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Can You Have Metabolic Acidosis And Alkalosis At The Same Time?

Abg: Respiratory Acidosis/metabolic Alkalosis

Abg: Respiratory Acidosis/metabolic Alkalosis

Home / ABA Keyword Categories / A / ABG: Respiratory acidosis/metabolic alkalosis ABG: Respiratory acidosis/metabolic alkalosis A combined respiratory acidosis / metabolic alkalosis will result in elevated PaCO2 and serum bicarbonate. Which process is the primary disorder (e.g. primary respiratory acidosis with metabolic compensation versus primary metabolic alkalosis with respiratory compensation) is dependent on the pH in an acidotic patient, the acidosis is primary (and the alkalosis is compensatory) and vice versa. Compensation behaves in accordance with the following rules: Metabolic Acidosis: As bicarbonate goes from 10 to 5, pCO2 will bottom out at 15. pCO2 = 1.5 x [HCO3-] + 8 (or pCO2 = 1.25 x [HCO3-]) Metabolic Alkalosis: compensation here is less because CO2 is driving force for respiration. pCO2 = 0.7 x [HCO3-] + 21 (or pCO2 = 0.75 x [HCO3-]) Acutely: [HCO3-] = 0.1 x pCO2 or pH = 0.008 x pCO2 Chronically: [HCO3-] = 0.4 x pCO2 or pH = 0.003 x pCO2 Respiratory Alkalosis: Metabolic compensation will automatically be retention of chloride (i.e., hyperchloremic, usually referred to as loss of bicarb although it is the strong ion difference that matters). If you have an anion gap, then youve automatically got a little bit of an acidosis on top of the compensation (because the compensation should be a NON-gap acidotic process. Acutely: [HCO3-] = 0.2 x pCO2 (or pH = 0.008 x pCO2) Chronically: [HCO3-] = 0.4 x pCO2 (or pH = 0.017 x pCO2) Continue reading >>

Alkalosis

Alkalosis

Your blood is made up of acids and bases. The amount of acids and bases in your blood can be measured on a pH scale. It’s important to maintain the correct balance between acids and bases. Even a slight change can cause health problems. Normally, your blood should have a slightly higher amount of bases than acids. Alkalosis occurs when your body has too many bases. It can occur due to decreased blood levels of carbon dioxide, which is an acid. It can also occur due to increased blood levels of bicarbonate, which is a base. This condition may also be related to other underlying health issues such as low potassium, or hypokalemia. The earlier it’s detected and treated, the better the outcome is. Acid-base balance » There are five main types of alkalosis. Respiratory alkalosis Respiratory alkalosis occurs when there isn’t enough carbon dioxide in your bloodstream. It’s often caused by: hyperventilation, which commonly occurs with anxiety high fever lack of oxygen salicylate poisoning being in high altitudes Metabolic alkalosis Metabolic alkalosis develops when your body loses too much acid or gains too much base. This can be attributed to: excess vomiting, which causes electrolyte loss overuse of diuretics a large loss of potassium or sodium in a short amount of time antacids accidental ingestion of bicarbonate, which can be found in baking soda laxatives alcohol abuse Hypochloremic alkalosis Hypochloremic alkalosis occurs when there’s a significant decline of chloride in your body. This can be due to prolonged vomiting or sweating. Chloride is an important chemical needed to maintain balance in bodily fluids, and it’s an essential part of your body’s digestive fluids. Hypokalemic alkalosis Hypokalemic alkalosis occurs when your body lacks the normal amount Continue reading >>

A Primer On Arterial Blood Gas Analysis By Andrew M. Luks, Md(cont.)

A Primer On Arterial Blood Gas Analysis By Andrew M. Luks, Md(cont.)

