What is BASAL METABOLIC RATE? What does BASAL METABOLIC RATE mean? BASAL METABOLIC RATE meaning - BASAL METABOLIC RATE definition - BASAL METABOLIC RATE explanation. Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/... license. Basal metabolic rate (BMR) is the minimal rate of energy expenditure per unit time by endothermic animals at rest. It is reported in energy units per unit time ranging from watt (joule/second) to ml O2/min or joule per hour per kg body mass J/(hkg)). Proper measurement requires a strict set of criteria be met. These criteria include being in a physically and psychologically undisturbed state, in a thermally neutral environment, while in the post-absorptive state (i.e., not actively digesting food). In bradymetabolic animals, such as fish and reptiles, the equivalent term standard metabolic rate (SMR) is used. It follows the same criteria as BMR, but requires the documentation of the temperature at which the metabolic rate was measured. This makes BMR a variant of standard metabolic rate measurement that excludes the temperature data, a practice that has led to problems in defining "standard" rates of metabolism for many mammals. Metabolism comprises the processes that the body needs to function. Basal metabolic rate is the amount of energy expressed in calories that a person needs to keep the body functioning at rest. Some of those processes are breathing, blood circulation, controlling body temperature, cell growth, brain and nerve function, and contraction of muscles. Basal metabolic rate (BMR) affects the rate that a person burns calories and ultimately whether that individual maintains, gains, or loses weight. The basal metabolic rate accounts for about 60 to 75% of the daily calorie expenditure by individuals. It is influenced by several factors. BMR typically declines by 12% per decade after age 20, mostly due to loss of fat-free mass, although the variability between individuals is high. The body's generation of heat is known as thermogenesis and it can be measured to determine the amount of energy expended. BMR generally decreases with age and with the decrease in lean body mass (as may happen with aging). Increasing muscle mass has the effect of increasing BMR. Aerobic (resistance) fitness level, a product of cardiovascular exercise, while previously thought to have effect on BMR, has been shown in the 1990s not to correlate with BMR when adjusted for fat-free body mass. But anaerobic exercise does increase resting energy consumption (see "aerobic vs. anaerobic exercise"). Illness, previously consumed food and beverages, environmental temperature, and stress levels can affect one's overall energy expenditure as well as one's BMR. BMR is measured under very restrictive circumstances when a person is awake. An accurate BMR measurement requires that the person's sympathetic nervous system not be stimulated, a condition which requires complete rest. A more common measurement, which uses less strict criteria, is resting metabolic rate (RMR).
Metabolic acidosis is a condition that occurs when the body produces excessive quantities of acid or when the kidneys are not removing enough acid from the body. If unchecked, metabolic acidosis leads to acidemia, i.e., blood pH is low (less than 7.35) due to increased production of hydrogen ions by the body or the inability of the body to form bicarbonate (HCO3−) in the kidney. Its causes are diverse, and its consequences can be serious, including coma and death. Together with respiratory acidosis, it is one of the two general causes of acidemia. Terminology : Acidosis refers to a process that causes a low pH in blood and tissues. Acidemia refers specifically to a low pH in the blood. In most cases, acidosis occurs first for reasons explained below. Free hydrogen ions then diffuse into the blood, lowering the pH. Arterial blood gas analysis detects acidemia (pH lower than 7.35). When acidemia is present, acidosis is presumed. Signs and symptoms Symptoms are not specific, and diagnosis can be difficult unless the patient presents with clear indications for arterial blood gas sampling. Symptoms may include chest pain, palpitations, headache, altered mental status such as sev
Anion gap usmle - anion gap metabolic acidosis normal anion gap metabolic acidosis
5.6 Metabolic Acidosis - Correction
