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Can You Get Brain Damage From Ketoacidosis?

Diabetic Seizures – What Are They? Symptoms, Causes, And Treatments

Diabetic Seizures – What Are They? Symptoms, Causes, And Treatments

A diabetic seizure is a serious medical condition and without emergency treatment, it has proven to be fatal. Extremely low levels of sugar in the diabetic’s blood cause these seizures. That is why it is so important for those who have diabetes to monitor and control their blood sugar. What Are the Causes? A number of different things can actually cause a diabetic seizure to occur. It could happen because too much insulin is injected, or because the diabetic did not eat right after taking insulin. Some of the other potential causes include not eating meals regularly or drinking too much alcohol. Even certain oral diabetes medications can make the body produce excess insulin. Those who are exercising too much without taking into account how this will affect their insulin levels will also be at a greater risk of suffering a diabetic stroke. No matter what causes the seizure, it is always a medical emergency and those who have one need immediate medical attention. What Are the Symptoms? When entering the first stages of a diabetic seizure, the person may exhibit a number of different symptoms. Some of the most common symptoms include: Sweating Clamminess Drowsiness Confusion Bodily shakes Hallucinations Rapid and unexpected emotional changes Weakness in the muscles Anxiety Vision changes Loss of ability to speak clearly After these initial symptoms, the next phase of symptoms begin and the danger level rises. Now, the person may stare into space and be non-communicative and uncontrollable body movements and contractions of the muscles may occur. In some cases, the diabetic will be unaware of the movements and may even fall into unconsciousness. What Is the Prevention and Treatment? The best way to deal with this problem is by ensuring it does not occur in the first place Continue reading >>

Dka: Raising Awareness To Save Lives

Dka: Raising Awareness To Save Lives

WRITTEN BY: Sarah Lucas Recently there have been countless stories of US children lost to a disease neither their parents nor doctors even knew they had developed – Type 1 diabetes. Their early symptoms were missed or easily excused away and their more pronounced symptoms were mistaken for the flu or strep throat. By the time the true nature of their disease was discovered, their bodies, without the ability to produce insulin, had begun to burn fat for energy. The resulting molecules, ketones, essentially built up and poisoned their bodies, resulting in diabetic ketoacidosis, or DKA. For children like Kycie Jai Terry (5), David M Brown II (4), Angela Elizabeth Robinson (11) whose blood sugar at diagnosis was 1600, they never had the opportunity to “live beyond.” Their Type 1 diagnosis, like thousands of others, came too late. Their lives were cut short and their families devastated. An estimated 41% of individuals are in DKA at the diagnosis in the US, and that number varies in countries around the globe, from 12% to an astounding 80%. DKA costs families tens of millions of dollars each year in emergency care, carries the risk of permanent organ and brain damage, and is the leading cause of mortality in childhood diabetes. The majority of this devastation could be avoided. There is a safe, non-invasive, inexpensive (on average 24¢) way to safeguard lives and protect futures. A simple urine test or a finger prick for one drop of blood is all that is needed, but people have to know the warning signs and have to advocate for testing. When my daughter Mary was diagnosed, I was frightened for her and for our family – but a diagnosis meant that we were able to get her treatment, it meant that she was coming home from the hospital and that we would adjust, carry on an Continue reading >>

