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Can You Make Glucose From Protein?

Protein Controversies In Diabetes

Protein Controversies In Diabetes

Diabetes SpectrumVolume 13 Number 3, 2000, Page 132 Marion J. Franz, MS, RD, LD, CDE In Brief People with diabetes are frequently given advice about protein that has no scientific basis. In addition, although weight is lost when individuals follow a low-carbohydrate, high-protein diet, there is no evidence that such diets are followed long-term or that there is less recidivism than with other low-calorie diets. People with type 1 or type 2 diabetes who are in poor metabolic control may have increased protein requirements. However, the usual amount of protein consumed by people with diabetes adequately compensates for the increased protein catabolism. People with diabetes need adequate and accurate information about protein on which to base their food decisions. In the United States, ~16% of the average adult consumption of calories is from protein, and this has varied little from 1909 to the present.1 Protein intake is also fairly consistent across all ages from infancy to older age. A daily intake of 2,500 calories contributes ~100 g of protein—about twice what is needed to replace protein lost on a daily basis. Excess amino acids must be converted into other storage products or oxidized as fuel. Therefore, in theory, the excess ingested protein could, through the process of gluconeogenesis, produce glucose. This would mean that 100 g of protein could produce ~50 g of glucose. This has been the basis of the statement that if about half of ingested protein is converted to glucose, protein will have one-half the effect of carbohydrate on blood glucose levels. However, this belief has been challenged.2-4 Protein controversies exist either because research has not provided conclusive answers or because professionals are not aware of the research. This article will review Continue reading >>

Can The Human Body Turn Excess Glucose Into Proteins?

Can The Human Body Turn Excess Glucose Into Proteins?

Answered Apr 19, 2016 Author has 8.4k answers and 5.9m answer views No. Glucose is absorbed into our living cells via insulin for instant energy and any excess energy will be first stored in our liver and muscle glycogen then once your glycogen storages are full, they will be converted into fatty acids. Glucose is hydrocarbon chain while amino acids have nitride in the backbone. You can't create nitride out of nowhere. Answered Dec 26, 2017 Author has 1.5k answers and 370.1k answer views Yes. Glucose is the starting point for the synthesis of the nonessential amino acids, which are then incorporated into proteins. A simple pathway to illustrate the point is glucose pyruvate alanine. The last step involves transamination, so you need glucose plus nitrogen from the bodys nitrogen pool. Excess glucose can not be directly converted into protein as it is converted into glycogen and beyond its storage of glycogen in liver and muscles cells into fats. But glucose involved in metabolic pathway indirectly contribute to protein formation. Proteins are made up of amino acids. Amino acids has amino group and a carbon skeleton. During amino acid synthesis amino group for most of amino acid is derived from glutamate but carbon skeletons are derived from commonly available metabolic intermediates of glycolysis, the citric acid cycle, or the pentosr phosphate pathway. The primary carbon sources are glycerate-3-phosphate, pyruvate, PEP , alpha ketoglutarate, oxaloacetate, ribose-5-phosphate, phosphoenolpyruvate and erythrose-4-phosphate. Most of body usable carbohydrates are converted to glucose and glucose undergo glycolysis followed by TCA or Pentose phosphate pathway and above mentioned products are formed during that. The body does to some extent indirectly convert glucose into pro Continue reading >>

If You Eat Excess Protein, Does It Turn Into Excess Glucose?

If You Eat Excess Protein, Does It Turn Into Excess Glucose?

