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Cat Ketosis

Ketoacidosis In Cats – Causes, Symptoms & Treatment

Ketoacidosis In Cats – Causes, Symptoms & Treatment

Ketoacidosis in cats at a glance Ketoacidosis is a serious complication of diabetes in which ketones and blood sugar levels build up in the body due to insufficient levels of insulin which is required to move glucose into the cells for energy. As a result, the body uses fat as an alternate energy source which produces ketones causing the blood to become too acidic. Common causes include uncontrolled diabetes, missed or insufficient insulin, surgery, infection, stress and obesity. Symptoms of ketoacidosis include increased urination and thirst, dehydration, nausea, diarrhea, confusion, rapid breathing which may later change to laboured breathing. What is diabetic ketoacidosis? Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a life-threatening complication of diabetes characterised by metabolic acidosis (increased acids in the blood), hyperglycemia (high blood glucose) and ketonuria (ketones in the urine). It is caused by a lack of or insufficient amounts of insulin which is required to move glucose from the bloodstream and into the cells to be used for energy. When this occurs, the body begins to search for alternate sources of energy and begins to break down fat. When fat is broken down (metabolised) into fatty acids, waste products known as ketones (acetoacetate, beta-hydroxybutyrate, acetone) are released from the liver and accumulate in the bloodstream (known as ketonemia). This causes the blood to become too acidic (metabolic acidosis). As well as metabolic acidosis, ketones also cause central nervous depression.The body will try to get rid of the ketones by excreting them out of the body via the urine, increased urine output leads to dehydration, making the problem worse. Meanwhile, the unused glucose remains in the bloodstream, resulting in hyperglycemia (high blood sugar).Insulin Continue reading >>

Measurement Of Β-hydroxybutyrate In Cats With Nonketotic Diabetes Mellitus, Diabetic Ketosis, And Diabetic Ketoacidosis.

Measurement Of Β-hydroxybutyrate In Cats With Nonketotic Diabetes Mellitus, Diabetic Ketosis, And Diabetic Ketoacidosis.

Abstract Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a life-threatening complication of diabetes mellitus (DM). The standard method of detection of ketone bodies is the dipstick method, which detects semiquantitatively acetoacetate, but not β-hydroxybutyrate (β-HB). The objectives of the current study were to assess the diagnostic utility of β-HB to diagnose diabetic ketosis (DK) and DKA in cats and to establish a cut-off value for the diagnosis of DKA. Sixty-two cats were included in the study. Eleven cats were healthy (group 1); in the remainder of cats (51), a diagnosis of DM was based on hyperglycemia, glucosuria, and increased fructosamine concentrations. Nineteen of 51 cats suffered from nonketotic diabetes mellitus (group 2). In 11 cats, plasma ketone bodies were detected with the dipstick method (diabetic ketosis, group 3). In 21 cats, plasma ketone bodies and metabolic acidosis were present (DKA, group 4). Plasma β-HB was measured in all cats by an enzymatic method (spectrophotometry). A cut-off value for the diagnosis of DKA was calculated based on the receiver operating characteristic curve. In healthy cats, the β-HB concentration ranged from 0 to 0.1 mmol/l; in cats of group 2, from 0 to 0.9 mmol/l (median: 0.1 mmol/l); in cats of group 3, from 0.6 to 6.8 mmol/l (median: 1.7 mmol/l); and in cats of group 4, from 3.8 to 12.2 mmol/l (median: 7.9 mmol/l). A cut-off value of 2.4 mmol/l revealed 100% sensitivity and 87% specificity to diagnose DKA. Beta-hydroxybutyrate is a useful parameter for the diagnosis of diabetic ketosis and DKA in cats. Continue reading >>

's Experience With Ketoacidosis.

's Experience With Ketoacidosis.