Diabetic Encephalopathy

Diabetic Encephalopathy

Diabetic encephalopathy is damage to the brain caused by diabetes. A relatively unknown complication, encephalopathy is becoming more widely recognized as more people are diagnosed with type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Diabetic encephalopathy presents itself both mentally and physically. It can induce an altered mental state, cognitive decline, changes in personality, memory lapses, or severe impairment like dementia. The complication can also cause tremors, lack of coordination, and even seizures. Diabetic encephalopathy is largely due to acute hypoglycemia (blood sugar levels are too low) or severe hyperglycemia (blood sugar levels are too high). The condition manifests itself differently between the two major types of diabetes. Type 2 diabetes Encephalopathy in those with type 2 diabetes increases the risk of developing Alzheimer’s disease or other forms of dementia. According to a 2011 study, those with type 2 diabetes were twice as likely to develop Alzheimer’s and 1.75 times more likely to develop other forms of dementia than healthy participants. This increased risk could be due to many different factors brought about from type 2 diabetes. It could be caused by the body’s resistance to insulin, which makes it difficult for the brain to break down amyloid, a protein that forms brain plaques. Brain plaques are abnormal clusters of this protein that block cell-to-cell signaling at the synapses—a symptom infamous for contributing to the development of Alzheimer’s disease. Type 2 diabetic encephalopathy can also be generated from hyperglycemia or the conditions that commonly accompany type 2 diabetes like high blood pressure, obesity, or high cholesterol. Oxidative stress is another provoker of the complication. This stems from an imbalance between reactive oxyge Continue reading >>

Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Diabetic Ketoacidosis

What Is It? Diabetic ketoacidosis is a potentially fatal complication of diabetes that occurs when you have much less insulin than your body needs. This problem causes the blood to become acidic and the body to become dangerously dehydrated. Diabetic ketoacidosis can occur when diabetes is not treated adequately, or it can occur during times of serious sickness. To understand this illness, you need to understand the way your body powers itself with sugar and other fuels. Foods we eat are broken down by the body, and much of what we eat becomes glucose (a type of sugar), which enters the bloodstream. Insulin helps glucose to pass from the bloodstream into body cells, where it is used for energy. Insulin normally is made by the pancreas, but people with type 1 diabetes (insulin-dependent diabetes) don't produce enough insulin and must inject it daily. Subscribe to Harvard Health Online for immediate access to health news and information from Harvard Medical School. Continue reading >>

Cerebrovascular Complications Of Diabetic Ketoacidosis In Children

Cerebrovascular Complications Of Diabetic Ketoacidosis In Children

CLINICAL CASE REPORT Complicações cerebrovasculares da cetoacidose diabética em crianças Luis Felipe Mendonça de Siqueira Hospital das Clínicas, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG); Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, UFMG, Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil SUMMARY Neurological deterioration in children with diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is commonly caused by cerebral edema. However, subtle cerebral injuries including strokes should also be suspected, since children with hyperglycemia and DKA are prone to thrombosis. In this paper, a case involving a 2 month-old patient that presented cerebral edema and stroke as complications of DKA is reported. In the discussion, the literature on neurological complications of DKA in children is briefly reviewed, emphasizing the prothrombotic tendency of these patients. SUMÁRIO Alterações neurológicas em crianças com cetoacidose diabética (CAD) são comuns, sobretudo em decorrência de edema cerebral. Contudo, lesões cerebrais agudas, como acidente vascular cerebral (AVC), também devem ser investigadas, já que as crianças com hiperglicemia e cetoacidose têm maior chance de apresentar essa complicação. Neste relato, descreve-se a história de um paciente de 2 meses de idade que apresentou edema cerebral e AVC como complicações de um quadro de cetoacidose diabética. Durante a discussão, será feita uma breve revisão da literatura sobre as complicações neurológicas da CAD nos pacientes pediátricos enfatizando sua tendência pró-trombótica. INTRODUCTION Children with new onset type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) frequently have diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) as their initial presentation, a disorder that is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. In this context, neurological complications, in Continue reading >>

Effects Of Diabetic Ketoacidosis On Visual And Verbal Neurocognitive Function In Young Patients Presenting With New-onset Type 1 Diabetes

Effects Of Diabetic Ketoacidosis On Visual And Verbal Neurocognitive Function In Young Patients Presenting With New-onset Type 1 Diabetes