Gluconeogenesis is Demand-Driven, not Supply-Driven We have seen the claim that any protein you eat in excess of your immediate needs will be turned into glucose by spontaneous gluconeogenesis ¹. (Gluconeogenesis (GNG) is the process by which glucose is made out of protein in the liver and kidneys.) Some people think that because protein can be turned into glucose, it will, once other needs are taken care of, and that therefore keto dieters should be careful not to eat too much protein. While we believe there are valid reasons for limiting protein intake, experimental evidence does not support this one. In our opinion, it makes sense physiologically for GNG to be a demand-driven rather than supply-driven process, because of the need to keep blood glucose within tight bounds. In brief Gluconeogenesis is a slow process and the rate doesn't change much even under a wide range of conditions. The hypothesis that the rate of gluconeogenesis is primarily regulated by the amount of available material, e.g. amino acids, has not been supported by experiment. Having insufficient material available for gluconeogenesis will obviously limit the rate, but in the experiments we reviewed, having excess material did not increase the rate. We haven't found any solid evidence to support the idea that excess protein is turned into glucose. More experiments are needed to confirm that this still holds true in keto dieters. Gluconeogenesis has a Stable Rate Gluconeogenesis (GNG) is a carefully regulated process for increasing blood sugar. It is stimulated by different hormones, including glucagon — the primary hormone responsible for preventing low blood sugar. GNG produces glucose slowly and evenly ². It was once thought that the main determination of the rate of GNG was how much glucogen Continue reading >>

Carbohydrates, Proteins, Fats, And Blood Sugar

Carbohydrates, Proteins, Fats, And Blood Sugar

The body uses three main nutrients to function-carbohydrate, protein, and fat. These nutrients are digested into simpler compounds. Carbohydrates are used for energy (glucose). Fats are used for energy after they are broken into fatty acids. Protein can also be used for energy, but the first job is to help with making hormones, muscle, and other proteins. Nutrients needed by the body and what they are used for Type of nutrient Where it is found How it is used Carbohydrate (starches and sugars) Breads Grains Fruits Vegetables Milk and yogurt Foods with sugar Broken down into glucose, used to supply energy to cells. Extra is stored in the liver. Protein Meat Seafood Legumes Nuts and seeds Eggs Milk products Vegetables Broken down into amino acids, used to build muscle and to make other proteins that are essential for the body to function. ADVERTISINGinRead invented by Teads Fat Oils Butter Egg yolks Animal products Broken down into fatty acids to make cell linings and hormones. Extra is stored in fat cells. After a meal, the blood sugar (glucose) level rises as carbohydrate is digested. This signals the beta cells of the pancreas to release insulin into the bloodstream. Insulin helps glucose enter the body's cells to be used for energy. If all the glucose is not needed for energy, some of it is stored in fat cells and in the liver as glycogen. As sugar moves from the blood to the cells, the blood glucose level returns to a normal between-meal range. Several hormones and processes help regulate the blood sugar level and keep it within a certain range (70 mg/dL to 120 mg/dL). When the blood sugar level falls below that range, which may happen between meals, the body has at least three ways of reacting: Cells in the pancreas can release glucagon, a hormone that signals the b Continue reading >>

The Catabolism Of Fats And Proteins For Energy

The Catabolism Of Fats And Proteins For Energy

Before we get into anything, what does the word catabolism mean? When we went over catabolic and anabolic reactions, we said that catabolic reactions are the ones that break apart molecules. To remember what catabolic means, think of a CATastrophe where things are falling apart and breaking apart. You could also remember cats that tear apart your furniture. In order to make ATP for energy, the body breaks down mostly carbs, some fats and very small amounts of protein. Carbs are the go-to food, the favorite food that cells use to make ATP but now we’re going to see how our cells use fats and proteins for energy. What we’re going to find is that they are ALL going to be turned into sugars (acetyl) as this picture below shows. First let’s do a quick review of things you already know because it is assumed you learned cell respiration already and how glucose levels are regulated in your blood! Glucose can be stored as glycogen through a process known as glycogenesis. The hormone that promotes this process is insulin. Then when glycogen needs to be broken down, the hormone glucagon, promotes glycogenolysis (Glycogen-o-lysis) to break apart the glycogen and increase the blood sugar level. Glucose breaks down to form phosphoglycerate (PGAL) and then pyruvic acid. What do we call this process of splitting glucose into two pyruvic sugars? That’s glycolysis (glyco=glucose, and -lysis is to break down). When there’s not enough oxygen, pyruvic acid is converted into lactic acid. When oxygen becomes available, lactic acid is converted back to pyruvic acid. Remember that this all occurs in the cytoplasm. The pyruvates are then, aerobically, broken apart in the mitochondria into Acetyl-CoA. The acetyl sugars are put into the Krebs citric acid cycle and they are totally broken Continue reading >>

