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Cats Dka Guidelines

Managing Diabetes Complicated By Ketoacidosis

Managing Diabetes Complicated By Ketoacidosis

Go to site For Pet Owners Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a potentially life-threatening complication of diabetes mellitus that must be swiftly and aggressively treated. Diagnosis Diagnosis is based on the presence of ketonuria with clinical signs. Management guidelines Goals of treatment for diabetic ketoacidosis include correcting fluid deficits and acid-base and electrolyte imbalances, reducing blood glucose and ketonuria, initiating insulin therapy, and treating concurrent diseases. The use of intravenous fluid therapy with isotonic fluids to correct fluid deficits and acid-base and electrolyte imbalances is recommended. Many protocols for treatment of DKA exist but IV fluids and rapid-acting insulin (regular) must be administered first to quickly decrease hyperglycemia. Once the blood glucose has decreased to 250 mg/dL using regular insulin, it is important to add dextrose to the fluids and continue with regular insulin until the cat is no longer vomiting, is eating, and no longer has ketones in the urine. At this point, the regular insulin along with the dextrose in the fluids can be discontinued and Vetsulin® (porcine insulin zinc suspension) therapy can be initiated. Evaluation of treatment When evaluating the regulation of insulin therapy, it is important to consider several areas including the evaluation of glycemia, urine monitoring, routine rechecks and glycated protein evaluations. Evaluation of the glycemia Creating a blood glucose curve is the most accurate way to evaluate glycemia to adjust the Vetsulin dose. Indications for creating a blood glucose curve are: First, to establish insulin dose, dosing interval, and insulin type when beginning regulation. Second, to evaluate regulation especially if problems occur. Third, when you suspect rebound hyperglyc Continue reading >>

Management Of Feline Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Management Of Feline Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a complication of diabetes mellitus with concurrent and often severe metabolic derangements associated with hyperglycaemia, glucosuria, metabolic acidosis, ketonaemia +/- ketonuria. Patients with ketonaemia/ketosis are usually still bright, eating and maintaining their hydration. Those with ketoacidosis are dehydrated, clinically unwell (e.g., anorexia, vomiting, lethargy) and typically require hospitalisation and intensive management. DKA is distinguished from uncomplicated diabetes mellitus (DM) by a relative insulin lack and increased counter-regulatory hormones. The latter are thought to occur secondary to intercurrent disease. Concurrent disease has been documented in approximately 90% of cats with DKA, with the most common being hepatic lipidosis, chronic kidney disease, acute pancreatitis, bacterial or viral infections and neoplasia (Bruskiewicz et al. 1997). Heinz bodies, neutrophilia with a left shift, increased ALT and azotaemia is common. Most cats presenting with DKA are newly diagnosed diabetics or recently diagnosed but poorly controlled diabetics. Diagnosis Hyperglycaemia, Glucosuria, Metabolic Acidosis Plus Ketones in Plasma and/or Urine Traditionally DKA has been diagnosed using urinary ketone dipsticks, which detect acetoacetate but not beta-hydroxybutyrate. However as the latter is the principle ketone body in DKA, measuring serum beta-hydroxybutyrate is a more sensitive indicator of DKA. In humans portable meters that measure beta-hydroxybutyrate in whole blood have largely superseded urine dipsticks. These ketone meters have recently proven useful in diagnosing DKA in cats, although they tend to underestimate beta-hydroxybutyrate at higher values (Zeugswetter, Rebuzzi 2012; Weingart et al. 2012). In the absence of a ke Continue reading >>

Isfm Consensus Guidelines On The Practical Management Of Diabetes Mellitus In Cats

Isfm Consensus Guidelines On The Practical Management Of Diabetes Mellitus In Cats

Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a common endocrinopathy in cats that appears to be increasing in prevalence. The prognosis for affected cats can be good when the disease is well managed, but clinical management presents challenges, both for the veterinary team and for the owner. These ISFM Guidelines have been developed by an independent, international expert panel of clinicians and academics to provide practical advice on the management of routine (uncomplicated) diabetic cats. Although the diagnosis of diabetes is usually straightforward, optimal management can be challenging. Clinical goals should be to limit or eliminate clinical signs of the disease using a treatment regimen suitable for the owner, and to avoid insulin-induced hypoglycaemia or other complications. Optimising bodyweight, feeding an appropriate diet and using a longer acting insulin preparation (eg, protamine zinc insulin, insulin glargine or insulin detemir) are all factors that are likely to result in improved glycaemic control in the majority of cats. There is also some evidence that improved glycaemic control and reversal of glucose toxicity may promote the chances of diabetic remission. Owner considerations and owner involvement are an important aspect of management. Provided adequate support is given, and owners are able to take an active role in monitoring blood glucose concentrations in the home environment, glycaemic control may be improved. Monitoring of other parameters is also vitally important in assessing the response to insulin. Insulin adjustments should always be made cautiously and not too frequently – unless hypoglycaemia is encountered. The Panel has produced these Guidelines after careful review of the existing literature and of the quality of the published studies. They represent a Continue reading >>

Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Also known as: DKA Severe diabetic ketoacidosis is a medical emergency and requires prompt treatment to correct dehydration, electrolyte disturbances and acidosis. It is a complication of insulin dependent Diabetes Mellitus. DKA is the result of marked insulin deficiency, and ketonaemia and ketoacidosis occur approximately 15 days after insulin concentrations are suppressed to fasting levels. Marked insulin suppression occurs on average 4 days after fasting glucose levels reach 30mmol/L. Many cats with DKA have other intercurrent conditions which may precipitate the condition including: infection, pancreatitis or renal insufficiency. Pathophysiology Insulin deficiency leads to increased breakdown of fat that releases fatty acids into the circulation. Free fatty acids are oxidised in the liver to ketones that are used by many tissues as an energy source instead of glucose. This occurs when intracellular levels of glucose are insufficient for energy metabolism as a result of severe insulin deficiency. In the liver, instead of being converted to triglycerides, free fatty acids are oxidised to acetoacetate, which is converted to hydroxybutyrate or acetone. Ketones are acids that cause central nervous system depression and act in the chemoreceptor trigger zone to cause nausea, vomiting and anorexia. They also accelerate osmotic water loss in the urine. Dehydration results from inadequate fluid intake in the face of accelerated water loss due to glucosuria and ketonuria. Dehydration and subsequent reduced tissue perfusion compounds the acidosis through lactic acid production. There is whole body loss of electrolytes including sodium, potassium, magnesium and phosphate and there is also intracellular redistribution of electrolytes following insulin therapy which may compound p Continue reading >>

Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is an emergency. DKA develops due to: Long standing undiagnosed diabetes mellitus Insufficient insulin dose in treated diabetics Reduced insulin action - caused by obesity , concurrent illness or drugs. This is the cause of more than two-thirds of cases of DKA. What causes DKA? Due to a lack of insulin , glucose cannot be used by the body cells as an energy source. Instead fat is broken down to provide energy. When fat is used as an energy source, acids known as ketones are produced. Ketones circulating in the blood cause signs of DKA - anorexia, nausea and lethargy. Diagnosis The diagnosis of DKA is based on detecting ketones in the urine and sometimes in the blood along with signs of illness. See Urine Monitoring for more information. Treatment DKA is an emergency and treatment must be started as soon as possible. Your veterinary surgeon will administer intravenous fluids and insulin and correct any underlying disorders to stabilise your cat. Once your cat is stabilised it will be started on long term insulin therapy again. Continue reading >>