Go to: Abstract To evaluate the effects of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) on neurocognitive functions in children and adolescents presenting with new-onset type 1 diabetes. Newly diagnosed patients were divided into two groups: those with DKA and those without DKA (non-DKA). Following metabolic stabilization, the patients took a mini-mental status exam prior to undergoing a baseline battery of cognitive tests that evaluated visual and verbal cognitive tasks. Follow-up testing was performed 8-12 weeks after diagnosis. Patients completed an IQ test at follow-up. Results: There was no statistical difference between the DKA and non-DKA groups neither in alertness at baseline testing nor in an IQ test at follow-up. The DKA group had significantly lower baseline scores than the non-DKA group for the visual cognitive tasks of design recognition, design memory and the composite visual memory index (VMI). At follow-up, Design Recognition remained statistically lower in the DKA group, but the design memory and the VMI tasks returned to statistical parity between the two groups. No significant differences were found in verbal cognitive tasks at baseline or follow-up between the two groups. Direct correlations were present for the admission CO2 and the visual cognitive tasks of VMI, design memory and design recognition. Direct correlations were also present for admission pH and VMI, design memory and picture memory. Pediatric patients presenting with newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes and severe but uncomplicated DKA showed a definite trend for lower cognitive functioning when compared to the age-matched patients without DKA. Keywords: diabetic ketoacidosis, Cognition, dehydration, neuroinflammation Neurocognitive tasks. Mean (standard deviation) and median (range) of standard scores of Continue reading >>

Clinical Review: Ketones And Brain Injury

Clinical Review: Ketones And Brain Injury

Abstract Although much feared by clinicians, the ability to produce ketones has allowed humans to withstand prolonged periods of starvation. At such times, ketones can supply up to 50% of basal energy requirements. More interesting, however, is the fact that ketones can provide as much as 70% of the brain's energy needs, more efficiently than glucose. Studies suggest that during times of acute brain injury, cerebral uptake of ketones increases significantly. Researchers have thus attempted to attenuate the effects of cerebral injury by administering ketones exogenously. Hypertonic saline is commonly utilized for management of intracranial hypertension following cerebral injury. A solution containing both hypertonic saline and ketones may prove ideal for managing the dual problems of refractory intracranial hypertension and low cerebral energy levels. The purpose of the present review is to explore the physiology of ketone body utilization by the brain in health and in a variety of neurological conditions, and to discuss the potential for ketone supplementation as a therapeutic option in traumatic brain injury. Introduction Ketogenesis is the process by which ketone bodies (KB), during times of starvation, are produced via fatty acid metabolism. Although much feared by physicians, mild ketosis can have therapeutic potential in a variety of disparate disease states. The principle ketones include acetoacetate (AcAc), β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) and ace-tone. In times of starvation and low insulin levels, ketones supply up to 50% of basal energy requirements for most tissues, and up to 70% for the brain. Although glucose is the main metabolic substrate for neurons, ketones are capable of fulfilling the energy requirements of the brain. The purpose of the present review is to e Continue reading >>

Diabetic Coma

Diabetic Coma

Print Overview A diabetic coma is a life-threatening diabetes complication that causes unconsciousness. If you have diabetes, dangerously high blood sugar (hyperglycemia) or dangerously low blood sugar (hypoglycemia) can lead to a diabetic coma. If you lapse into a diabetic coma, you're alive — but you can't awaken or respond purposefully to sights, sounds or other types of stimulation. Left untreated, a diabetic coma can be fatal. The prospect of a diabetic coma is scary, but fortunately you can take steps to help prevent it. Start by following your diabetes treatment plan. Symptoms Before developing a diabetic coma, you'll usually experience signs and symptoms of high blood sugar or low blood sugar. High blood sugar (hyperglycemia) If your blood sugar level is too high, you may experience: Increased thirst Frequent urination Fatigue Nausea and vomiting Shortness of breath Stomach pain Fruity breath odor A very dry mouth A rapid heartbeat Low blood sugar (hypoglycemia) Signs and symptoms of a low blood sugar level may include: Shakiness or nervousness Anxiety Fatigue Weakness Sweating Hunger Nausea Dizziness or light-headedness Difficulty speaking Confusion Some people, especially those who've had diabetes for a long time, develop a condition known as hypoglycemia unawareness and won't have the warning signs that signal a drop in blood sugar. If you experience any symptoms of high or low blood sugar, test your blood sugar and follow your diabetes treatment plan based on the test results. If you don't start to feel better quickly, or you start to feel worse, call for emergency help. When to see a doctor A diabetic coma is a medical emergency. If you feel extreme high or low blood sugar signs or symptoms and think you might pass out, call 911 or your local emergency nu Continue reading >>

