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Describe How The Kidneys Respond To Respiratory Acidosis

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Dr. Rasha Kelej, Chief Executive Officer, CEO Merck Foundation welcome speech at Merck Africa Luminary which aims to Raise Quality of Healthcare in Africa. More than 200 African healthcare providers from more than 20 African countries attend Merck Africa Luminary to benefit from several medical education sessions NAIROBI, Kenya, November 16, 2015/APO (African Press Organization)/ -- More than 200 African healthcare providers from more than 20 African countries attend Merck Africa Luminary to benefit from several medical education sessions Merck celebrates 80 year Seven Seas anniversary Merck announces the start of Merck Africa Diabetes Days with the aim to provide 300,000 people with free diabetes screening and education in 2016 Merck (MerckGroup.com), a leading science and technology company, today kicked off its second Merck Africa Luminary for the first time in Kenya. During the inauguration of this years Merck Africa Luminary, Karl Ludwig Kley, Chairman of Executive Board and CEO of Merck emphasized, We are pleased to engage with Kenya Ministry of Health and Government of Nairobi to improve access to better healthcare as part of our commitment to the social and economic development in the country. We will continue working closely with African governments, healthcare stakeholders and academia to improve the quality of healthcare across the continent. Merck has brought more than 200 African healthcare providers from more than 20 African countries to benefit from medical and scientific education and discussion on topics like healthcare capacity building and access to high quality, innovative and sustainable healthcare solutions. At the end of the Luminarys inauguration session, Merck celebrated the 80 year anniversary of its Seven Seas brand with participants. Seven Seas has 80 years of heritage in perfecting marine oil supplements and providing people with life-long wellbeing through its extensive selection of healthy supplements and oils. During the Merck Africa Luminary, Merck announced a pan African campaign Merck Africa Diabetes Days dubbed Every Day is a Diabetes Day to encourage people to think about diabetes every day. As part of this campaign, in 2016 Merck plans to provide 300,000 people in Africa with free screening and education about diabetes. The campaign will be kicked off first in Kenya in partnership with Diabetes Management Information Centre, Ministry of Health and the County Government of Nairobi and will extend to more African countries in the future. Merck Africa Luminary is an annual forum where African healthcare providers meet to discuss and develop different strategies and programs to improve access to innovative and equitable healthcare solutions across the continent. The first Merck Africa Luminary was held in Darmstadt, Germany in 2014 Merck has delivered healthcare services in Africa since 1897. With a population rising faster than in any other global market and a growing middle class, the company is increasingly tapping into the continents innovative spirit to create health awareness and help respond to unmet medical needs. The Groups Executive Board is visiting 10 African countries this week to underscore its commitment and rising importance of the continent. Among others, Merck seeks to start local production diabetes treatment Glucophage in Algeria, inaugurate an office in Nigeria and start the sale of its Muse Auto CD4/CD4% System to detect HIV.

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Acidosis is caused by an overproduction of acid in the blood or an excessive loss of bicarbonate from the blood (metabolic acidosis) or by a buildup of carbon dioxide in the blood that results from poor lung function or depressed breathing (respiratory acidosis). If an increase in acid overwhelms the body's acid-base control systems, the blood will become acidic. As blood pH drops (becomes more acidic), the parts of the brain that regulate breathing are stimulated to produce faster and deeper breathing (respiratory compensation). Breathing faster and deeper increases the amount of carbon dioxide exhaled. The kidneys also try to compensate by excreting more acid in the urine. However, both mechanisms can be overwhelmed if the body continues to produce too much acid, leading to severe acidosis and eventually heart problems and coma. The acidity or alkalinity of any solution, including blood, is indicated on the pH scale. Metabolic acidosis develops when the amount of acid in the body is increased through ingestion of a substance that is, or can be broken down (metabolized) to, an acid—such as wood alcohol (methanol), antifreeze (ethylene glycol), or large doses of aspirin (acetylsa Continue reading >>

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  1. llabonte

    I was wondering if someone could answer a question for me. I am on week six or seven of Atkins (and loving it) and this is the second period I have had while on Atkins and once again I noticed I have dropped way down on the test strip. Yesterday, the first day of my period the test strip said I was in Large ketosis. This morning it is down to a "trace". I noticed the same thing last month. Is this normal or has anyone else noticed anything different during menstruation? (Sorry guys, don't mean to gross you out....!) I did have browned hamburger with diced tomatoes with chili powder (my version of chili on Atkins) and I had some sour cream and a mozerella stick also. Could that have anything to do with it? I wouldn't think so because the tomatoes were 5 carbs per 1/2 cup and I don't think I had anymore than the 1/2 cup and the chili powder had no sugar added. I know a womans body does strange things but I was just curious. I don't swear by the test strips but I like to watch myself.

