Describe How The Kidneys Respond To Respiratory Acidosis

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Fluid/electrolyte Balance

Content Body Fluids Compartments Composition of Body Fluids Electrolyte Composition of Body Fluids Extracellular and Intracellular Fluids Fluid Movement Among Compartments Fluid Shifts Regulation of Fluids And Electrolytes Water Balance and ECF Osmolality Water Output Regulation of Water Intake Regulation of Water Output Primary Regulatory Hormones Disorders of Water Balance Electrolyte Balance Sodium in Fluid and Electrolyte Balance Sodium balance Regulation of Sodium Balance: Aldosterone Atrial Natriuretic Hormone (ANH) Potassium Balance Regulation of Potassium Balance Regulation of Calcium Regulation of Anions Acid-Base Balance Sources of Hydrogen Ions Hydrogen Ion Regulation Chemical Buffer Systems -- 1. Bicarbonate Buffer System - -2. Phosphate Buffer System -- 3. Protein Buffer System Physiological Buffer Systems Renal Mechanisms of Acid-Base Balance Reabsorption of Bicarbonate Generating New Bicarbonate Ions Hydrogen Ion Excretion Ammonium Ion Excretion Bicarbonate Ion Secretion Respiratory Acidosis and Alkalosis Respiratory Acid-Base Regulation Metabolic pH Imbalance Respiratory/Renal Compensation/Metabolic Acidosis Metabolic Alkalosis Fluid Balance- The amount of water gai Continue reading >>

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  1. testudoaubreii

    Oh man this is great info. I went full keto a few years ago, but have long since lost sight of the wagon I fell off of since then. My wife and I are ... considering (dithering/procrastinating/enjoying ice cream) it again now.
    Anyway, I never got past a vague light purple before, and wondered if I was somehow doing it wrong. This is really good info. Thanks!


    I'd say that if you get any change at all in color, you're in ketosis . If it goes very dark, it more then likely speaks to your level of hydration ( Lack thereof ).

  3. xpnerd

    I concur - I have never seen dark purple but I'm drinking 3 to 4 litres a day. It's always a light purple and I'm doing just fine. I use them maybe once every few weeks just to see. I certainly do not use them every day and I got solid advice from the beginning not to as it affects the mental state of weight loss. Stick to your macros and Keto On. The rest will take care of itself.

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Regulation Of Acid-base Balance

There is precise regulation or maintenance of ‘free H+ ions’ in body fluids. Balance is Achieved by Three Defense Mechanisms:- • First defense: Chemical buffering • 2nd defense: Respiratory (alteration in arterial CO2) • 3rd defense: Renal (alteration in HCO-3 excretion) Acid Base Regulation/Balance 1. Chemical Buffer system: – Responds within seconds – Does not eliminate or add H+ from body – Operates by binding or to tied up H+ till balance is reestablished. a. In ECF: – Mainly HCO-3/CO2 Buffer system – Plasma Proteins – HPO–4/H2PO-4 Buffer system b. In ICF: – Proteins Mainly e.g.: Hb in RBCs – HPO–4/H2PO-4 Buffer system Routes of excretion of acids; lungs & kidneys 2. Respiratory Mechanisms: – Responds within minutes – Takes 6-12 hours to be fully effective – Operates by excreting CO2 or (adding H2CO3/HCO-3) 3. Renal Mechanisms: • Responds slowly (effectively in 3-5 days) • Eliminates excess Acids or Base from body • The most powerful mechanism e.g. i. HCO-3/CO2 Buffer system ii. NH3/NH+4 Buffer system iii. HPO–4/H2PO-4 Buffer system Chemical Buffer System • Consists of a ‘pair of substances’ present in a mixture of a solution th Continue reading >>

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  1. Punkin

    Hi, I've been pretty good at sticking to the plan for about two months but I want to start experimenting a bit more with my diet. I was wondering if people could just give me some examples of things that knock them out of ketosis. It doesn't matter what it is, I just need of rough idea of what kinds of things might do it.

  2. Knittering

    Too many carbs at once. That's pretty much it, since I don't eat bars, noodles, etc. with magic carb math.