Diabetic Coma Recovery: What You Need To Know

Diabetic Coma Recovery: What You Need To Know

In people with diabetes, a diabetic coma occurs when severe levels of either high or low uncontrolled blood sugar are not corrected. If treated quickly, a person will make a rapid recovery from a diabetic coma. However, diabetic coma can be fatal or result in brain damage. It is important for people with diabetes to control their blood sugars and know what to do when their blood sugar levels are not within their target range. The severe symptoms of uncontrolled blood sugar that can come before a diabetic coma include vomiting, difficulty breathing, confusion, weakness, and dizziness. Recovery from diabetic coma If a diabetic coma is not treated within a couple of hours of it developing, it can cause irreversible brain damage. If no treatment is received, a diabetic coma will be fatal. In addition, having blood sugar levels that continue to be too low or too high can be bad for long-term health. This remains true even if they do not develop into diabetic coma. Recognizing the early signs of low or high blood sugar levels and regular monitoring can help people with diabetes keep their blood sugar levels within the healthy range. Doing so will also reduce the risk of associated complications and diabetic coma. What is diabetes? Diabetes is a long-term condition in which the body is unable to control the level of a sugar called glucose in the blood. Diabetes is caused by either a lack of insulin, the body's inability to use insulin correctly, or both. In people who don't have diabetes, insulin usually ensures that excess glucose is removed from the bloodstream. It does this by stimulating cells to absorb the glucose they need for energy from the blood. Insulin also causes any remaining glucose to be stored in the liver as a substance called glycogen. The production of insul Continue reading >>

Diabetic Ketoacidosis In Dogs And Cats

Diabetic Ketoacidosis In Dogs And Cats

Ketoacidosis is a complication of diabetes in pets, and is one of the most severe side effects that can accompany the condition. Finding your pet seriously ill and receiving a diagnosis of diabetic ketoacidosis can be a big shock to the pet owner, as most presentations of the condition occur in animals that were not actually known to be diabetic in the first place. This is of course extremely worrying for the pet owner, as they will have to face not only the very serious and possibly life-threatening immediate issue of diabetic ketoacidosis itself, but have to face the reality that assuming their pet survives, they will have to deal with the serious and potentially expensive diagnosis of diabetes as well. What is ketoacidosis? Ketoacidosis occurs when the animal’s metabolism is thrown severely out of whack, as part of the development of diabetes in the pet. Usually, an additional trigger such as an inflammation, infection or condition such as pancreatitis is also required to trigger ketoacidosis, as any of these things can interfere with the way that the body regulates and processes glucose. Ketoacidosis starves the body’s cells of glucose, despite the fact that sufficient glucose is present within the blood. The diabetic element of this is that sufficient natural insulin is not being made available to the body to allow the glucose in the blood to enter the cells, as glucose requires insulin in order to metabolise. The body responds to this issue by metabolising all of the fat stores and other sources of fuel available to it, breaking down the very structure of the body itself. This process causes the production of ketones, which the body then attempts to burn as fuel, which is not a normal healthy process. In turn, the burning of ketones by the body leads to a dang Continue reading >>