Management Of The Complicated Diabetic

Management Of The Complicated Diabetic

Proceeding of the NAVC North American Veterinary Conference Reprinted in the IVIS website with the permission of the NAVC Close window to return to IVIS Small Animal - Endocrinology Debra L. Zoran, DVM, PhD, Diplomate ACVIM Texas A&M University College Station, TX INTRODUCTION Diabetes mellitus is a common endocrinopathy in dogs and cats, and in most animals presents as a problem that is readily recognized and managed with routine diagnostic and therapeutic approaches. However, there are always exceptions to every rule, and this true for diabetes as well. This manuscript will review the recognition and management of insulin resistance, diabetic ketoacidosis, and the very uncommon, but challenging problem of nonketotic, hyperosmolar diabetes. The Complicated Diabetic – Insulin Ineffectiveness or Insulin Resistance? There are a number of factors that must be assessed in a dog or cat with diabetes that does not have adequate glycemic control. The first step is to determine whether the patient is an uncontrolled diabetic because of ineffective insulin or because of insulin resistance. There are many recognized causes of insulin ineffectiveness, and these include: • inactive insulin • diluted insulin • improper administration technique • inadequate dose • somogyi effect • inadequate frequency of insulin administration • impaired insulin absorption (especially long acting insulins) • anti-insulin antibody Insulin effectiveness should be assessed first, as it is the simplest group of problems to recognize and treat. Insulin ineffectiveness can be caused by inactive insulin, which is most often due to improper handling (e.g. insulin was damaged by heat or being dropped, shaken, etc). This problem is easily assessed by re-ev Continue reading >>

Feline Diabetes

Feline Diabetes

Lisa A. Pierson, DVM Introduction Warning: Before reading even the first sentence of this webpage, you must commit to reading past the STOP sign below. The first section of this paper discusses the detrimental impact of dietary carbohydrates on the blood glucose balance and insulin response of cats as a species – with pre-diabetic and diabetic patients being especially susceptible to the negative effects of high carbohydrate diets. However, if your cat is receiving insulin and you switch to a low carb diet –without lowering the insulin dosage – you will be putting your cat at significant risk for a hypoglycemic crisis. This is discussed under the STOP sign section below. I receive many emails each week asking for food recommendations for diabetic cats. Answers: 1) NO DRY FOOD but see Tips for Transitioning Dry Food Addicts to Canned Food if you are dealing with a dry food addict. All cats can be transitioned to an appropriate diet (no dry food) if the owner is patient enough. 2) See Cat Food Composition chart and stay below 10% carbohydrate calories (the third column). There are many suitable low carbohydrate choices available depending on your cat’s preference and your budget. Many cats do well on Friskies Classic Pates and Fancy Feast. Stay away from food with gravy – they are high in carbohydrates. The same is true for most food with sauces. Higher protein/lower fat is also the goal. However, you will note that most commercial foods are low in protein and high in fat. Why? Because protein is expensive and fat is cheap This is one of many reasons why I make my own cat food. 3) See Commercial Foods when you are ready to learn more about evaluating pet foods. Cats are obligate carnivores and are designed to eat other animals (meat, organs, etc.) – not grains Continue reading >>

Feline Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Feline Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Fall 2008 Ketoacidosis is a metabolic imbalance that is most commonly seen as a sequel to unmanaged or poorly regulated diabetes mellitus. It is caused by the breakdown of fat and protein in a compensatory effort for the need of more metabolic energy. The excessive breakdown of these stored reserves creates a toxic by-product in the form of ketones. As ketones build up in the blood stream, pH and electrolyte imbalances proceed. This condition is a potentially life-threatening emergency that requires immediate medical attention. Diabetes mellitus is a common endocrine disease in geriatric felines. It is caused by a dysfunction in the beta cells of the exocrine pancreas resulting in an absolute or relative deficiency of insulin. Insulin has been called the cells' gatekeeper. It attaches to the surface of cells and permits glucose, the cells' primary energy source, to enter from the blood. A lack of insulin results in a build up of glucose in the blood, physiologically causing a state of cellular starvation. In response to this condition the body begins to increase the mobilization of protein and fat storage. Fatty acids are released from adipose tissue, which are then oxidized by the liver. Normally, these fatty acids are formed into triglycerides. However, without insulin, these fatty acids are converted into ketone bodies, which cannot be utilized by the body. Together with the increased production and decreased utilization an abnormally high concentration of ketone bodies develop. These fixed acids are buffered by bicarbonate; however, the excessive amounts overwhelm and deplete the bicarbonate leading to an increase in arterial hydrogen ion concentration and a decrease in serum bicarbonate. This increase in hydrogen ions lowers the body's pH, leading to a metabolic ac Continue reading >>

