normal rates of CO2 exchange; that is to say, the body is not keeping up with the demand, or exceeding it. The two textbook causes are hypoventilation (acidosis), and hyperventilation (alkalosis). As a result of aerobic respiration, your body produces CO2, which when mixed with water, creates H2CO3, which disassociates into HCO3- and H+, a reversible reaction When you are not exchanging enough CO2 (hypoventilation), you increase CO2 concentration. This will lower the pH because of the above mechanism. If you are exchanging too much CO2(hyperventilation), you are driving the equilibrium to the left via Le Chatelier's (sp?) principle and increasing the pH. What Continue reading >>

Alkalosis

Alkalosis

Your blood is made up of acids and bases. The amount of acids and bases in your blood can be measured on a pH scale. It’s important to maintain the correct balance between acids and bases. Even a slight change can cause health problems. Normally, your blood should have a slightly higher amount of bases than acids. Alkalosis occurs when your body has too many bases. It can occur due to decreased blood levels of carbon dioxide, which is an acid. It can also occur due to increased blood levels of bicarbonate, which is a base. This condition may also be related to other underlying health issues such as low potassium, or hypokalemia. The earlier it’s detected and treated, the better the outcome is. Acid-base balance » There are five main types of alkalosis. Respiratory alkalosis Respiratory alkalosis occurs when there isn’t enough carbon dioxide in your bloodstream. It’s often caused by: hyperventilation, which commonly occurs with anxiety high fever lack of oxygen salicylate poisoning being in high altitudes Metabolic alkalosis Metabolic alkalosis develops when your body loses too much acid or gains too much base. This can be attributed to: excess vomiting, which causes electrolyte loss overuse of diuretics a large loss of potassium or sodium in a short amount of time antacids accidental ingestion of bicarbonate, which can be found in baking soda laxatives alcohol abuse Hypochloremic alkalosis Hypochloremic alkalosis occurs when there’s a significant decline of chloride in your body. This can be due to prolonged vomiting or sweating. Chloride is an important chemical needed to maintain balance in bodily fluids, and it’s an essential part of your body’s digestive fluids. Hypokalemic alkalosis Hypokalemic alkalosis occurs when your body lacks the normal amount Continue reading >>

Simple Method Of Acid Base Balance Interpretation

Simple Method Of Acid Base Balance Interpretation

A FOUR STEP METHOD FOR INTERPRETATION OF ABGS Usefulness This method is simple, easy and can be used for the majority of ABGs. It only addresses acid-base balance and considers just 3 values. pH, PaCO2 HCO3- Step 1. Use pH to determine Acidosis or Alkalosis. ph < 7.35 7.35-7.45 > 7.45 Acidosis Normal or Compensated Alkalosis Step 2. Use PaCO2 to determine respiratory effect. PaCO2 < 35 35 -45 > 45 Tends toward alkalosis Causes high pH Neutralizes low pH Normal or Compensated Tends toward acidosis Causes low pH Neutralizes high pH Step 3. Assume metabolic cause when respiratory is ruled out. You'll be right most of the time if you remember this simple table: High pH Low pH Alkalosis Acidosis High PaCO2 Low PaCO2 High PaCO2 Low PaCO2 Metabolic Respiratory Respiratory Metabolic If PaCO2 is abnormal and pH is normal, it indicates compensation. pH > 7.4 would be a compensated alkalosis. pH < 7.4 would be a compensated acidosis. These steps will make more sense if we apply them to actual ABG values. Click here to interpret some ABG values using these steps. You may want to refer back to these steps (click on "linked" steps or use "BACK" button on your browser) or print out this page for reference. Step 4. Use HC03 to verify metabolic effect Normal HCO3- is 22-26 Please note: Remember, the first three steps apply to the majority of cases, but do not take into account: the possibility of complete compensation, but those cases are usually less serious, and instances of combined respiratory and metabolic imbalance, but those cases are pretty rare. "Combined" disturbance means HCO3- alters the pH in the same direction as the PaCO2. High PaCO2 and low HCO3- (acidosis) or Low PaCO2 and high HCO3- (alkalosis). Continue reading >>

Interpretation Of Arterial Blood Gas

Interpretation Of Arterial Blood Gas

Go to: Introduction Arterial blood gas (ABG) analysis is an essential part of diagnosing and managing a patient’s oxygenation status and acid–base balance. The usefulness of this diagnostic tool is dependent on being able to correctly interpret the results. Disorders of acid–base balance can create complications in many disease states, and occasionally the abnormality may be so severe so as to become a life-threatening risk factor. A thorough understanding of acid–base balance is mandatory for any physician, and intensivist, and the anesthesiologist is no exception. The three widely used approaches to acid–base physiology are the HCO3- (in the context of pCO2), standard base excess (SBE), and strong ion difference (SID). It has been more than 20 years since the Stewart’s concept of SID was introduced, which is defined as the absolute difference between completely dissociated anions and cations. According to the principle of electrical neutrality, this difference is balanced by the weak acids and CO2. The SID is defined in terms of weak acids and CO2 subsequently has been re-designated as effective SID (SIDe) which is identical to “buffer base.” Similarly, Stewart’s original term for total weak acid concentration (ATOT) is now defined as the dissociated (A-) plus undissociated (AH) weak acid forms. This is familiarly known as anion gap (AG), when normal concentration is actually caused by A-. Thus all the three methods yield virtually identical results when they are used to quantify acid–base status of a given blood sample.[1] Continue reading >>

What Is The Difference Between Alkalosis And Acidosis?