Diabetic Ketoacidosis And Brain Function

Diabetic Ketoacidosis And Brain Function

Diabetic Ketoacidosis (DKA) is a life-threatening consequence of diabetes. DKA occurs when there is a lack of insulin in the body causing hyperglycemia. As a result of the inability of glucose to enter the cells, the body must find other means to obtain energy. As such, fat breakdown occurs resulting in the accumulation of fatty acids. The fatty acids are metabolized to ketones that cause the blood to become acidotic (pH less than7.3). Because glucose remains in the blood, there is an increase in thirst and drinking to eliminate the solute load of glucose, which also results in increased urination (polyuria and polydipsia). Thus, the combination of increased serum acidity, weight loss, polyuria, and polydipsia may lead to extreme dehydration, coma, or brain damage. Without a doubt, the most severe acute complication of DKA is cerebral edema. Many cases of new onset type 1 diabetes present DKA (15-70 percent depending on age and geographic region, according to multiple studies), hence the importance of an early diagnosis of diabetes in order to avoid potential consequences. Much research is being conducted to predict the development of severe complications of DKA, most notably on brain herniation, the swelling of the brain that causes it to push towards the spinal cord, as well as other neurological consequences. Fulminant cerebral edema, or swelling of the brain, is relatively rare and has an incidence rate of 0.5-0.9 percent. However, what about the subtler, less severe alterations in brain functions that occur after DKA? Indeed, a recent paper published in Diabetes Care 2014; 37: 1554-1562by Cameron, Scratch, Nadebaum, Northum, Koves, Jennings, Finney, Neil, Wellard, Mackay, and Inder on behalf of the DKA Brain Injury Study Group entitled "Neurological Consequences of Continue reading >>

Diabetic Ketoacidosis: A Serious Complication

Diabetic Ketoacidosis: A Serious Complication

A balanced body chemistry is crucial for a healthy human body. A sudden drop in pH can cause significant damage to organ systems and even death. This lesson takes a closer look at a condition in which the pH of the body is severely compromised called diabetic ketoacidosis. Definition Diabetic ketoacidosis, sometimes abbreviated as DKA, is a condition in which a high amount of acid in the body is caused by a high concentration of ketone bodies. That definition might sound complicated, but it's really not. Acidosis itself is the state of too many hydrogen ions, and therefore too much acid, in the blood. A pH in the blood leaving the heart of 7.35 or less indicates acidosis. Ketones are the biochemicals produced when fat is broken down and used for energy. While a healthy body makes a very low level of ketones and is able to use them for energy, when ketone levels become too high, they make the body's fluids very acidic. Let's talk about the three Ws of ketoacidosis: who, when, and why. Type one diabetics are the group at the greatest risk for ketoacidosis, although the condition can occur in other groups of people, such as alcoholics. Ketoacidosis usually occurs in type one diabetics either before diagnosis or when they are subjected to a metabolic stress, such as a severe infection. Although it is possible for type two diabetics to develop ketoacidosis, it doesn't happen as frequently. To understand why diabetic ketoacidosis occurs, let's quickly review what causes diabetes. Diabetics suffer from a lack of insulin, the protein hormone responsible for enabling glucose to get into cells. This inability to get glucose into cells means that the body is forced to turn elsewhere to get energy, and that source is fat. As anyone who exercises or eats a low-calorie diet knows, fa Continue reading >>

The Dangers In Bulimia Are Real - This Illness Can Kill!

The Dangers In Bulimia Are Real - This Illness Can Kill!