Signs Treatment Zama's experience Diabetic ketoacidosis is caused by a lack of insulin or an insufficient amount of insulin. Since the lack of insulin means that glucose in not able to be used, the body searches for a new source of energy. In this condition, the diabetic breaks down body fat (lipolysis) to use as energy. During lipolysis, waste products called ketones are produced. Ketones are eliminated in the urine and through the lungs. Under normal conditions, the body can tolerate and eliminate ketones. But in diabetic ketoacidosis, fats are being broken down at such a high rate that the body can not eliminate the ketones fast enough and they build up in the blood. In high amounts, ketones are toxic to the body. They cause the acid-base balance to change and serious electrolyte and fluid imbalances result. Some of the signs of ketoacidosis include polyuria polydipsia lethargy anorexia weakness vomiting dehydration There will probably be ketones in the urine (ketonuria) The breath may have a sweet chemical smell similar to nail polish remover. However, some owners have said that even during documented ketoacidosis, their pet's breath did NOT have any unusual odor. Treatment Mildly ketoacidotic animals can be alert and well hydrated. After your pet is stabilized, your pet can return home and be treated with proper diabetes management techniques including insulin therapy, diet, and exercise. "Sick" ketoacidotic animals require intensive medical management in the vet hospital. This is a life-threatening emergency that requires complex medical management and monitoring. It may take several days for the animal to be out of danger. Treatment involves injections of regular insulin, intravenous fluids, electrolytes, and frequent monitoring of blood glucose, blood chemistry, Continue reading >>

B1g Cat

B1g Cat

@BarstoolBigCat Dan Katz. Run Chicago @barstoolsports /ARodCorp. [email protected] Co-Host @PardonMyTake podcast w/ @PFTCommenter. New shows M,W,F Subscribe below Continue reading >>

Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Also known as: DKA Severe diabetic ketoacidosis is a medical emergency and requires prompt treatment to correct dehydration, electrolyte disturbances and acidosis. It is a complication of insulin dependent Diabetes Mellitus. DKA is the result of marked insulin deficiency, and ketonaemia and ketoacidosis occur approximately 15 days after insulin concentrations are suppressed to fasting levels. Marked insulin suppression occurs on average 4 days after fasting glucose levels reach 30mmol/L. Many cats with DKA have other intercurrent conditions which may precipitate the condition including: infection, pancreatitis or renal insufficiency. Pathophysiology Insulin deficiency leads to increased breakdown of fat that releases fatty acids into the circulation. Free fatty acids are oxidised in the liver to ketones that are used by many tissues as an energy source instead of glucose. This occurs when intracellular levels of glucose are insufficient for energy metabolism as a result of severe insulin deficiency. In the liver, instead of being converted to triglycerides, free fatty acids are oxidised to acetoacetate, which is converted to hydroxybutyrate or acetone. Ketones are acids that cause central nervous system depression and act in the chemoreceptor trigger zone to cause nausea, vomiting and anorexia. They also accelerate osmotic water loss in the urine. Dehydration results from inadequate fluid intake in the face of accelerated water loss due to glucosuria and ketonuria. Dehydration and subsequent reduced tissue perfusion compounds the acidosis through lactic acid production. There is whole body loss of electrolytes including sodium, potassium, magnesium and phosphate and there is also intracellular redistribution of electrolytes following insulin therapy which may compound p Continue reading >>