Low Carbohydrate Dieters: Beware Of High Protein Intake

Low Carbohydrate Dieters: Beware Of High Protein Intake

Most of us have heard something about low carb dieting. Whether it is the Atkins Diet or the Paleo Diet, carbohydrate restriction is becoming more popular as more people experience dramatic weight loss. While restricting carbohydrate intake does offer several health benefits, there are also dangers involved with eating too much protein. Not only does excessive dietary protein burden the digestive system, it can also contribute to the production of sugar in the body and even inhibit the body’s ability to naturally detoxify! Eating a low carb diet doesn't mean that you have to overload your plate with protein at every meal! Moderating protein in your diet can help you to live longer, limit sugar, and even improve daily digestion. Weight loss is not the only benefit of carbohydrate restriction. When done correctly, a low carb diet can help to control blood sugar, and it can even reverse insulin resistance, helping to heal disorders that are related to a sugar-heavy diet, such as polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Low carb diets can also help to cool down chronic inflammatory disorders, such as rheumatoid arthritis and several autoimmune conditions. Part of the overall success of a low carb diet is that: Many of our processed foods are carbohydrate-rich: Processed foods, which are full of refined oils and sugar, are hazardous for anyone’s health. Carb-heavy foods are often full of common immune system triggers: Several food allergies and immune system disorders are actually rooted in the proteins found in grain-based carbohydrates. One example is wheat gluten. A diet that is full of carbohydrates also feeds infection in the body. This infection could be in the form of bacteria, yeasts, or parasites. 3 Reasons to Limit Your Protein Intake Reason #1 to Moderate Your Protei Continue reading >>

How Food Works

How Food Works

You have probably heard of "carbohydrates" and "complex carbohydrates." Carbohydrates provide your body with its basic fuel. Your body thinks about carbohydrates like a car engine thinks about gasoline. The simplest carbohydrate is glucose. Glucose, also called "blood sugar" and "dextrose," flows in the bloodstream so that it is available to every cell in your body. Your cells absorb glucose and convert it into energy to drive the cell. Specifically, a set of chemical reactions on glucose creates ATP (adenosine triphosphate), and a phosphate bond in ATP powers most of the machinery in any human cell. If you drink a solution of water and glucose, the glucose passes directly from your digestive system into the bloodstream. The word "carbohydrate" comes from the fact that glucose is made up of carbon and water. The chemical formula for glucose is: You can see that glucose is made of six carbon atoms (carbo...) and the elements of six water molecules (...hydrate). Glucose is a simple sugar, meaning that to our tongues it tastes sweet. There are other simple sugars that you have probably heard of. Fructose is the main sugar in fruits. Fructose has the same chemical formula as glucose (C6H12O6), but the atoms are arranged slightly differently. The liver converts fructose to glucose. Sucrose, also known as "white sugar" or "table sugar," is made of one glucose and one fructose molecule bonded together. Lactose (the sugar found in milk) is made of one glucose and one galactose molecule bonded together. Galactose, like fructose, has the same chemical components as glucose but the atoms are arranged differently. The liver also converts galactose to glucose. Maltose, the sugar found in malt, is made from two glucose atoms bonded together. Glucose, fructose and galactose are monosa Continue reading >>

Do Fat And Protein Turn Into Glucose?

Do Fat And Protein Turn Into Glucose?