Step 4: Identify the compensatory process (if one is present) In general, the primary process is followed by a compensatory process, as the body attempts to bring the pH back towards the normal range. If the patient has a primary respiratory acidosis (high PCO2 ) leading to acidemia: the compensatory process is a metabolic alkalosis (rise in the serum bicarbonate). If the patient has a primary respiratory alkalosis (low PCO2 ) leading to alkalemia: the compensatory process is a metabolic acidosis (decrease in the serum bicarbonate) If the patient has a primary metabolic acidosis (low bicarbonate) leading acidemia, the compensatory process is a respiratory alkalosis (low PCO2 ). If the patient has a primary metabolic alkalosis (high bicarbonate) leading to alkalemia, the compensatory process is a respiratory acidosis (high PCO2 ) The compensatory processes are summarized in Figure 2. (opens in a new window) Important Points Regarding Compensatory Processes There are several important points to be aware of regarding these compensatory processes: The body never overcompensates for the primary process. For example, if the patient develops acidemia due to a respiratory acidosis and then subsequently develops a compensatory metabolic alkalosis (a good example of this is the COPD patient with chronic carbon dioxide retention), the pH will move back towards the normal value of 7.4 but will not go to the alkalemic side of normal This might result in a pH of 7.36, for example but should not result in a pH such as 7.44 or another value on the alkalemic side of normal. If the pH appears to "over-compensate" then an additional process is at work and you will have to try and identify it. This can happen with mixed acid-base disorders, which are described further below. The pace of co Continue reading >>

Metabolic Acidosis Question!!

Metabolic Acidosis Question!!

If the patient is having a gastritis? is this metabolic acidosis? and if the patient is having pulmonary embolism? is that respiratory acidosis? Metabolic experts Please help me to understand this concept! Gastritis--> vomiting-->Metabolic AHHHHLKalosis. for your pulmonary question, i would say time matters. they are usually in acidosis before they go into alkalosis Gastritis--> vomiting-->Metabolic AHHHHLKalosis. for your pulmonary question, i would say time matters. they are usually in acidosis before they go into alkalosis I love this! Very easy to remember. I always have to think "OK, vomiting means you're losing stomach acid. If you lose acid, then you have too much base = alkalosis" or "Diarrhea means you're losing base. If you lose base, then you have too much acid = acidosis". Much easier to remember AHHHLKalosis & ASSSidosis I'm also going to leave you with GrnTea's wonderful ABGs Made Simple post. This got me through nursing school !!! While some of this appears in other places on the net, I wrote it first , and I hope it is as helpful to you as it has been for many others. You want simple ABGs? Piece o' cake. People who have seen this before, well, just scroll on by. Newbies who want a brief ABG's refresher, take out your pencils and a piece of paper, cuz you'll need to do a bit of drawing . I taught ABG interpretation for yrs in a way that made it pretty foolproof. You will make your own key to interpret ABG's, and will be able to reproduce it from memory any time you need to with very little trouble if you learn a very few **key concepts**, labeled **thus**.. Take a piece of paper. Make a big box on it, then draw vertical and horizontal lines on it so you have four boxes. I will try to make this come out, but...you should have where the four boxes a,b,c Continue reading >>

Recognizing Mixed Acid Base Disturbances - Acvim 2008 - Vin

Recognizing Mixed Acid Base Disturbances - Acvim 2008 - Vin

A proper understanding of the terms acidosis, alkalosis, acidemia, and alkalemia is necessary to differentiate simple from mixed acid base disorders.1 Acidosis and alkalosis refer to the pathophysiologic processes that cause net accumulation of acid or alkali in the body, whereas acidemia and alkalemia refer specifically to the pH of extracellular fluid. In acidemia, the extracellular fluid pH is less than normal and the [H+] is higher than normal. In alkalemia, the extracellular fluid pH is higher than normal and the [H+] is lower than normal. Due to the effectiveness of compensatory mechanisms, animals can have acidosis or alkalosis but not acidemia or alkalemia. For example, a dog with chronic respiratory alkalosis may have a blood pH that is within the normal range. Such a patient has alkalosis, but does not have alkalemia. The primary acid base disorders are divided into metabolic and respiratory disturbances: metabolic acidosis, metabolic alkalosis, respiratory acidosis, and respiratory alkalosis. The Henderson-Hasselbach equation in its clinically relevant form emphasizes the relationship between the metabolic and respiratory systems in determining extracellular fluid pH: Traditionally, the kidneys have been considered responsible for regulation of the metabolic component (blood bicarbonate concentration, [HCO3-]) and the lungs for regulation of the respiratory component (partial pressure of CO2, [pCO2]). In this form, the Henderson-Hasselbach equation makes it clear that the pH of extracellular fluid is determined by the ratio of the bicarbonate concentration and pCO2. Each primary (metabolic or respiratory) acid base disturbance is accompanied by a secondary (opposing) response in the other system (respiratory or metabolic). Blood pH is returned nearly, but no Continue reading >>