People often overlook the dangers in bulimia. They think that because bulimics are often within a healthy weight range, that it's a 'safe' eating disorder. The truth could not be more different... I was bulimic for over 10 years. The illness ravaged my body and I knew that it was close to killing me. But thankfully, I got help and I recovered... Too many people don't seek help for their bulimia and suffer from it for years on end, sometimes for many decades. Too often, bulimia kills. To help you realize the dangers in bulimia, I've listed the 10 most worrying ones below. TOP 10 Terrifying Dangers in Bulimia Please click on the links below to jump to that part of the 'dangers in bulimia' page, or just scroll down. Suicide Ketoacidosis Malnutrition and then see... Seizures or Fits If you suffer from bulimia you have an increased risk of having seizures or fits. The seizures may be caused by dehydration, hyperglycemia or ketoacidosis. Seizures are one of the serious dangers in bulimia because they can cause brain damage. Electrolyte Imbalance Electrolytes are important chemicals in your body. Having the right balance of electrolytes is essential for your nerves, muscles and organs to work properly. Electrolyte imbalances are caused by a mix of dehydration and the loss of potassium and sodium. This can be caused by excessive vomiting or laxative abuse. Bulimics often develop electrolyte abnormalities... Which can lead to sudden cardiac arrest and death. Because of the stress that electrolyte imbalances place on the organs - this is one of the most deadly dangers in bulimia. When I was bulimic, my electrolyte balance was so messed up that my heartbeat became very irregular. I am lucky that bulimia didn't kill me. Terri Schiavo had a heart attack, which was caused by a massiv Continue reading >>

Diabetic Ketoacidosis-associated Stroke In Children And Youth

Diabetic Ketoacidosis-associated Stroke In Children And Youth

Copyright © 2011 Jennifer Ruth Foster et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Abstract Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a state of severe insulin deficiency, either absolute or relative, resulting in hyperglycemia and ketonemia. Although possibly underappreciated, up to 10% of cases of intracerebral complications associated with an episode of DKA, and/or its treatment, in children and youth are due to hemorrhage or ischemic brain infarction. Systemic inflammation is present in DKA, with resultant vascular endothelial perturbation that may result in coagulopathy and increased hemorrhagic risk. Thrombotic risk during DKA is elevated by abnormalities in coagulation factors, platelet activation, blood volume and flow, and vascular reactivity. DKA-associated cerebral edema may also predispose to ischemic injury and hemorrhage, though cases of stroke without concomitant cerebral edema have been identified. We review the current literature regarding the pathogenesis of stroke during an episode of DKA in children and youth. 1. Introduction Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is a common autoimmune condition that often presents in childhood and may be complicated by episodes of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA). DKA is a state of severe insulin deficiency, either absolute or relative, resulting in hyperglycemia, ketonemia, acidemia, and systemic inflammation. Compared with adults, episodes of DKA in children carry a higher risk of morbidity and mortality. This is predominantly attributable to intracerebral complications [1–5], which occur in 3–10 pediatric patients per 1000 cases of DKA [6]. The most common Continue reading >>

Children With Type 1 Diabetes At Risk For Life-threatening Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Children With Type 1 Diabetes At Risk For Life-threatening Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Two weeks before a family vacation last spring, 10-year-old Hailey Evans started to drink a lot more water. Her parents didn’t think much of it, given that Hailey had just joined a running team at her school in Northern Virginia and was exercising more. Not long after landing in Bolivia, where one of Hailey’s grandparents lives, she complained of a stomachache and nausea. Altitude sickness, her parents figured. Then Hailey took a sudden turn for the worse. Hospitalized the next day, she was diagnosed with Type 1 diabetes within an hour. A few hours after that, she was in coma caused by swelling in her brain and severe dehydration. The next morning, April 20th, Hailey died, two weeks shy of her 11th birthday. Hailey’s devastated parents, Vanessa and Derrick Evans, now have joined a growing chorus of voices determined to raise awareness of Type 1 diabetes and push for more regular blood sugar testing. While Type 1 diabetes is the second most common chronic illness of childhood—trailing only asthma—it can mimic other common ailments and often is missed until it has taken a potentially deadly turn. “We had no idea,” Vanessa Evans says. “I wish I would have known, because maybe taking her to the doctor sooner would have saved her life. I would have never thought this could happen to anyone, much less us, yet here we are, left without our beautiful daughter. I don’t wish this pain on anyone. As we learned the hard way, with this disease, every minute, every hour, every day counts.” Cases of Type 1 diabetes are increasing worldwide, particularly in young children. Warning signs can include extreme thirst, frequent urination, a fruity breath odor and blurred vision, as well as generalized symptoms such as fatigue, nausea, stomachache, appetite changes and we Continue reading >>

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