  2. beginagain

    I believe your period can through off those ketosis test strips and that it's best to wait till after you period is done to test again. I had read this not too long ago on this healthboard I post on.

  3. amazin77

    I've been on atkins for quite awhile and love it so much. I defend it all the time. I tell people it's not all about fat. I chose my quality cuts of meat and fish with a nice salad etc. I make my own chicken strips dipped in mayonaise and roll in my ground almonds or flour when my sister brings to me.
    But to get to your TOM: I've found that it's true us woman's body chemicals change constantly during the day. I love like you using the ketostix frequently during the day, at least twice because I know my body well. During my period I've found it to be lighter in the morning when I've had no food yet, but when I get going and had some breakfast I check again before lunch. And I right there Large amount of Keto. I just put that big smile on in the bathroom and feel it mostly in my clothing. Some people don't like using it because when its lightly colored it does a trick to your mind. But understanding my body during the day I know I've been eating right guaranteed. When I check myself more than twice a day, is when I eat out at a fancy restaurant and a waiter tells me this is a good choice for atkins. Believe me, don't always believe the waiter, because immediatly I knew he was wrong with my plate choice, it had SUGAR. He appoligized, but there was nothing on the menu for me to eat, so I just enjoyed my hot tea....It really will be easier the longer your on it to understand what I'm saying about knowing this way of life and your own body. Ketositx aren't cheap, but you know I got myself fat and I really feel I deserve the extra to make me feel good and see the results on the test strip..... I'm sure you know what I mean. I hope I made you feel good.
    Amazin77

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Fluid/electrolyte Balance

Content Body Fluids Compartments Composition of Body Fluids Electrolyte Composition of Body Fluids Extracellular and Intracellular Fluids Fluid Movement Among Compartments Fluid Shifts Regulation of Fluids And Electrolytes Water Balance and ECF Osmolality Water Output Regulation of Water Intake Regulation of Water Output Primary Regulatory Hormones Disorders of Water Balance Electrolyte Balance Sodium in Fluid and Electrolyte Balance Sodium balance Regulation of Sodium Balance: Aldosterone Atrial Natriuretic Hormone (ANH) Potassium Balance Regulation of Potassium Balance Regulation of Calcium Regulation of Anions Acid-Base Balance Sources of Hydrogen Ions Hydrogen Ion Regulation Chemical Buffer Systems -- 1. Bicarbonate Buffer System - -2. Phosphate Buffer System -- 3. Protein Buffer System Physiological Buffer Systems Renal Mechanisms of Acid-Base Balance Reabsorption of Bicarbonate Generating New Bicarbonate Ions Hydrogen Ion Excretion Ammonium Ion Excretion Bicarbonate Ion Secretion Respiratory Acidosis and Alkalosis Respiratory Acid-Base Regulation Metabolic pH Imbalance Respiratory/Renal Compensation/Metabolic Acidosis Metabolic Alkalosis Fluid Balance- The amount of water gai Continue reading >>

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  1. wlsuser9

    I do a lot of reading about low carb/kenogenic diets, and typically I see people are in ketosis and losing weight between 20-60 net grams of carbs a day. I began my "low carb" (not low enough for some people) with a goal of <100 net grams a day, and I've lost about 2 lbs a week. My current calorie goal is 1200 because that's just what was recommended when I first joined myfitnesspal, and I really eat between 1100-1800 net calories, depending on my exercise and how many low carb snacks I decide to eat. I used ketostrips when I first started my diet, I had small to trace amounts detected and I was losing weight. I haven't used a test strip in a few weeks, but I've been keeping my carbs consistently lower than when I first started, anyway. I am on the cross country team at my college, so exercise is a necessity for me. I used to just eat whatever I wanted around 1200 calories a day, and would lose weight, but I couldn't stick to it and never got results like I have been eating a reduced carb amount.
    To anyone else who eats reduced carbs and exercises around 40 min a day 6 days a week, how many carbs do you eat to lose weight? Heck, even if you don't exercise, please let me know.
    I am probably going to buy more test strips to make sure I'm doing it right, but sometimes I think I might be eating too many carbs, and I just lose weight because of the amount of calories I eat. I just don't know! I hope to find somebody who can eat as many carbs as I do and still be burning fat!

  2. Carnivor0us

    I don't work out everyday, and when I do, it's just vigorous walking. I aim for as close to zero as possible, with no more than 75g in any one day. It's almost always way less than that. Also, a ketogenic diet isn't just low carb, it's also high-fat. If you can do at least 50% of calories from fat, that would help out any ketosis.
    On a personal note, I'd encourage you to not get too caught up focusing on the strips. I was like that for a long time and it frustrated me more than it helped (although it did help a bit).

