Urinary Tract Infections - Utis
A urinary tract infection is a bacterial infection that grows within the urinary tract - anywhere from the kidneys, the ureters, the bladder and through to the urethra. Urinary tract infections can be a particular problem for people with diabetes as sugar in the urine makes for a fertile breeding ground for bacteria. This is supported by data from the American Diabetes Association (a report at the 73rd Scientific Sessions of the ADA), which showed 9.4% of people diagnosed with type 2 diabetes had a UTI compared to only 5.7% of people without diabetes.  What are the symptoms of a urinary tract infection? Urinary tract infections are characterised by two types: Lower urinary tract infections or Cystitis - bacterial infection affecting the bladder and the tube that transports urine from your bladder out of your body via the penis or vagina (urethra) Upper urinary tract infections or Pyelonephritis - bacterial infection affecting the kidneys and the tubes connecting the kidneys to the bladder (ureters) Lower urinary tract infection (affecting the bladder and urethra): Pain or stinging when passing urine (dysuria) Persistent feeling of the need to urinate Cloudy and foul-smelling urine Strong and bad smell of urine Abdominal pan (stomach pain) Back pain Blood in the urine (hematuria) Upper urinary tract infection (affecting the kidneys and ureters): High temperature / fever Constant shivering Vomiting Back pain Pain in your side (flank pain) How serious are urinary tract infections? Some people may find themselves particularly prone to UTIs. Upper urinary tract infections (pyelonephritis) are the more serious of the two. In this case the bacteria have managed to reach the tubes connecting the bladder (ureters) to the kidneys. If the bacterial infection reaches the kidney Continue reading >>
Blood In Urine And Ketones?
jay711 wrote: I'm starting a new job soon, but before I'm given an official offer I have to be tested for alcohol and drug abuse. I had the test yesterday, which involved a urine test. My urine was very yellow, and the doctor asked if I had been drinking enough water as it usually means a person is dehydrated. Then the doctor put a strip in my sample. She said the strip indicated that my urine seems to have blood in it and ketones (not sure of the correct spelling). She said ketones are usually present in diabetics... but if I was diabetic then the strip would have shown glucose aswell as ketones, but as there was no glucose it's unlikely to be diabetes. She also said ketones are common in people who are hungry for a long period of time.... my diet has been very poor lately due to work pressure and I'm only having 2 meals a day. The thing that concerns me is the blood in the urine. The blood wasn't visible to the naked eye. She said sometimes it can be discolouration due to something you've eaten like beetroot, but I haven't eaten any beetroot lately, althought I did have tomatoe ketchup on my fries just before the test, could this be one of the causes? I forgot to mention it to her at the time as I wasn't thinking straight and was in a bit of a panic. She said it could be a local infection, but I don't experience any discomfort or pain when urinating and everything seems to be ok. Anyone else ever experienced something similar or know what the cause may be?? First, and don't take this the wrong way, it kind of bothers me when people leave the doctor's office and still have huge questions. Is it that the doctor didn't seem approachable? Is it that you feel uncomfortable asking questions of the doc while at the office? Or is it that the questions didn't pop up until afte Continue reading >>
Protein, Ketones And Kidney Stones