Diabetic Ketoacidosis (dka) In Cats

Diabetic Ketoacidosis (dka) In Cats

Feline Diabetic Ketoacidosis Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA), the most severe form of Diabetes Mellitus, results in severe changes in blood chemicals including imbalances in small, simple chemicals known as electrolytes. Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a chronic condition in which a deficiency of the hormone insulin impairs the body’s ability to metabolize sugar. It is one of the most common endocrine (hormonal) diseases of cats. For more information on the basics of diabetes, go to Diabetes mellitus in cats DKA is a life-threatening condition caused by diabetes mellitus resulting from insulin deficiency that leads to excess production of ketoacids by the liver. Subsequent changes in the blood result that includes metabolic acidosis, electrolyte abnormalities producing severe signs of systemic illness. DKA condition can occur in pets with new diabetes or in current diabetics that decompensate. Secondary diseases and/or infections can cause diabetics to decompensate and develop DKA. What to Watch For Signs associated with DKA depend on the individual cat and the length of time they have been ill. Signs may consist of the classic signs of diabetes including: Increased thirst Increased frequency of urination Weight loss despite a good appetite Sudden blindness Additional signs of DKA include: Lethargy Vomiting Weakness Dehydration Some pets will have a strong smell of acetone from their breath Diagnosis of Diabetic Ketoacidosis in Cats Veterinary care should include diagnostic tests to determine level of blood sugar, the presence of ketones, and electrolyte concentrations to help guide subsequent treatment recommendations. Some of these tests include: Complete medical history and thorough physical examination. Serum biochemical profile to determine the blood glucose concentration Continue reading >>

Symptoms Of Diabetes In Cats

Symptoms Of Diabetes In Cats

Diabetes is a serious health problem that threatens humans as well as cats and other companion animals. Complications from this condition arise from the victim's inability to process glucose. The scope of the symptoms depends on the severity of the disorder, but there are common warning signs owners can look for. Excessive Thirst The most common symptom associated with feline diabetes is a marked increase in the cat's desire to drink and urinate, according to the University of Illinois College of Veterinary Medicine. Since diabetic kitties can't process or use glucose properly, the molecule accumulates in their bladder and bloodstream. The presence of glucose in the urine causes your cat to expel more water when he relieves himself, which forces him to drink more to compensate. Glucose also encourages the growth of bacteria, so felines with diabetes also are more likely to develop urinary tract infections. Weight Changes The concentration of glucose molecules in your cat's brain is a key factor to regulating his desire to eat. Since diabetes interferes with sugar levels in the bloodstream, drastic changes in appetite are likely in cats suffering from the disease, according to Washington State University College of Veterinary Medicine. This change in appetite may lead to short-term weight gain, but the pounds eventually fall away as your kitty's condition worsens. The malnutrition associated with diabetes increases the risk of skin infections, eye problems and other health issues. Onset of Ketosis Ketosis, or ketoacidosis, is perhaps the biggest danger associated with feline diabetes. As glucose builds up in a diabetic cat's bloodstream, the sugar molecules begin to decompose into toxic biological chemicals called ketones. This transformation leads to a variety of seriou Continue reading >>

Ketosis In An Evolutionary Context

Ketosis In An Evolutionary Context

Humans are unique in their remarkable ability to enter ketosis. They’re also situated near the top of the food chain. Coincidence? During starvation, humans rapidly enter ketosis; they do this better than king penguins, and bears don’t do it at all. Starvation ketosis Humans maintain a high level of functionality during starvation. We can still hunt & plan; some would even argue it’s a more finely tuned state, cognitively. And that’s important, because if we became progressively weaker and slower, chances of acquiring food would rapidly decline. Perhaps this is why fasting bears just sleep most of the time: no ketones = no bueno..? Animals with a low brain/carcass weight ratio (ie, small brain) don’t need it. Babies and children have a higher brain/carcass weight ratio, so they develop ketosis more rapidly than adults. Is this a harmful process? No, more likely an evolutionary adaptation which supports the brain. The brain of newborn babies consumes a huge amount of total daily energy, and nearly half comes from ketones. A week or so later, even after the carbohydrate content of breast milk increases, they still don’t get “kicked out of ketosis” (Bourneres et al., 1986). If this were a harmful state, why would Nature have done this? …and all those anecdotes, like babies learn at incredibly rapid rates… coincidence? Maybe they’re myths. Maybe not. Ketosis in the animal kingdom Imagine a hibernating bear: huge adipose tissue but small brain fuel requirement relative to body size and total energy expenditure. No ketosis, because brain accounts for less than 5% of total metabolism. In adult humans, this is around 19-23%, and babies are much higher (eg, Cahill and Veech, 2003 & Hayes et al., 2012). For the rest of this article and more, head over to Pat Continue reading >>