  3. albertabeefy

    As a diabetic who controls my glucose with diet, I eat a ketogenic diet of 65-70% of my calories from fat, 25-30% from protein and a maximum 5% from carbohydrate. I will occasionally have more carbohydrate on days where I'm doing considerable exercise - such as a 100km bike ride, a 5 hour mountain hike, etc.
    I ONLY have more carbohydrate IF I'm burning it while exercising. IE: I'll eat it within 30-45 minutes prior to exercise.
    To GET ketogenic I did 2 weeks of 20-30g a day. That, combined with exercise, got me into ketosis in a few days, actually. I slowly added more carbohydrate into my diet - but found 5% on normal days was my threshold for good glycemic control. (On high-exercise days I can eat up to 10% with no issues.)
    The amount (in grams) of carb you have that keeps you in ketosis will obviously vary depending on your caloric intake.
    I normally eat up to 3,000 calories a day - as such 40g daily is about 5%. On a 5,000+ calorie day (not uncommon for me when doing endurance exercise) I may eat 120g or more...
    My daughter recently started a ketogenic diet for weight-loss. She doesn't really count calories, just eats reasonably, and keeps her carbohydrate intake about 20g a day. She lost 20lbs in the first 3 weeks.

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Blood Gas Analysis--insight Into The Acid-base Status Of The Patient

Acid-Base Physiology Buffers H+ A- HCO3- CO2 Buffers H+ A- CO2 Cells Blood Kidney Lungs Fluids, Electrolytes, and Acid-Base Status in Critical Illness Blood Gas Analysis--Insight into the Acid-Base status of the Patient The blood gas consists of pH-negative log of the Hydrogen ion concentration: -log[H+]. (also, pH=pK+log [HCO3]/ 0.03 x pCO2). The pH is always a product of two components, respiratory and metabolic, and the metabolic component is judged, calculated, or computed by allowing for the effect of the pCO2, ie, any change in the pH unexplained by the pCO2 indicates a metabolic abnormality. CO +H 0ºº H CO ººHCO + H2 2 2 3 3 - + CO2 and water form carbonic acid or H2CO3, which is in equilibrium with bicarbonate (HCO3-)and hydrogen ions (H+). A change in the concentration of the reactants on either side of the equation affects the subsequent direction of the reaction. For example, an increase in CO2 will result in increased carbonic acid formation (H2CO3) which leads to an increase in both HCO3- and H+ (\pH). Normally, at pH 7.4, a ratio of one part carbonic acid to twenty parts bicarbonate is present in the extracellular fluid [HCO3-/H2CO3]=20. A change in the ra Continue reading >>

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  1. kaazoom

    I recently had my Hba1c tests and it was over 9 . The doctor increased my metformin from 1 tablet twice a day to 2 tablets twice a day. I was told to start by increasing the morning dose and after 2 weeks increase my evening dose. I have had a lot of stomach discomfort, and terrible indigestion since increasing the does. I work up the other morning in extreme pain like I was having a heart attack. The pain went after taking antacids. Indigestion is something I get every now and then, but it is usually due to eating something I should avoid. This day I don't think I had eaten anything that would cause it. But I had increased my evening dose of metformin, so I was and am on 4 tablets a day. I have had more general discomfort than usual, muscle pains and more breathlessness.The difficult is I have other health problems so knowing which one is caused by which is a nightmare.
    I also tend to let myself get dehydrated at night as I have bladder problems which I having investigations for at the moment. If I don't stop drinking about at about 7pm I end up waking numerous times to go to the loo. The only drink I have after 7pm is a few sips of water to help swallow my medications.
    Sorry for being so long winded. My main question is does lactic acidosis come on suddenly, or does it build up over days or weeks?
    Paul

  2. destiny0321

    Hi. If you find your metformin could be causing problems which it did with me runs,breathing problems and generally really poorly go back to your gp I did and I was put on me form in slow release which is much gentler on the stomach hope this helps you destiny
    Sent from the Diabetes Forum App

  3. kaazoom

    Thanks.
    I've got to see my GP next week about something else so I will talk to him about it. I don't think I have lactic acidosis, I was curious about whether it was sudden or gradual onset. I saw something on the TV yesterday that said patients are risking their health because they don't read the information sheets that come with their medication. So I had a look at mine. It gave a number of symptoms to watch out for including severe indigestion,muscle spasms etc it said if you have any of these symptoms when taking Metformin to go immediately to the nearest hospital A&E because these symptoms can be signs of lactic acidosis. I don't think what I'm experiencing is severe enough for A&E.
    I had muscle spasms, pains and a number of the other symptoms list prior to my diabetes diagnose due to other illnesses, and they can vary in severity. They seem to have got somewhat worse since my metformin was increased, but it could just be coincidence. The indigestion and stomach problems are particularly bad. My feeling is my body is taking time to adapt to them. i will ask my doctor if I can change to a slow release version.
    Paul

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