Sandi Busch received a Bachelor of Arts in psychology, then pursued training in nursing and nutrition. She taught families to plan and prepare special diets, worked as a therapeutic support specialist, and now writes about her favorite topics nutrition, food, families and parenting for hospitals and trade magazines. Glucose keeps you energized.Photo Credit: Ridofranz/iStock/Getty Images When blood glucose gets low, your energy plummets and you may find it hard to concentrate. Your body can temporarily fill the gap by drawing on glucose stored in your liver, but those supplies are limited. When they run out, your body can produce glucose from fats and proteins. Fats are good for backup energy, but your body doesnt like to divert protein into energy due to its other vital functions. The best way to keep your body fueled is to consume the right amount of fats, proteins and carbs. Carbohydrates consist of molecules of sugar, which your body digests into glucose and uses for energy. When youre short on carbs, glucose can be created from fat and protein in a process called gluconeogenesis. Gluconeogenesis takes place mostly in your liver, which also has the job of maintaining a steady amount of glucose in your blood. If blood sugar drops too low due to problems in the liver, your kidneys can boost blood sugar by converting the amino acid glutamine into glucose. The saturated and unsaturated fats in your diet consist of two substances bound together: glycerol and fatty acids. During digestion, they're separated, and each one follows a different path. Glycerol is easily metabolized and used to make glucose. Fatty acids are carried to tissues throughout your body, where they help build cell walls, produce hormones and digest fat-soluble nutrients. Fatty acids can be converted i Continue reading >>

Protein Will Not Make You Fat

Protein Will Not Make You Fat

Here's what you need to know... While it's biochemically possible for protein to turn into fat by ingesting extremely high numbers of calories or extremely large amounts of protein, it's unlikely you'll ever be in that situation. You can pretty much eat as much protein as you want and it won't turn to fat. That old chestnut about only being able to absorb 30 grams of protein in one sitting is bunk. Aside from building muscle, protein provides essential amino acids that serve as the building blocks for other proteins, enzymes, and hormones within the body that are vital for normal functioning. Without this steady supply of amino acids, the body resorts to breaking down its own proteins – typically from muscle – in order to meet this demand. Protein has its share of misconceptions. It's not uncommon to hear claims that dietary protein eaten in excess of some arbitrary number will be stored as body fat. Even those who are supposed to be reputable sources for nutrition information propagate this untenable dogma. While paging through a nutrition textbook I came across a section in the protein chapter regarding amino acids and energy metabolism (1). To quote the book directly: "Eating extra protein during times of glucose and energy sufficiency generally contributes to more fat storage, not muscle growth. This is because, during times of glucose and energy excess, your body redirects the flow of amino acids away from gluconeogenesis and ATP-producing pathways and instead converts them to lipids. The resulting lipids can subsequently be stored as body fat for later use." This is, more or less, supported by another textbook I own (2): "In times of excess energy and protein intakes coupled with adequate carbohydrate intake, the carbon skeleton of amino acids may be used to s Continue reading >>

Protein: Metabolism And Effect On Blood Glucose Levels.

Protein: Metabolism And Effect On Blood Glucose Levels.

Abstract Insulin is required for carbohydrate, fat, and protein to be metabolized. With respect to carbohydrate from a clinical standpoint, the major determinate of the glycemic response is the total amount of carbohydrate ingested rather than the source of the carbohydrate. This fact is the basic principle of carbohydrate counting for meal planning. Fat has little, if any, effect on blood glucose levels, although a high fat intake does appear to contribute to insulin resistance. Protein has a minimal effect on blood glucose levels with adequate insulin. However, with insulin deficiency, gluconeogenesis proceeds rapidly and contributes to an elevated blood glucose level. With adequate insulin, the blood glucose response in persons with diabetes would be expected to be similar to the blood glucose response in persons without diabetes. The reason why protein does not increase blood glucose levels is unclear. Several possibilities might explain the response: a slow conversion of protein to glucose, less protein being converted to glucose and released than previously thought, glucose from protein being incorporated into hepatic glycogen stores but not increasing the rate of hepatic glucose release, or because the process of gluconeogenesis from protein occurs over a period of hours and glucose can be disposed of if presented for utilization slowly and evenly over a long time period. Continue reading >>