Simple Method Of Acid Base Balance Interpretation

Simple Method Of Acid Base Balance Interpretation

A FOUR STEP METHOD FOR INTERPRETATION OF ABGS Usefulness This method is simple, easy and can be used for the majority of ABGs. It only addresses acid-base balance and considers just 3 values. pH, PaCO2 HCO3- Step 1. Use pH to determine Acidosis or Alkalosis. ph < 7.35 7.35-7.45 > 7.45 Acidosis Normal or Compensated Alkalosis Step 2. Use PaCO2 to determine respiratory effect. PaCO2 < 35 35 -45 > 45 Tends toward alkalosis Causes high pH Neutralizes low pH Normal or Compensated Tends toward acidosis Causes low pH Neutralizes high pH Step 3. Assume metabolic cause when respiratory is ruled out. You'll be right most of the time if you remember this simple table: High pH Low pH Alkalosis Acidosis High PaCO2 Low PaCO2 High PaCO2 Low PaCO2 Metabolic Respiratory Respiratory Metabolic If PaCO2 is abnormal and pH is normal, it indicates compensation. pH > 7.4 would be a compensated alkalosis. pH < 7.4 would be a compensated acidosis. These steps will make more sense if we apply them to actual ABG values. Click here to interpret some ABG values using these steps. You may want to refer back to these steps (click on "linked" steps or use "BACK" button on your browser) or print out this page for reference. Step 4. Use HC03 to verify metabolic effect Normal HCO3- is 22-26 Please note: Remember, the first three steps apply to the majority of cases, but do not take into account: the possibility of complete compensation, but those cases are usually less serious, and instances of combined respiratory and metabolic imbalance, but those cases are pretty rare. "Combined" disturbance means HCO3- alters the pH in the same direction as the PaCO2. High PaCO2 and low HCO3- (acidosis) or Low PaCO2 and high HCO3- (alkalosis). Continue reading >>

Perfecting Your Acid-base Balancing Act

Perfecting Your Acid-base Balancing Act

When it comes to acids and bases, the difference between life and death is balance. The body’s acid-base balance depends on some delicately balanced chemical reactions. The hydrogen ion (H+) affects pH, and pH regulation influences the speed of cellular reactions, cell function, cell permeability, and the very integrity of cell structure. When an imbalance develops, you can detect it quickly by knowing how to assess your patient and interpret arterial blood gas (ABG) values. And you can restore the balance by targeting your interventions to the specific acid-base disorder you find. Basics of acid-base balance Before assessing a patient’s acid-base balance, you need to understand how the H+ affects acids, bases, and pH. An acid is a substance that can donate H+ to a base. Examples include hydrochloric acid, nitric acid, ammonium ion, lactic acid, acetic acid, and carbonic acid (H2CO3). A base is a substance that can accept or bind H+. Examples include ammonia, lactate, acetate, and bicarbonate (HCO3-). pH reflects the overall H+ concentration in body fluids. The higher the number of H+ in the blood, the lower the pH; and the lower the number of H+, the higher the pH. A solution containing more base than acid has fewer H+ and a higher pH. A solution containing more acid than base has more H+ and a lower pH. The pH of water (H2O), 7.4, is considered neutral. The pH of blood is slightly alkaline and has a normal range of 7.35 to 7.45. For normal enzyme and cell function and normal metabolism, the blood’s pH must remain in this narrow range. If the blood is acidic, the force of cardiac contractions diminishes. If the blood is alkaline, neuromuscular function becomes impaired. A blood pH below 6.8 or above 7.8 is usually fatal. pH also reflects the balance between the p Continue reading >>