Diabetes Complications In Dogs And Cats: Diabetes Ketoacidosis (dka)

Diabetes Complications In Dogs And Cats: Diabetes Ketoacidosis (dka)

Unfortunately, we veterinarians are seeing an increased prevalence of diabetes mellitus in dogs and cats. This is likely due to the growing prevalence of obesity (secondary to inactive lifestyle, a high carbohydrate diet, lack of exercise, etc.). So, if you just had a dog or cat diagnosed with diabetes mellitus, what do you do? First, we encourage you to take a look at these articles for an explanation of the disease: Diabetes Mellitus (Sugar Diabetes) in Dogs Once you have a basic understanding of diabetes mellitus (or if you already had one), this article will teach you about life-threatening complications that can occur as a result of the disease; specifically, I discuss a life-threatening condition called diabetes ketoacidosis (DKA) so that you know how to help prevent it! What is DKA? When diabetes goes undiagnosed, or when it is difficult to control or regulate, the complication of DKA can occur. DKA develops because the body is so lacking in insulin that the sugar can’t get into the cells -- resulting in cell starvation. Cell starvation causes the body to start breaking down fat in an attempt to provide energy (or a fuel source) to the body. Unfortunately, these fat breakdown products, called “ketones,” are also poisonous to the body. Symptoms of DKA Clinical signs of DKA include the following: Weakness Not moving (in cats, hanging out by the water bowl) Not eating to complete anorexia Large urinary clumps in the litter box (my guideline? If it’s bigger than a tennis ball, it’s abnormal) Weight loss (most commonly over the back), despite an overweight body condition Excessively dry or oily skin coat Abnormal breath (typically a sweet “ketotic” odor) In severe cases DKA can also result in more significant signs: Abnormal breathing pattern Jaundice Ab Continue reading >>

Ketogenic Diet To Treat Cancer

Ketogenic Diet To Treat Cancer

« 22 Human Medicines That Work For Pets | Home | Chihuahua Eats 3 Chocolate Cookies: What Should You Do? » Ketogenic Diet To Treat Cancer There is increasing talk about a ‘new’ diet in people that is showing impressive results in treating cancer in people, and it may help with our pets. The diet specifically eliminates carbohydrates, replacing them with healthy fats and protein. As in NO kibble to be fed to your dogs or cats. The underlying science of this is based on research which shows cancer cells thrive on sugar (glucose), and as the primary source of glucose is carbohydrates, eliminating these kills the cancer cells. This is not a new concept in that the Canine Cancer Diet by Dr Greg Oglivy also dramatically lowers carbohydrates- this diet though is unique in the amount of fat. Dr. Dominic D’Agostino is an assistant professor at the University of South Florida College of Medicine. He claims that a low-carb, high-fat, calorie-restricted ketogenic diet literally starves cancer cells. In an interview on the examiner he said: “We’ve found that diet therapy can be effective in prolonging survival in mice with aggressive metastatic cancer,” These same anti-cancer properties have also been observed in human cancer patients and reported in published studies. The cancer-fighting ketogenic diet “formula” is roughly 75% fat, 23% protein, and 2% carbs. Dr D’Agostina notes that it is the underlying inflammation from these high carbohydrate diets that promotes cancer, but also other diseases such as diabetes, obesity and Alzheimer’s. Currently there is a research group called Ketopet which presently formulates ketogenic diets for dogs and cats with cancer as part of the “Pet Cancer Trial” Their website is at petcancertrial.com In researching this artic Continue reading >>