What Is The Difference Between Alkalosis And Acidosis?

What Is the Difference between Alkalosis and Acidosis? The primary difference between alkalosis and acidosis is that alkalosis places blood pH above normal, while acidosis places blood pH below normal. The levels of bicarbonate (HCO3) and carbon dioxide (CO2) vary as well, being influenced by whether the acidosis or alkalosis is respiratory or metabolic in nature. Metabolic alkalosis and acidosis connects to diseases or conditions impacting HCO3, while respiratory alkalosis and acidosis connect to diseases or conditions impacting CO2. When people talk about pH or potential of hydrogen, they are talking about how acidic or alkaline a substance is. Blood normally has a very narrow pH range, which goes from 7.35 to 7.45. This is just above neutral, or a pH of 7. This range is optimal for metabolic processes and proper oxygen delivery, so anything outside of the normal range can result in health impairments. Alkalosis means that a person's blood pH has exceeded the upper range limit of 7.45, while acidosis means that a person's blood pH has fallen below the lower range limit of 7.35. Blood pH is connected to the lungs and kidneys to a high degree, because these organs are responsible for disposing of CO2 and HCO3 or acid, respectively. The pH level with respiratory acidosis is low, but levels of CO2 and HCO3 are high. Respiratory alkalosis gives the exact opposite results, having a high pH with low C02 and HCO3. When acidosis is metabolic, pH, CO2 and HCO3 are low, but when alkalosis is metabolic, pH, CO2 and HCO3 are all high. Looking only at respiratory alkalosis and acidosis, the causes are not the same. Respiratory alkalosis may stem from issues such as hyperventilation, fever, exercise, liver failure, or central nervous system problems. Acidosis that is respiratory in Continue reading >>

Acidosis Vs. Alkalosis

Acidosis Vs. Alkalosis

In this lesson, we're going to learn about acidosis and alkalosis. We'll take a look at the causes, signs, and symptoms that are associated with each condition. Balanced Blood We are constantly having to find balance in our lives. From balancing work and play time to saving and spending money, sleep and awake time. Well, ideally at least. We do this because we know that we function best when we're balanced. There are many similar balances that are going on inside of our bodies. An important balance that must be maintained to allow us to function properly is the balance between acids and bases in our bodies. When these are balanced, the acids pair up with the bases, and our blood is close to neutral. If too much acid is in the blood, then we experience acidosis. If too much base is in the blood, we experience alkalosis. Acidosis and alkalosis are caused by different conditions in our bodies, and they can cause different problems to occur. Acidosis Acidosis results from the build-up of acids in the blood or from the loss of base in the blood. Acids are put into our bloodstream through two systems in the body: the digestive system and the respiratory system. Acidosis that occurs from the digestive system is referred to as metabolic acidosis. In this instance, acids accumulate in the blood due to consumption of acidic foods or foods that are broken down into acids, excess acids being produced during metabolism, kidneys not properly removing acid from the bloodstream during filtration, or production of acid by the body due to other medical conditions, such as diabetes. The other possible way to develop acidosis is by the malfunctioning of the respiratory system, which we refer to as respiratory acidosis. This can happen if breathing is extremely slow or shallow, the lungs do Continue reading >>

Acidosis

Acidosis

For acidosis referring to acidity of the urine, see renal tubular acidosis. "Acidemia" redirects here. It is not to be confused with Academia. Acidosis is a process causing increased acidity in the blood and other body tissues (i.e., an increased hydrogen ion concentration). If not further qualified, it usually refers to acidity of the blood plasma. The term acidemia describes the state of low blood pH, while acidosis is used to describe the processes leading to these states. Nevertheless, the terms are sometimes used interchangeably. The distinction may be relevant where a patient has factors causing both acidosis and alkalosis, wherein the relative severity of both determines whether the result is a high, low, or normal pH. Acidosis is said to occur when arterial pH falls below 7.35 (except in the fetus – see below), while its counterpart (alkalosis) occurs at a pH over 7.45. Arterial blood gas analysis and other tests are required to separate the main causes. The rate of cellular metabolic activity affects and, at the same time, is affected by the pH of the body fluids. In mammals, the normal pH of arterial blood lies between 7.35 and 7.50 depending on the species (e.g., healthy human-arterial blood pH varies between 7.35 and 7.45). Blood pH values compatible with life in mammals are limited to a pH range between 6.8 and 7.8. Changes in the pH of arterial blood (and therefore the extracellular fluid) outside this range result in irreversible cell damage.[1] Signs and symptoms[edit] General symptoms of acidosis.[2] These usually accompany symptoms of another primary defect (respiratory or metabolic). Nervous system involvement may be seen with acidosis and occurs more often with respiratory acidosis than with metabolic acidosis. Signs and symptoms that may be seen i Continue reading >>

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