Abg’s—it’s All In The Family

Abg’s—it’s All In The Family

By Cyndi Cramer, BA, RN, OCN, PCRN RealNurseEd.com 3.0 Contact Hour Self Learning Module Objectives: Identify the components of the ABG and their normal ranges Interpret ABG values and determine the acid base abnormality given Identify the major causes of acid base abnormalities Describe symptoms associated with acid base abnormalities Describe interventions to correct acid base abnormalities Identify the acceptable O2 level per ABG and Pulse Oximetry Identify four causes of low PaO2 The Respiratory System (Acid); CO2 is a volatile acid If you increase your respiratory rate (hyperventilation) you "blow off" CO2 (acid) therefore decreasing your CO2 acid—giving you ALKLAOSIS If you decrease your respiratory rate (hypoventilation) you retain CO2 (acid) therefore increasing your CO2 (acid)—giving you ACIDOSIS The Renal System (Base); the kidneys rid the body of the nonvolatile acids H+ (hydrogen ions) and maintain a constant bicarb (HCO3). Bicarbonate is the body’s base You have Acidosis when you have excess H+ and decreased HCO3- causing a decrease in pH. The Kidneys try to adjust for this by excreting H+ and retaining HCO3- base. The Respiratory System will try to compensate by increasing ventilation to blow off CO2 (acid) and therefore decrease the Acidosis. You have Alkalosis when H+ decreases and you have excess (or increased) HCO3- base. The kidneys excrete HCO3- (base) and retain H+ to compensate. The respiratory system tries to compensate with hypoventilation to retain CO2 (acid) To decrease the alkalosis Compensation The respiratory system can effect a change in 15-30 minutes The renal system takes several hours to days to have an effect. RESPIRATORY ACIDOSIS: pH < 7.35 (Normal: 7.35 - 7.45) CO2 > 45 (Normal: 35 – 45) 1. Causes: Hypoventilation a. Depressio Continue reading >>

Acid–base Imbalance

Acid–base Imbalance

Acid–base imbalance is an abnormality of the human body's normal balance of acids and bases that causes the plasma pH to deviate out of the normal range (7.35 to 7.45). In the fetus, the normal range differs based on which umbilical vessel is sampled (umbilical vein pH is normally 7.25 to 7.45; umbilical artery pH is normally 7.18 to 7.38).[1] It can exist in varying levels of severity, some life-threatening. Classification[edit] A Davenport diagram illustrates acid–base imbalance graphically. An excess of acid is called acidosis or acidemia and an excess in bases is called alkalosis or alkalemia. The process that causes the imbalance is classified based on the cause of the disturbance (respiratory or metabolic) and the direction of change in pH (acidosis or alkalosis). This yields the following four basic processes: process pH carbon dioxide compensation metabolic acidosis down down respiratory respiratory acidosis down up renal metabolic alkalosis up up respiratory respiratory alkalosis up down renal Mixed disorders[edit] The presence of only one of the above derangements is called a simple acid–base disorder. In a mixed disorder more than one is occurring at the same time.[2] Mixed disorders may feature an acidosis and alkosis at the same time that partially counteract each other, or there can be two different conditions affecting the pH in the same direction. The phrase "mixed acidosis", for example, refers to metabolic acidosis in conjunction with respiratory acidosis. Any combination is possible, except concurrent respiratory acidosis and respiratory alkalosis, since a person cannot breathe too fast and too slow at the same time... Calculation of imbalance[edit] The traditional approach to the study of acid–base physiology has been the empirical approach. Continue reading >>

10. Acid Base Tutorial - Barnes

10. Acid Base Tutorial - Barnes

TRUE or FALSE: ABG goes in through the femoral artery TEST: What is the general equation for pH in terms of hydrogen ions? As hydrogen ion concentration goes down, the pH goes (up/down) and causes the blood to be (acidemic/alkalemic) TEST: What is the MAIN buffer system in our body that keeps our blood pH stable? TEST: As hydrogen ions increase in our blood, the bicarbonate buffer system causes a build up of more _____ which is excreted by our _______ As hydrogen ions increase in our blood, it builds up more CARBON DIOXIDE which is excreted by our LUNGS This is the RESPIRATORY side of the buffer system TEST: As carbon dioxide levels in our blood increases, the bicarbonate buffer system causes a buildup of ____ and ______ (ions) that is excreted by our __________ As carbon dioxide levels in our blood increases, it causes a buildup of H+ and HCO3- that is excreted by our KIDNEYS This is the METABOLIC side of the buffer system TEST: What is the equation for pH in terms of the bicarbonate buffer system and the Henderson-Hasselbalch equation? As HCO3 levels increase, pH will (increase/decrease) More bicarbonate means less hydrogen ions as the buffer system shifts it to the left, so pH will increase! As PCO2 levels increase, pH will (increase/decrease) DECREASE! (more carbon dioxide means more H+ ions, lower the pH) When you see abnormal HCO3 levels, you think what organ? When you see abnormal CO2 levels, you think what organ? A pH higher than this makes the blood ________, while a pH lower than this makes the blood _______ TEST: What is the simplified form of the Henderson-Hasselbalch Equation for the bicarbonate buffer system and pH? Note: The equal sign means PROPORTIONAL in this case TEST: Based on the simplified Henderson-Hasselbalch equation, if pH and HCO3 levels move Continue reading >>

Metabolic Acidosis Or Respiratory Alkalosis? Evaluation Of A Low Plasmabicarbonate Using The Urine Anion Gap.