Understanding And Treating Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Understanding And Treating Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a serious metabolic disorder that can occur in animals with diabetes mellitus (DM).1,2 Veterinary technicians play an integral role in managing and treating patients with this life-threatening condition. In addition to recognizing the clinical signs of this disorder and evaluating the patient's response to therapy, technicians should understand how this disorder occurs. DM is caused by a relative or absolute lack of insulin production by the pancreatic b-cells or by inactivity or loss of insulin receptors, which are usually found on membranes of skeletal muscle, fat, and liver cells.1,3 In dogs and cats, DM is classified as either insulin-dependent (the body is unable to produce sufficient insulin) or non-insulin-dependent (the body produces insulin, but the tissues in the body are resistant to the insulin).4 Most dogs and cats that develop DKA have an insulin deficiency. Insulin has many functions, including the enhancement of glucose uptake by the cells for energy.1 Without insulin, the cells cannot access glucose, thereby causing them to undergo starvation.2 The unused glucose remains in the circulation, resulting in hyperglycemia. To provide cells with an alternative energy source, the body breaks down adipocytes, releasing free fatty acids (FFAs) into the bloodstream. The liver subsequently converts FFAs to triglycerides and ketone bodies. These ketone bodies (i.e., acetone, acetoacetic acid, b-hydroxybutyric acid) can be used as energy by the tissues when there is a lack of glucose or nutritional intake.1,2 The breakdown of fat, combined with the body's inability to use glucose, causes many pets with diabetes to present with weight loss, despite having a ravenous appetite. If diabetes is undiagnosed or uncontrolled, a series of metab Continue reading >>

68..............................................................................................................................................................................navc Clinician’s Brief / April 2011 / Diagnostic Tree

68..............................................................................................................................................................................navc Clinician’s Brief / April 2011 / Diagnostic Tree

1. IV Isotonic Crystalloid Therapy • Shock fluid therapy is warranted if cardiovascular instability is present: Full shock dose of fluids is 90 mL/kg; start with ¼ to 1/3 dose and reassess until stable • Correct dehydration, provide maintenance needs, and replace ongoing losses over 6 to 24 hours: - % dehydration × body weight (kg) × 1000 plus - 20 mL/kg/day (insensible losses) plus - 20 to 40 mL/kg/day (maintenance sensible losses) plus - Account for vomiting, diarrhea, & polyuria (ongoing sensible losses) Alice Huang, VMD, & J. Catharine Scott-Moncrieff, Vet MB, MS, MA, Diplomate ACVIM & ECVIM Purdue University Canine Diabetic Ketoacidosis D i a gno s t i c Tre e / ENDOCRINOLOGY Peer Reviewed Physical Examination • Polyuria • Weight loss • Polydipsia • Vomiting • Polyphagia • Lethargy Patient may have only 1 or more of these signs. Laboratory Results • Blood glucose (BG): Hyperglycemia (> 200 mg/dL) • Blood gas (venous or arterial): Metabolic acidosis • Urine dipstick: Glucosuria; ketonuria or ketonemia Serum ketones can be measured if urine is unavailable. Diabetic Ketoacidosis Treatment 2. Electrolyte Supplementation (see Table 1, page 70) • Monitor serum potassium Q 4–6 H until within reference interval and stable; then Q 12–24 H • Monitor serum phosphorus Q 4–6 H until > 1.5; then Q 6–24 H • When supplementing potassium and phosphorus concurrently, take into account the amount of potassium contained in the potassium phosphate • Consider magnesium supplementation in instances of refractory hypokalemia 3. Regular Insulin • Continuous rate infusion (CRI) protocol:1 - Add 2.2 U/kg of regular insulin to 250 mL of 0.9% saline - Allow 50 Continue reading >>

Diabetes Complications In Dogs And Cats: Diabetes Ketoacidosis (dka)

Diabetes Complications In Dogs And Cats: Diabetes Ketoacidosis (dka)