Kidney stones may not be on your mind when beginning a weight-loss diet, but if you plan to follow a high-protein, low-carbohydrate diet plan, they should be. While many popular low-carb commercial diet plans encourage your body to shift into a fat-burning state called ketosis, the production of ketones that results can alter your urine chemistry and raise the risk of kidney stones. Understanding the risks to your kidneys can help you decide whether the weight loss promises of a high-protein, low-carb diet are worth it. Video of the Day Kidney stones develop when a hard mass of crystals develops in the urinary tract. Kidney stones are often extremely painful, especially when they pass through the thin ureter to exit the body. There are a few different types of kidney stones, each made up of different materials. The cause of kidney stones remains unknown, but some people seem to be more prone to developing them than others, so there may be a hereditary component. Ketones are compounds formed by the breakdown of fat as the body shifts from burning carbohydrates to burning fat for fuel. During a high-protein, low-carbohydrate diet, ketones become the main source of energy in the body. After a few days or weeks on this type of diet, the brain begins to use ketones as fuel instead of glucose. However, when too many ketones build up in the bloodstream, the pH of the urine changes from neutral to slightly acidic, which can put stress on the kidneys and potentially raise the risk of developing kidney stones. A 2002 study published in the "American Journal of Kidney Diseases" found that a high-protein, low-carbohydrate diet raised the acidity of the blood over a six-week period, a condition known to contribute to kidney stones. The study found up to a 90-percent increase in acid Continue reading >>
Urine Ketones - Meanings And False Positives
Professional Reference articles are written by UK doctors and are based on research evidence, UK and European Guidelines. They are designed for health professionals to use. You may find the Urine Ketones article more useful, or one of our other health articles. Description Ketones are produced normally by the liver as part of fatty acid metabolism. In normal states these ketones will be completely metabolised so that very few, if any at all, will appear in the urine. If for any reason the body cannot get enough glucose for energy it will switch to using body fats, resulting in an increase in ketone production making them detectable in the blood and urine. How to test for ketones The urine test for ketones is performed using test strips available on prescription. Strips dedicated to ketone testing in the UK include: GlucoRx KetoRx Sticks 2GK® Ketostix® Mission® Ketone Testing should be performed according to manufacturers' instructions. The sample should be fresh and uncontaminated. Usually the result will be expressed as negative or positive (graded 1 to 4). Ketonuria is different from ketonaemia (ie presence of ketones in the blood) and often ketonuria does not indicate clinically significant ketonaemia. Depending on the testing strips used, urine testing for ketones either has an excellent sensitivity with a low specificity, or a poor sensitivity with a good specificity. However, this should be viewed in the context of uncertainty of the biochemical level of significant ketosis. Interpretation of results Normally only small amounts of ketones are excreted daily in the urine (3-15 mg). High or increased values may be found in: Poorly controlled diabetes. Starvation: Prolonged vomiting. Rapid weight loss. Frequent strenuous exercise. Poisoning (eg, with isop Continue reading >>
Causes Of Protein In Urine During Pregnancy
Protein in Urine During Pregnancy Routine urine tests are part of prenatal visits to screen for infection or other conditions. Testing for the presence of protein in the urine (proteinuria) is necessary to determine if your kidney function is normal. Although proteins are normally absent in the urine, having a small amount of it during pregnancy is common. It can indicate kidney dysfunction, but it can also be related to infection, stress, or other conditions that need to be evaluated further. 1. Preeclampsia Women with this condition have high blood pressure during pregnancy, accompanied by water retention and protein in their urine. It can lead to complications, including babies with low birth weight. However, if diagnosed and treated early, affected women can deliver normal babies. Treatment includes consuming a healthy, low salt diet and engaging in regular exercise as recommended. Watch a video for more on Preeclampsia: 2. Kidney Infection or Urinary Tract Infection (UTI) UTI during pregnancy can cause protein to appear in the urine. If you feel the urge to urinate more frequently and suffer some discomfort during urination, you may have a UTI. If not treated promptly, this condition can cause kidney infection, which manifests as fever and chills, nausea, vomiting, and back pains. UTI may not adversely affect your baby, but a kidney infection can lead to premature labor and low birth weight babies. 3. Other Causes Factors that can cause transient increases in urinary protein include emotional stress, fever, exposure to extreme temperatures, dehydration, medications and strenuous exercise. Some medical conditions, however, can cause proteinuria that needs further investigation, such as heart disease, diabetes, leukemia, rheumatoid arthritis, lupus, sickle cell anemi Continue reading >>