Metabolic Acidosis Or Respiratory Alkalosis? Evaluation Of A Low Plasmabicarbonate Using The Urine Anion Gap.

1. Am J Kidney Dis. 2017 Sep;70(3):440-444. doi: 10.1053/j.ajkd.2017.04.017. Epub2017 Jun 7. Metabolic Acidosis or Respiratory Alkalosis? Evaluation of a Low PlasmaBicarbonate Using the Urine Anion Gap. Batlle D(1), Chin-Theodorou J(2), Tucker BM(3). (1)Division of Nephrology & Hypertension, Department of Medicine, The Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL. Electronic address: [email protected] (2)Division of Nephrology & Hypertension, Department of Medicine, The Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL. (3)Section of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT. Hypobicarbonatemia, or a reduced bicarbonate concentration in plasma, is afinding seen in 3 acid-base disorders: metabolic acidosis, chronic respiratoryalkalosis and mixed metabolic acidosis and chronic respiratory alkalosis.Hypobicarbonatemia due to chronic respiratory alkalosis is often misdiagnosed as a metabolic acidosis and mistreated with the administration of alkali therapy.Proper diagnosis of the cause of hypobicarbonatemia requires integration of thelaboratory values, arterial blood gas, and clinical history. The informationderived from the urinary response to the prevailing acid-base disorder is useful to arrive at the correct diagnosis. We discuss the use of urine anion gap, as asurrogate marker of urine ammonium excretion, in the evaluation of a patient withlow plasma bicarbonate concentration to differentiate between metabolic acidosis and chronic respiratory alkalosis. The interpretation and limitations of urineacid-base indexes at bedside (urine pH, urine bicarbonate, and urine anion gap)to evaluate urine acidification are discussed.Copyright 2017 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by E Continue reading >>

Acid-base Disorders - Endocrine And Metabolic Disorders - Merck Manuals Professional Edition

Acid-base Disorders - Endocrine And Metabolic Disorders - Merck Manuals Professional Edition

(Video) Overview of Acid-Base Maps and Compensatory Mechanisms By James L. Lewis, III, MD, Attending Physician, Brookwood Baptist Health and Saint Vincents Ascension Health, Birmingham Acid-base disorders are pathologic changes in carbon dioxide partial pressure (Pco2) or serum bicarbonate (HCO3) that typically produce abnormal arterial pH values. Acidosis refers to physiologic processes that cause acid accumulation or alkali loss. Alkalosis refers to physiologic processes that cause alkali accumulation or acid loss. Actual changes in pH depend on the degree of physiologic compensation and whether multiple processes are present. Primary acid-base disturbances are defined as metabolic or respiratory based on clinical context and whether the primary change in pH is due to an alteration in serum HCO3 or in Pco2. Metabolic acidosis is serum HCO3< 24 mEq/L. Causes are Metabolic alkalosis is serum HCO3> 24 mEq/L. Causes are Respiratory acidosis is Pco2> 40 mm Hg (hypercapnia). Cause is Decrease in minute ventilation (hypoventilation) Respiratory alkalosis is Pco2< 40 mm Hg (hypocapnia). Cause is Increase in minute ventilation (hyperventilation) Compensatory mechanisms begin to correct the pH (see Table: Primary Changes and Compensations in Simple Acid-Base Disorders ) whenever an acid-base disorder is present. Compensation cannot return pH completely to normal and never overshoots. A simple acid-base disorder is a single acid-base disturbance with its accompanying compensatory response. Mixed acid-base disorders comprise 2 primary disturbances. Compensatory mechanisms for acid-base disturbances cannot return pH completely to normal and never overshoot. Primary Changes and Compensations in Simple Acid-Base Disorders 1.2 mm Hg decrease in Pco2 for every 1 mmol/L decrease in HC Continue reading >>