Gluconeogenesis – The Worst Name For A Rock Band Ever

Gluconeogenesis – The Worst Name For A Rock Band Ever

At least three times a week I am engaged either in the Facebook group or other places asking questions that generally go like this: “At what point do I eat too much protein and go into gluconeogenesis ?” So I wanted to provide a more thought out answer, so here goes. I should add that my commentary here is largely to be filtered through the lens of T1 diabetes…if you’re T1 diabetic, the regulatory feedback mechanisms are endogenously broken (the pancreas isn’t producing insulin), and must be regulated exogenously (the injection of insulin). What is gluconeogenesis? Gluconeogenesis (also known as GNG) is the process by which the body takes “stuff” that isn’t glucose (the more technical term is “non-glucose substrate”) and turns it into glucose. It is an ongoing process which happens in complete starvation as well as in a modified starvation or even a fully fed state. Translation – gluconeogenesis happens all the time, in everyone, everywhere. It seems to happen at a relatively consistent rate. I will get into some additional details on that rate later, but for now, the message is this – studies which have been conducted on humans are lacking, but those which have been done have shown that the rate of GNG does not materially change when protein content of the diet is manipulated. Often, GNG is spoken of as “too much protein in my diet causes it to turn into glucose,” or glibly said…“protein turning into chocolate cake.” The biochemical reality is, however, that it is a bit more complex than that. There are essentially three major contributors to gluconeogenesis which warrant discussion. Protein Protein is composed of amino acids linked together. Some amino acids are called “ketogenic” which (for the purposes of our talk) means that th Continue reading >>

Can Your Body Produce Carbohydrates From Protein Intake?

Can Your Body Produce Carbohydrates From Protein Intake?

Your body relies on three classes of nutrients to meet its energetic needs: carbohydrates, protein and fats. It ultimately breaks down all digestible carbs into glucose, one of the simplest carbohydrates and the body's primary fuel. Some tissues, such as the brain, red blood cells, kidneys, cornea, testes and muscles, need a steady supply of glucose to function optimally. When necessary, your body makes glucose from nutrients other than carbohydrates, namely, proteins and fats. The process involved is called gluconeogenesis. Proteins and carbohydrates yield 4 calories per gram. With a yield of 9 calories per gram, fats provide the most energy by weight, but they digest more slowly than proteins and carbs do. The body prefers carbohydrates, as they are the quickest source of energy. When carbohydrates become unavailable, your body turns first to protein as an alternate fuel source, and second to fats. Carbohydrate and Protein Usage When you eat too many carbs or too much protein, your body stores some of the excess as fat. Excess carbs also end up in your liver and muscles in the form of glycogen. Between meals or during an overnight fast, your body taps into glycogen stores to get the glucose it needs for energy. According to biochemist Pamela Champe, Ph.D., glycogen stores can fuel your body for 10 to 18 hours. After running out of glycogen, your body starts breaking down protein to make glucose. Dietary Protein’s Roles Protein plays essential roles in the growth and development of the human body, tissue repair, muscle-mass maintenance, immune function, and hormone and enzyme production. Energy production is not its primary function. However, as previously mentioned, your body can break down tissue protein to make the glucose it needs whenever carbs are unavailable. Continue reading >>

Sources Of Glucose

Sources Of Glucose

Our bodies convert food into energy. Although we get energy and calories from carbohydrate, protein, and fat, our main source of energy is from carbohydrate. Our bodies convert carbohydrate into glucose, a type of sugar. See Illustration: How Food Affects Blood Sugar Many foods contain a combination of carbohydrate, protein, and fat. The amount of each in the food we eat affects how quickly our bodies change that food into glucose. This is how different foods affect how our blood sugar levels: Carbohydrate: Includes bread, rice, pasta, potatoes, vegetables, fruit, sugar, yogurt, and milk. Our bodies change 100 percent of the carbohydrate we eat into glucose. This affects our blood sugar levels quickly, within an hour or two after eating Protein: Includes fish, meat, cheese, and peanut butter. Although our bodies change some of the protein we eat into glucose, most of this glucose is stored in our liver and not released into our bloodstream. Eating protein usually has very little impact on blood sugar. Fat: Includes butter, salad dressing, avocado, olive oil. We turn less than 10 percent of the fat we eat into glucose. The glucose from fat is absorbed slowly and it won't cause an immediate rise in blood sugar. Even though we don't get much glucose from fat, a meal that's high in fat can affect how fast our bodies digest carbohydrate. Because fat slows down the digestion of carbohydrate, it also slows down the rise in blood sugar levels. This sometimes can cause a high blood sugar level several hours after eating. For some people, this delayed reaction can be quite a surprise. For example, after eating a meal high in fat, a person might have a blood sugar reading that's close to normal before going to bed. But the next morning, he or she might have a fasting blood sugar t Continue reading >>

We Really Can Make Glucose From Fatty Acids After All! O Textbook, How Thy Biochemistry Hast Deceived Me!