What You Need To Know About Utis
Burning when you urinate. A frequent urge to urinate. Pain in your back or abdomen. Do any of these symptoms sound familiar? These are all symptoms of a urinary tract infection, or UTI, for short. Studies show that people with Type 2 diabetes have a greater risk of getting a UTI than people without diabetes. Despite the fact that UTIs are all too common and downright annoying, they can also lead to more serious situations if they’re not caught and treated. What is a UTI, anyway? A UTI is an infection in your urinary tract. Your urinary tract includes your kidneys, bladder, ureters, urethra, and, in men, prostate. Most UTIs occur in your bladder, the organ that stores your urine. What causes a UTI? A UTI is caused by bacteria, usually from the bowels. Normally, the urinary tract system has safeguards to protect against infection. For example, the ureters, which are the tubes that carry urine from the kidneys to the bladder, have one-way valves to prevent urine from backing up into the kidneys. The process of emptying your bladder (called urination) also helps to flush out bacteria and other microbes. And a healthy immune system helps protect against infection, as well. Why are UTIs more common in people with diabetes? UTIs are the second most common type of infection. Women are 10 times more likely to get a UTI than men because of their anatomy. In fact, more than 50% of women will have a UTI at some point in their lives. If you’re a woman with Type 2 diabetes, your risk may be even higher, according to two recent studies. In one study, 9% of the subjects with diabetes had UTIs compared with 6% of those without diabetes. And the second study showed that people with diabetes had a 60% higher risk of getting a UTI compared to those without diabetes. Why are people with Continue reading >>
The Facts Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a condition that may occur in people who have diabetes, most often in those who have type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes. It involves the buildup of toxic substances called ketones that make the blood too acidic. High ketone levels can be readily managed, but if they aren't detected and treated in time, a person can eventually slip into a fatal coma. DKA can occur in people who are newly diagnosed with type 1 diabetes and have had ketones building up in their blood prior to the start of treatment. It can also occur in people already diagnosed with type 1 diabetes that have missed an insulin dose, have an infection, or have suffered a traumatic event or injury. Although much less common, DKA can occasionally occur in people with type 2 diabetes under extreme physiologic stress. Causes With type 1 diabetes, the pancreas is unable to make the hormone insulin, which the body's cells need in order to take in glucose from the blood. In the case of type 2 diabetes, the pancreas is unable to make sufficient amounts of insulin in order to take in glucose from the blood. Glucose, a simple sugar we get from the foods we eat, is necessary for making the energy our cells need to function. People with diabetes can't get glucose into their cells, so their bodies look for alternative energy sources. Meanwhile, glucose builds up in the bloodstream, and by the time DKA occurs, blood glucose levels are often greater than 22 mmol/L (400 mg/dL) while insulin levels are very low. Since glucose isn't available for cells to use, fat from fat cells is broken down for energy instead, releasing ketones. Ketones accumulate in the blood, causing it to become more acidic. As a result, many of the enzymes that control the body's metabolic processes aren't able Continue reading >>
What Are Ketones And Their Tests?