Ketosis Breath: Causes & Solutions For Bad Breath

Ketosis Breath: Causes & Solutions For Bad Breath

Ultra-low carb diets have grown in popularity over recent years. These so-called “keto diets” aim to facilitate rapid weight loss, through the consumption of minimal carbohydrates. Keto diets have become understandably popular on account of their rapid results, together with the practical benefits of consuming healthy volumes of the right foods, making hunger less of a problem than on more typical calorie-controlled diets. However keto diets are not without their issues, and one of the most common complaints comes in the form of “ketosis breath”. Quite simply many individuals making use of very low carb diets suffer from pungent and unpleasant breath. The question is what can be done to counteract such a problem? The Cause of Ketosis Breath In order to learn how to get rid of keto breath, we first need to understand why breath can smell under such a regime. As it turns out there are two potential reasons(1), both of which can operate independently, or in conjunction. Ketone Release The most typical source of energy used by the body is glucose. This is typically derived from carbohydrates, where the digestive system breaks down complex sugars into simple glucose molecules. On very low carb diets, however, the body is unable to utilize such a fuel. Instead, the liver utilizes the fat present in the body as an energy source, producing “ketones” in the process(2). This is known as “ketosis” – and is the process from where keto diets get their unusual name. These ketone bodies come in three common forms; acetoacetate, beta-hydroxybutyrate and acetone(3). In large quantities they are removed from the body in the urine or through exhalation. Ketones can have quite a characteristic smell; they often make the dieter’s breath smell quite sweet and fruity, quit Continue reading >>

The Big Cat Diet

The Big Cat Diet

So a bunch of people have been asking me for details on my diet to win the Super Bowl bet so I thought I would share. First, let’s get one thing out of the way. Anyone who thinks I cheated is a moron. Was I smart in my weight loss to give me every opportunity to lose max weight? Yes. Did I cheat? Absolutely not. Feits even said off camera he doesn’t think I cheated. When I weighed in at 231 lbs that was real. Now I fully admit I had quite the weekend leading up to weigh in. Hit the Horseshoe Buffet about a million times on Saturday and basically ate while full on Sunday. 231 was absolutely inflated by some unhealthy weekend eating/drinking, I never once denied that. Why wouldn’t I add last second weight that would come off easier in the first few days of the diet? To not do that would be foolish. Now as for the diet, it went in 3 parts. Step 1 Juice. The first 3 days I went on a green juice diet. It was basically the worst thing possible. You drink juice, your stomach hurts, and you pee out of your ass. It fucking sucks, but if you can be mentally tough about it, it will definitely kick start your diet and basically shed 10 pounds of excess water and garbage you have stored in your system. By that first friday I was already down to about 222. Step 2 This is the hard part, this is actual weight loss that takes time and isn’t easy. Now if you’ve never heard of Tim Ferris I highly recommend checking him out, especially his 20 lbs in 30 days diet. I used that as a base with some modifications (no cheat day, very little meat). Basically every day looked like this. Breakfast – Beans Lunch – Salad no dressing (just green vegetables) Dinner – Salad no dressing (just green vegetables) and occasionally a piece of fish. That was it. Very low in sodium, just enough Continue reading >>

The Benefits And Dangers Of A Ketogenic Diet For Dogs

The Benefits And Dangers Of A Ketogenic Diet For Dogs

A ketogenic diet for dogs helps prevent seizures in dogs with epilepsy, according to a recent trial published in the British Journal of Medicine. Of the 21 dogs in the trial, seven experienced a 50% reduction in seizure frequency, while three became seizure free, said study author Tsz Hong Law, of the Royal Veterinary College in Hatfield, United Kingdom. Less than one percent of dogs have epilepsy, yet it is one of the most common neurological disorders in dogs. Should your pet switch to a ketogenic diet for dogs to treat his or her epilepsy? If your pup isn’t epileptic, why choose a ketogenic diet? If your pup is healthy, should you avoid a ketogenic diet for your dog? What is a Ketogenic Diet? Ketogenic diets include a high ratio of fat compared with protein and carbohydrates. The high fat content of the diet results in the conversion of fat to ketones – short-chain fats produced by the liver – which the body uses as energy in place of carbohydrates. Humans have treated epilepsy with ketogenic diets since the 1920s. However, it hasn’t been extensively studied in dogs. Why Choose a Ketogenic Diet? In addition to a potential reduction in seizures in epileptic dogs, ketogenic diets are also gaining popularity for cancer treatment. In 1924, Otto Warburg theorized cancer feeds on sugar, which is what carbohydrates become during digestion. However, cancer does not process fats well. As such, Warburg concluded patients could cut out sugars and carbs to slow cancer growth. KetoPet Sanctuary outside Austin, Texas utilizes the Warburg theory. The nonprofit sanctuary rescues dogs with terminal cancer. KetoPet claims to cure dog cancer with a combination of a ketogenic diet, metabolic conditioning (strenuous exercise), and hyperbaric oxygen therapy. However, their finding Continue reading >>