We Really Can Make Glucose From Fatty Acids After All! O Textbook, How Thy Biochemistry Hast Deceived Me!

Biochemistry textbooks generally tell us that we can’t turn fatty acids into glucose. For example, on page 634 of the 2006 and 2008 editions of Biochemistry by Berg, Tymoczko, and Stryer, we find the following: Animals Cannot Convert Fatty Acids to Glucose It is important to note that animals are unable to effect the net synthesis of glucose from fatty acids. Specficially, acetyl CoA cannot be converted into pyruvate or oxaloacetate in animals. In fact this is so important that it should be written in italics and have its own bold heading! But it’s not quite right. Making glucose from fatty acids is low-paying work. It’s not the type of alchemy that would allow us to build imperial palaces out of sugar cubes or offer hourly sweet sacrifices upon the altar of the glorious god of glucose (God forbid!). But it can be done, and it’ll help pay the bills when times are tight. All Aboard the Acetyl CoA! When we’re running primarily on fatty acids, our livers break the bulk of these fatty acids down into two-carbon units called acetate. When acetate hangs out all by its lonesome like it does in a bottle of vinegar, it’s called acetic acid and it gives vinegar its characteristic smell. Our livers aren’t bottles of vinegar, however, and they do things a bit differently. They have a little shuttle called coenzyme A, or “CoA” for short, that carries acetate wherever it needs to go. When the acetate passenger is loaded onto the CoA shuttle, we refer to the whole shebang as acetyl CoA. As acetyl CoA moves its caboose along the biochemical railway, it eventually reaches a crossroads where it has to decide whether to enter the Land of Ketogenesis or traverse the TCA cycle. The Land of Ketogenesis is a quite magical place to which we’ll return in a few moments, but n Continue reading >>

Gluconeogenesis

Gluconeogenesis

Not to be confused with Glycogenesis or Glyceroneogenesis. Simplified Gluconeogenesis Pathway Gluconeogenesis (GNG) is a metabolic pathway that results in the generation of glucose from certain non-carbohydrate carbon substrates. From breakdown of proteins, these substrates include glucogenic amino acids (although not ketogenic amino acids); from breakdown of lipids (such as triglycerides), they include glycerol (although not fatty acids); and from other steps in metabolism they include pyruvate and lactate. Gluconeogenesis is one of several main mechanisms used by humans and many other animals to maintain blood glucose levels, avoiding low levels (hypoglycemia). Other means include the degradation of glycogen (glycogenolysis)[1] and fatty acid catabolism. Gluconeogenesis is a ubiquitous process, present in plants, animals, fungi, bacteria, and other microorganisms.[2] In vertebrates, gluconeogenesis takes place mainly in the liver and, to a lesser extent, in the cortex of the kidneys. In ruminants, this tends to be a continuous process.[3] In many other animals, the process occurs during periods of fasting, starvation, low-carbohydrate diets, or intense exercise. The process is highly endergonic until it is coupled to the hydrolysis of ATP or GTP, effectively making the process exergonic. For example, the pathway leading from pyruvate to glucose-6-phosphate requires 4 molecules of ATP and 2 molecules of GTP to proceed spontaneously. Gluconeogenesis is often associated with ketosis. Gluconeogenesis is also a target of therapy for type 2 diabetes, such as the antidiabetic drug, metformin, which inhibits glucose formation and stimulates glucose uptake by cells.[4] In ruminants, because dietary carbohydrates tend to be metabolized by rumen organisms, gluconeogenesis occurs Continue reading >>

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