Unfortunately, we veterinarians are seeing an increased prevalence of diabetes mellitus in dogs and cats. This is likely due to the growing prevalence of obesity (secondary to inactive lifestyle, a high carbohydrate diet, lack of exercise, etc.). So, if you just had a dog or cat diagnosed with diabetes mellitus, what do you do? First, we encourage you to take a look at these articles for an explanation of the disease: Diabetes Mellitus (Sugar Diabetes) in Dogs Once you have a basic understanding of diabetes mellitus (or if you already had one), this article will teach you about life-threatening complications that can occur as a result of the disease; specifically, I discuss a life-threatening condition called diabetes ketoacidosis (DKA) so that you know how to help prevent it! What is DKA? When diabetes goes undiagnosed, or when it is difficult to control or regulate, the complication of DKA can occur. DKA develops because the body is so lacking in insulin that the sugar can’t get into the cells -- resulting in cell starvation. Cell starvation causes the body to start breaking down fat in an attempt to provide energy (or a fuel source) to the body. Unfortunately, these fat breakdown products, called “ketones,” are also poisonous to the body. Symptoms of DKA Clinical signs of DKA include the following: Weakness Not moving (in cats, hanging out by the water bowl) Not eating to complete anorexia Large urinary clumps in the litter box (my guideline? If it’s bigger than a tennis ball, it’s abnormal) Weight loss (most commonly over the back), despite an overweight body condition Excessively dry or oily skin coat Abnormal breath (typically a sweet “ketotic” odor) In severe cases DKA can also result in more significant signs: Abnormal breathing pattern Jaundice Ab Continue reading >>

Care Of Diabetic And Diabetic Ketoacidotic Patients (proceedings)

Care Of Diabetic And Diabetic Ketoacidotic Patients (proceedings)

Diabetes mellitus is the condition of hyperglycemia (high blood glucose) and glucosuria (glucose in the urine) caused by absence of the hormone insulin, or failure of the cells of the body to be able to respond to insulin. Diabetes mellitus is the condition of hyperglycemia (high blood glucose) and glucosuria (glucose in the urine) caused by absence of the hormone insulin, or failure of the cells of the body to be able to respond to insulin. Diabetes mellitus in veterinary patients can most often be compared to human adult onset diabetes (type 2), and juvenile onset diabetes is rare in veterinary patients. Patients may present with few clinical signs, in relatively good health (uncomplicated diabetes mellitus), or may be weak and dehydrated with severe electrolyte abnormalities (ketoacidotic diabetes mellitus). The most common clinical signs include weight loss, polyuria/polydipsia, increased or decreased appetite, unkempt hair coat, dandruff, sudden onset blindness (in dogs from cataract formation secondary to diabetes), and hind limb weakness (from diabetic neuropathy in cats) . In dogs and cats that have progressed to diabetic ketoacidosis, vomiting, anorexia, and lethargy are common complaints. Physical examination findings can reveal thin body condition, cataracts (dogs), dehydration, and mental dullness. Animals with recent onset diabetes mellitus can have a relatively normal examination. Laboratory testing to diagnose diabetes mellitus is relatively straightforward, and diagnosis can be confirmed at the time of evaluation in some cases with in-house testing. Elevated blood glucose is the mainstay of diagnosis; however keep in mind that hyperglycemia may be from diabetes, or secondary to a stress response, especially in cat. Handheld glucometers that are used by h Continue reading >>