Acid-base Imbalance - An Overview | Sciencedirect Topics

Acid-base Imbalance - An Overview | Sciencedirect Topics

Gary P. Carlson, Michael Bruss, in Clinical Biochemistry of Domestic Animals (Sixth Edition) , 2008 Mixed acid-base disorders occur when several primary acid-base imbalances coexist (de Morais, 1992a). Metabolic acidosis and alkalosis can coexist and either or sometimes both of these metabolic abnormalities may occur with either respiratory acidosis or alkalosis (Nairns and Emmett, 1980; Wilson and Green, 1985). Evaluation of mixed acid-base abnormalities requires an understanding of the anion gap, the relationship between the change in serum sodium and chloride concentration, and the limits of compensation for the primary acid-base imbalances (Saxton and Seldin, 1986; Wilson and Green, 1985). Clinical findings and history are also necessary to define the factors that may contribute to the development of mixed acid-base disorders. The following are important considerations in evaluating possible mixed acid-base disorders: Compensating responses to primary acid-base disturbances do not result in overcompensation. With the possible exception of chronic respiratory acidosis, compensating responses for primary acid-base disturbances rarely correct pH to normal. In patients with acid-base imbalances, a normal pH indicates a mixed acid-base disturbance. A change in pH in the opposite direction to that predicted for a known primary disorder indicates a mixed disturbance. With primary acid-base disturbances, bicarbonate and pCO2 always deviate in the same direction. If these parameters deviate in opposite directions, a mixed abnormality exists. Although mixed acid-base abnormalities undoubtedly occur in animals and have been documented in the veterinary literature, they are often overlooked (Wilson and Green, 1985). An appreciation of the potential for the development of mixed Continue reading >>

What Is Metabolic Acidosis?

What Is Metabolic Acidosis?

Metabolic acidosis happens when the chemical balance of acids and bases in your blood gets thrown off. Your body: Is making too much acid Isn't getting rid of enough acid Doesn't have enough base to offset a normal amount of acid When any of these happen, chemical reactions and processes in your body don't work right. Although severe episodes can be life-threatening, sometimes metabolic acidosis is a mild condition. You can treat it, but how depends on what's causing it. Causes of Metabolic Acidosis Different things can set up an acid-base imbalance in your blood. Ketoacidosis. When you have diabetes and don't get enough insulin and get dehydrated, your body burns fat instead of carbs as fuel, and that makes ketones. Lots of ketones in your blood turn it acidic. People who drink a lot of alcohol for a long time and don't eat enough also build up ketones. It can happen when you aren't eating at all, too. Lactic acidosis. The cells in your body make lactic acid when they don't have a lot of oxygen to use. This acid can build up, too. It might happen when you're exercising intensely. Big drops in blood pressure, heart failure, cardiac arrest, and an overwhelming infection can also cause it. Renal tubular acidosis. Healthy kidneys take acids out of your blood and get rid of them in your pee. Kidney diseases as well as some immune system and genetic disorders can damage kidneys so they leave too much acid in your blood. Hyperchloremic acidosis. Severe diarrhea, laxative abuse, and kidney problems can cause lower levels of bicarbonate, the base that helps neutralize acids in blood. Respiratory acidosis also results in blood that's too acidic. But it starts in a different way, when your body has too much carbon dioxide because of a problem with your lungs. Continue reading >>

Types Of Disturbances

Types Of Disturbances

The different types of acid-base disturbances are differentiated based on: Origin: Respiratory or metabolic Primary or secondary (compensatory) Uncomplicated or mixed: A simple or uncomplicated disturbance is a single or primary acid-base disturbance with or without compensation. A mixed disturbance is more than one primary disturbance (not a primary with an expected compensatory response). Acid-base disturbances have profound effects on the body. Acidemia results in arrythmias, decreased cardiac output, depression, and bone demineralization. Alkalemia results in tetany and convulsions, weakness, polydipsia and polyuria. Thus, the body will immediately respond to changes in pH or H+, which must be kept within strict defined limits. As soon as there is a metabolic or respiratory acid-base disturbance, body buffers immediately soak up the proton (in acidosis) or release protons (alkalosis) to offset the changes in H+ (i.e. the body compensates for the changes in H+). This is very effective so minimal changes in pH occur if the body is keeping up or the acid-base abnormality is mild. However, once buffers are overwhelmed, the pH will change and kick in stronger responses. Remember that the goal of the body is to keep hydrogen (which dictates pH) within strict defined limits. The kidney and lungs are the main organs responsible for maintaining normal acid-base balance. The lungs compensate for a primary metabolic condition and will correct for a primary respiratory disturbance if the disease or condition causing the disturbance is resolved. The kidney is responsible for compensating for a primary respiratory disturbance or correcting for a primary metabolic disturbance. Thus, normal renal function is essential for the body to be able to adequately neutralize acid-base abnor Continue reading >>

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