Ketoacidosis

Ketoacidosis

Ketones in the urine, as detected by urine testing stix or a blood ketone testing meter[1], may indicate the beginning of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA), a dangerous and often quickly fatal condition caused by low insulin levels combined with certain other systemic stresses. DKA can be fixed if caught quickly. Diabetics of all species therefore need to be checked for ketones with urine testing stix, available at any pharmacy, whenever insulin level may be too low, and any of the following signs or triggers are present: Ketone Monitoring Needed: Little or no insulin in last 12 hours High blood sugar over 16 mmol/L or 300 mg/dL (though with low insulin, lower as well...) Dehydration (skin doesn't jump back after pulling a bit gums are tacky or dry)[2] Not eating for over 12 hours due to Inappetance or Fasting Vomiting Lethargy Infection or illness High stress levels Breath smells like acetone (nail-polish remover) or fruit. Note that the triggers and signs are somewhat interchangeable because ketoacidosis is, once begun, a set of vicious circles which will make itself worse. So dehydration, hyperglycemia, fasting, and presence of ketones are not only signs, they're also sometimes triggers. In a diabetic, any urinary ketones above trace, or any increase in urinary ketone level, or trace urinary ketones plus some of the symptoms above, are cause to call an emergency vet immediately, at any hour of the day. Possible False Urine Ketone Test Results Drugs and Supplements Valproic Acid (brand names) Depakene, Depakote, Divalproex Sodium[3] Positive. Common use: Treatment of epilepsy. Cefixime/Suprax[4] Positive with nitroprusside-based urine testing. Common use: Antibiotic. Levadopa Metabolites[5] Positive with high concentrations[6]. Tricyclic Ring Compounds[7][8] Positive. Commo Continue reading >>

Does A Low-carb Diet Increase The Risk Of Ketones?

Does A Low-carb Diet Increase The Risk Of Ketones?

Post by Elizabeth Hodgkins DVM on a public message board, October 2000. It is helpful to understand the whys and whens of ketones (or ketone bodies as they are sometimes called) in order to understand the answer to this (these) questions. In the animals with which we are most familiar (including people and cats), the brain's preferred fuel source is glucose. Skeletal muscle and other tissues are pretty happy using fat (triglycerides) for energy, but the brain is characteristically picky about this (and it's generally wise to give the brain what it wants!). One of insulin's chief jobs is to make sure that circulating glucose gets into the brain on demand; insulin is the molecule that "drives" glucose across the cell membrane. When insulin is in short supply or absent, the body (and the brain) perceive that there is a shortage of glucose (even if there really isn't, as when the animal is hyperglycemic), and the brain's second and final fuel source begins to be produced, ketones. Ketones are produced by the liver from the oxidation of the body's fat stores. In conditions of true starvation (when body fat is legitimately broken down for necessary calories), or perceived starvation (hyperglycemic, uncontrolled diabetes), the liver believes it needs to produce ketones from body fat for the brain. This is the reason you see ketones in the urine of unregulated feline diabetics. You see ketosis in humans on some of the more strict high protein, low carb diets, because there is little dietary carbo to supply glucose from the g.i. tract, and the human body is not as efficient at gluconeogenesis (liver production of glucose from protein) as the cat (we have discussed this very major difference between cats and most other mammals on the board in the past). Because gluconeogenesis in Continue reading >>

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