The most important approach to managing a metabolic acidosis is to treat the underlying disorder. Then with supportive management, the body will correct the acid-base disorder. Accurate analysis & diagnosis is essential to ensure the correct treatment is used. Fortunately, in most cases this is not particularly difficult in principle. Remember though that a patient with a severe metabolic acidosis may be very seriously ill and even with optimal management the patient may not survive. The ECLS Approach to Management of Metabolic Acidosis 1. Emergency: Emergency management of immediately life-threatening conditions always has the highest priority. For example, intubation and ventilation for airway or ventilatory control; cardiopulmonary resuscitation; severe hyperkalaemia 2. Cause: Treat the underlying disorder as the primary therapeutic goal. Consequently, accurate diagnosis of the cause of the metabolic acidosis is very important. In some cases (e.g. methanol toxicity) there may be a substantial delay become the diagnosis can be confirmed so management must be based on suggestive evidence otherwise it will be too late. 3. Losses Replace losses (e.g. of fluids and electrolytes) whe
Inspired by Dr. Myat Soe, MD Internal Medicine Series: Clinical Clerkships Overview and Causes of Non-Anion Gap Metabolic Acidosis Made with help of Blueberry Flashback Recorder
Treatment Of Acute Non-anion Gap Metabolic Acidosis
Treatment of acute non-anion gap metabolic acidosis Medical and Research Services VHAGLA Healthcare System, Division of Nephrology, VHAGLA Healthcare System Correspondence to: Jeffrey A. Kraut; E-mail: [email protected] Search for other works by this author on: Clinical Kidney Journal, Volume 8, Issue 1, 1 February 2015, Pages 9399, Jeffrey A. Kraut, Ira Kurtz; Treatment of acute non-anion gap metabolic acidosis, Clinical Kidney Journal, Volume 8, Issue 1, 1 February 2015, Pages 9399, Acute non-anion gap metabolic acidosis, also termed hyperchloremic acidosis, is frequently detected in seriously ill patients. The most common mechanisms leading to this acidbase disorder include loss of large quantities of base secondary to diarrhea and administration of large quantities of chloride-containing solutions in the treatment of hypovolemia and various shock states. The resultant acidic milieu can cause cellular dysfunction and contribute to poor clinical outcomes. The associated change in the chloride concentration in the distal tubule lumen might also play a role in reducing the glomerular filtration rate. Administration of base is often recommended for the treatment of acute non-anion ga
0.25-0.50 mmol/kg/hour. Continuous IV infusion. Doses needs to be individualised and titrated according to response and to adverse effects (e.g. hypernatraemia) Not recommended for hypercapnia or hypernatraemic states. Caution in infants with renal impairment. Caution in preterm infants. Rapid infusion of hypertonic NaHCO3 has been incriminated in the pathogenesis of intraventricular haemorrhage in preterm infants. Sodium bicarbonate is the alka ...
INTRODUCTION On a typical Western diet, approximately 15,000 mmol of carbon dioxide (which can generate carbonic acid as it combines with water) and 50 to 100 mEq of nonvolatile acid (mostly sulfuric acid derived from the metabolism of sulfur-containing amino acids) are produced each day. Acid-base balance is maintained by pulmonary and renal excretion of carbon dioxide and nonvolatile acid, respectively. Renal excretion of acid involves the comb ...
Abstract The utility of bicarbonate administration to patients with severe metabolic acidosis remains controversial. Chronic bicarbonate replacement is obviously indicated for patients who continue to lose bicarbonate in the ambulatory setting, particularly patients with renal tubular acidosis syndromes or diarrhea. In patients with acute lactic acidosis and ketoacidosis, lactate and ketone bodies can be converted back to bicarbonate if the clini ...
(Usually in clinical practice, H+ concentration is expressed as pH.) PaCO2 (Arterial CO2 concentration normal = 3545 mm Hg). HCO3 (Serum electrolytes normal = 2231 mmol/liter). Acidosis is a process that causes the accumulation of acid. Alkalosis is a process that causes the accumulation of alkali. The most common causes in the surgical practice include: Diuretic therapy (e.g., contraction alkalosis). Acid loss through GI secretions (e.g., nasog ...
Metabolic Acidosis: Primary Bicarbonate Deficiency Metabolic acidosis occurs when the blood is too acidic (pH below 7.35) due to too little bicarbonate, a condition called primary bicarbonate deficiency. At the normal pH of 7.40, the ratio of bicarbonate to carbonic acid buffer is 20:1. If a person’s blood pH drops below 7.35, then he or she is in metabolic acidosis. The most common cause of metabolic acidosis is the presence of organic acids o ...
A proper understanding of the terms acidosis, alkalosis, acidemia, and alkalemia is necessary to differentiate simple from mixed acid base disorders.1 Acidosis and alkalosis refer to the pathophysiologic processes that cause net accumulation of acid or alkali in the body, whereas acidemia and alkalemia refer specifically to the pH of extracellular fluid. In acidemia, the extracellular fluid pH is less than normal and the [H+] is higher than norm ...