Update On Insulin Treatment For Dogs And Cats: Insulin Dosing Pens And More

Update On Insulin Treatment For Dogs And Cats: Insulin Dosing Pens And More

Authors Thompson A, Lathan P, Fleeman L Accepted for publication 19 February 2015 Checked for plagiarism Yes Peer reviewer comments 3 1School of Veterinary Science, The University of Queensland, Gatton, QLD, Australia; 2College of Veterinary Medicine Mississippi State University, Starkville, MS, USA; 3Animal Diabetes Australia, Melbourne, VIC, Australia Abstract: Insulin therapy is still the primary therapy for all diabetic dogs and cats. Several insulin options are available for each species, including veterinary registered products and human insulin preparations. The insulin chosen depends on the individual patient's requirements. Intermediate-acting insulin is usually the first choice for dogs, and longer-acting insulin is the first choice for cats. Once the insulin type is chosen, the best method of insulin administration should be considered. Traditionally, insulin vials and syringes have been used, but insulin pen devices have recently entered the veterinary market. Pens have different handling requirements when compared with standard insulin vials including: storage out of the refrigerator for some insulin preparations once pen cartridges are in use; priming of the pen to ensure a full dose of insulin is administered; and holding the pen device in place for several seconds during the injection. Many different types of pen devices are available, with features such as half-unit dosing, large dials for visually impaired people, and memory that can display the last time and dose of insulin administered. Insulin pens come in both reusable and disposable options. Pens have several benefits over syringes, including improved dose accuracy, especially for low insulin doses. Keywords: diabetes, mellitus, canine, feline, NPH, glargine, porcine lente Introduction Insulin the Continue reading >>

Diabetic Ketoacidosis (dka)

Diabetic Ketoacidosis (dka)

Diabetic ketoacidosis is an acute metabolic complication of diabetes characterized by hyperglycemia, hyperketonemia, and metabolic acidosis. Hyperglycemia causes an osmotic diuresis with significant fluid and electrolyte loss. DKA occurs mostly in type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM). It causes nausea, vomiting, and abdominal pain and can progress to cerebral edema, coma, and death. DKA is diagnosed by detection of hyperketonemia and anion gap metabolic acidosis in the presence of hyperglycemia. Treatment involves volume expansion, insulin replacement, and prevention of hypokalemia. Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is most common among patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus and develops when insulin levels are insufficient to meet the body’s basic metabolic requirements. DKA is the first manifestation of type 1 DM in a minority of patients. Insulin deficiency can be absolute (eg, during lapses in the administration of exogenous insulin) or relative (eg, when usual insulin doses do not meet metabolic needs during physiologic stress). Common physiologic stresses that can trigger DKA include Some drugs implicated in causing DKA include DKA is less common in type 2 diabetes mellitus, but it may occur in situations of unusual physiologic stress. Ketosis-prone type 2 diabetes is a variant of type 2 diabetes, which is sometimes seen in obese individuals, often of African (including African-American or Afro-Caribbean) origin. People with ketosis-prone diabetes (also referred to as Flatbush diabetes) can have significant impairment of beta cell function with hyperglycemia, and are therefore more likely to develop DKA in the setting of significant hyperglycemia. SGLT-2 inhibitors have been implicated in causing DKA in both type 1 and type 2 DM. Continue reading >>

Diabetic Ketoacidosis In Dogs

Diabetic Ketoacidosis In Dogs

My dog is diabetic. He has been doing pretty well overall, but recently he became really ill. He stopped eating well, started drinking lots of water, and got really weak. His veterinarian said that he had a condition called “ketoacidosis,” and he had to spend several days in the hospital. I’m not sure I understand this disorder. Diabetic ketoacidosis is a medical emergency that occurs when there is not enough insulin in the body to control blood sugar (glucose) levels. The body can’t use glucose properly without insulin, so blood glucose levels get very high, and the body creates ketone bodies as an emergency fuel source. When these are broken down, it creates byproducts that cause the body’s acid/base balance to shift, and the body becomes more acidic (acidosis), and it can’t maintain appropriate fluid balance. The electrolyte (mineral) balance becomes disrupted which can lead to abnormal heart rhythms and abnormal muscle function. If left untreated, diabetic ketoacidosis is fatal. How could this disorder have happened? If a diabetic dog undergoes a stress event of some kind, the body secretes stress hormones that interfere with appropriate insulin activity. Examples of stress events that can lead to diabetic ketoacidosis include infection, inflammation, and heart disease. What are the signs of diabetic ketoacidosis? The signs of diabetic ketoacidosis include: Excessive thirst/drinking Increased urination Lethargy Weakness Vomiting Increased respiratory rate Decreased appetite Weight loss (unplanned) with muscle wasting Dehydration Unkempt haircoat These same clinical signs can occur with other medical conditions, so it is important for your veterinarian to perform appropriate diagnostic tests to determine if diabetic ketoacidosis in truly the issue at hand Continue reading >>

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