  3. raindroproses

    Ugh, Atkins bars and shakes! Just one of them messed me up each time I had one and I was out of it for days. Other than that, yeah... too many carbs at once, or too many in a day in general. For me that amounts to usually not allowing more than 20 TOTAL per day. Normally my count is kept closer to 10. That means even if I have a little snack that has fruit in it, I'm running the risk of being kicked out of ketosis. Lousy, since I enjoy fruit. But I'm hoping once I'm in maintenance fruit will be able to be a "sometimes" moderate snack food

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9: Regulation Of Acid–base Balance

▸ State the Henderson-Hasselbalch equation for the carbon dioxide-bicarbonate buffer system. ▸ State the major sources for the input of fixed acids and bases into the body, including metabolic processes and activities of the gastrointestinal tract. ▸ Describe how the input of fixed acids and bases affects body levels of bicarbonate. ▸ Explain why body levels of carbon dioxide are usually not altered by the input of fixed acids and bases. ▸ Explain why some low-pH fluids alkalinize the blood after they are metabolized. ▸ Describe the reabsorption of filtered bicarbonate by the proximal tubule. ▸ Describe how bicarbonate is excreted in response to an alkaline load. ▸ Describe how excretion of acid and generation of new bicarbonate are linked. ▸ Describe how the titration of filtered bases is a means of excreting acid. ▸ Describe how the conversion of glutamine to ammonium and subsequent excretion of ammonium accomplishes the goal of excreting acid. ▸ Describe how the kidneys handle ammonium that has been secreted in the proximal tubule. ▸ State how total acid excretion is related to titratable acidity and ammonium excretion. ▸ Define the 4 categories of prim Continue reading >>

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  1. QuirkyPixy

    I've been eating almost fully primal since the beginning of August to try to correct some health issues. Before I started my period was completely regular, a 28 day cycle with very little variation each month. My period came normally at the end of August, but my September period came 11 days late in the beginning of October, and my November period hasn't come yet. I also got cystic jawline acne right before the late period, and I don't usually get cysts.
    Is this normal? I thought eating primally is supposed to make hormones more regular, but it seems to be doing something weird to mine. My weight hasn't really changed, so I don't think that is the cause. I'm not pregnant, either.
    I eat eggs, ground beef, lamb chops and neck, chicken, canned salmon and sardines, Kerrygold butter, chard, kale, collards, broccoli, cauliflower, carrots, coconut milk and oil, shredded coconut, some baker's chocolate, and berries. I will rarely have a few small Yukon golds or some white rice. Not much else. All of it is organic/free range/grass-fed/whatever. I supplement with 5000 IU of Vit. D, 30mg of zinc, 100 mcg of Selenium, and 400 mg of Magnesium.
    Am I doing something wrong here, or am I being paranoid?

  2. NDF

    A high fat low carb diet can wreck hormonal havoc in some women. Chronic low carb(<100g/day) states can be particularly stressful for some women's bodies.
    What is your exercise like? Even though you state that your weight hasn't really changed, your post doesn't specify, but are you eating with weight loss as a goal? In some women, the "stress" alone of dieting thoughts can alter menstruation.
    Any increased stress in your life?

  3. QuirkyPixy

    Originally posted by NDF
    A high fat low carb diet can wreck hormonal havoc in some women. Chronic low carb(<100g/day) states can be particularly stressful for some women's bodies.
    What is your exercise like? Even though you state that your weight hasn't really changed, your post doesn't specify, but are you eating with weight loss as a goal? In some women, the "stress" alone of dieting thoughts can alter menstruation.
    Any increased stress in your life? Thank you for your reply!
    I get maybe 20g of carbs from berries and probably another 20-30g from veggies per day. I don't intentionally limit them, that's just how it works out; I'm not sure how I could get more carbs in my belly without eating more potatoes and rice, as the veggies fill me up far too quickly. I'm only 94 lbs at 5'1", so weight GAIN is my goal right now. Why does low carb mess with hormones?
    My exercise is a lot of walking; I take public transportation and walk lots to get to bus stops. I also work a fairly active job part time where I'm on my feet all day and lift heavy things at least a few times each shift. Stress is very slightly more than normal, but that hasn't had any real effect on my cycle before. This is puzzling.

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