A ketone test can warn you of a serious diabetes complication called diabetic ketoacidosis, or DKA. An elevated level of this substance in your blood can mean you have very high blood sugar. Too many ketones can trigger DKA, which is a medical emergency. Regular tests you take at home can spot when your ketone levels run too high. Then you can take insulin to lower your blood sugar level or get other treatments to prevent complications. What Exactly Are Ketones? Everyone has them, whether you have diabetes or not. Ketones are chemicals made in your liver. You produce them when you don't have enough of the hormone insulin in your body to turn sugar (or “glucose”) into energy. You need another source, so your body uses fat instead. Your liver turns this fat into ketones, a type of acid, and sends them into your bloodstream. Your muscles and other tissues can then use them for fuel. For a person without diabetes, this process doesn’t become an issue. But when you have diabetes, things can run out of control and you build up too many ketones in your blood. If the level goes too high, it can become life-threatening. Who Needs a Ketone Test? You might need one if you have type 1 diabetes. In this type, your immune system attacks and destroys cells in your pancreas that make insulin. Without it, your blood sugar rises. People with type 2 diabetes can also get high ketones, but it isn't as common as it is with type 1. Tests can show you when your level gets high so you can treat it before you get sick. When Should You Test? Your doctor will probably tell you to test your ketones when: Your blood sugar is higher than 250 milligrams/deciliter (mg/dl) for two days in a row You're sick or you've been injured You want to exercise and your blood sugar level is over 250 mg/dl Continue reading >>
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Emedicinehealth Medical Reference From Healthwise
A A A Urine Test Test Overview A urine test checks different components of urine, a waste product made by the kidneys. A regular urine test may be done to help find the cause of symptoms. The test can give information about your health and problems you may have. The kidneys take out waste material, minerals, fluids, and other substances from the blood to be passed in the urine. Urine has hundreds of different body wastes. What you eat and drink, how much you exercise, and how well your kidneys work can affect what is in your urine. More than 100 different tests can be done on urine. A regular urinalysis often includes the following tests: Color. Many things affect urine color, including fluid balance, diet, medicines, and diseases. How dark or light the color is tells you how much water is in it. Vitamin B supplements can turn urine bright yellow. Some medicines, blackberries, beets, rhubarb, or blood in the urine can turn urine red-brown. Clarity. Urine is normally clear. Bacteria, blood, sperm, crystals, or mucus can make urine look cloudy. Odor. Urine does not smell very strong, but it has a slightly "nutty" odor. Some diseases cause a change in the odor of urine. For example, an infection with E. coli bacteria can cause a bad odor, while diabetes or starvation can cause a sweet, fruity odor. Specific gravity. This checks the amount of substances in the urine. It also shows how well the kidneys balance the amount of water in urine. The higher the specific gravity, the more solid material is in the urine. When you drink a lot of fluid, your kidneys make urine with a high amount of water in it, which has a low specific gravity. When you do not drink fluids, your kidneys make urine with a small amount of water in it, which has a high specific gravity. pH. The pH is Continue reading >>
A complete urinalysis evaluates several different aspects of your urine through physical, chemical, and microscopic examination. In lupus treatment, a urinalysis is often used to monitor protein leakage and identify and assess urinary tract infections (UTIs). Most people with kidney lupus (lupus nephritis) will have an abnormal urinalysis. Protein, urine casts (especially red blood cell casts), red blood cells, or white blood cells in the urine can indicate serious kidney involvement; leukocyte esterase may indicate a bladder infection. Urine samples can be given at any time while at the doctor’s office. A urine culture is performed to assess for a bladder infection and to determine appropriate antibiotics. Before giving a urine sample, ask a medical professional to counsel you on how to prevent contamination. Several analytical elements of the complete urinalysis are explained below. Physical Examination / Macroanalysis In this portion of the analysis, the color, clarity, and concentration of the urine are evaluated. Abnormal colors can result from disease, certain foods, or contamination, so the physical examination is generally viewed as a crude assessment. Light or dark coloration also suggests how much water is being excreted. The clarity of urine is measured as either clear, slightly clear, cloudy, or turbid. Urine clarity, like urine color, suggests that substances may be present in the urine; for example, turbid urine suggests the presence of protein or excess cellular material. However, accurate conclusions regarding the origin of the urine clarity cannot be drawn until further chemical and microscopic tests are performed. The physical examination also includes specific gravity, which measures the concentration of the urine sample. Specific gravity compares t Continue reading >>
Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) happens when your blood sugar is high and your insulin level is low. This imbalance in the body causes a build-up of ketones. Ketones are toxic. If DKA isn’t treated, it can lead to diabetic coma and even death. DKA mainly affects people who have type 1 diabetes. But it can also happen with other types of diabetes, including type 2 diabetes and gestational diabetes (during pregnancy). DKA is a very serious condition. If you have diabetes and think you may have DKA, contact your doctor or get to a hospital right away. The first symptoms to appear are usually: frequent urination. The next stage of DKA symptoms include: vomiting (usually more than once) confusion or trouble concentrating a fruity odor on the breath. The main cause of DKA is not enough insulin. A lack of insulin means sugar can’t get into your cells. Your cells need sugar for energy. This causes your body’s glucose levels to rise. To get energy, the body starts to burn fat. This process causes ketones to build up. Ketones can poison the body. High blood glucose levels can also cause you to urinate often. This leads to a lack of fluids in the body (dehydration). DKA can be caused by missing an insulin dose, eating poorly, or feeling stressed. An infection or other illness (such as pneumonia or a urinary tract infection) can also lead to DKA. If you have signs of infection (fever, cough, or sore throat), contact your doctor. You will want to make sure you are getting the right treatment. For some people, DKA may be the first sign that they have diabetes. When you are sick, you need to watch your blood sugar level very closely so that it doesn’t get too high or too low. Ask your doctor what your critical blood sugar level is. Most patients should watch their glucose levels c Continue reading >>
Ketonuria is a medical condition in which ketone bodies are present in the urine. It is seen in conditions in which the body produces excess ketones as an indication that it is using an alternative source of energy. It is seen during starvation or more commonly in type I diabetes mellitus. Production of ketone bodies is a normal response to a shortage of glucose, meant to provide an alternate source of fuel from fatty acids. Pathophysiology Ketones are metabolic end-products of fatty acid metabolism. In healthy individuals, ketones are formed in the liver and are completely metabolized so that only negligible amounts appear in the urine. However, when carbohydrates are unavailable or unable to be used as an energy source, fat becomes the predominant body fuel instead of carbohydrates and excessive amounts of ketones are formed as a metabolic byproduct. Higher levels of ketones in the urine indicate that the body is using fat as the major source of energy. Ketone bodies that commonly appear in the urine when fats are burned for energy are acetoacetate and beta-hydroxybutyric acid. Acetone is also produced and is expired by the lungs. Normally, the urine should not contain a noticeable concentration of ketones to give a positive reading. As with tests for glucose, acetoacetate can be tested by a dipstick or by a lab. The results are reported as small, moderate, or large amounts of acetoacetate. A small amount of acetoacetate is a value under 20 mg/dl; a moderate amount is a value of 30–40 mg/dl, and a finding of 80 mg/dl or greater is reported as a large amount. One 2010 study admits that though ketonuria's relation to general metabolic health is ill-understood, there is a positive relationship between the presence of ketonuria after fasting and positive metabo Continue reading >>
On This Page: What is Urine? Blood passes through the kidneys, and next urine is formed and excreted. Urine is made up of substances that are not used or needed by our cells, so they are the leftovers of metabolic processes (e.g., urea). The blood is first filtered and all small molecules, including both nutrients and wastes, enter a nephron. There are about 1,000,000 nephrons in each human kidney and nephrons are the active part of the kidney that produces urine while removing waste and excess substances from the blood. The nutrient molecules and some salts and water are reabsorbed back into the blood, while unwanted substances remain within the nephron to become a part of the urine. Urinalysis A urinalysis is, as the name suggests, is an analysis of the urine. A sample of 30-60mls of your urine is needed for urinalysis. Your GP may order urinalysis in a lab to test for kidney, metabolic disorders and urinary tract infections. If you are menstruating, close to your period or are taking any diuretics, it is best to tell your GP as they may wish to postpone obtaining a sample. It is also best to avoid strenuous exercise or eating any foods that could colour your urine before the test - e.g. beetroots, blackberries or rhubarb. Urinalysis may be needed for a number of reasons, for example: If you are experiencing pain in your lower abdomen or back, blood in the urine (either visible or found on a urine dipstick test), if you are experiencing pain when urinating or an increase in frequency of urination Routine medical examinations such as yearly check-ups, admission to hospital, screening for diabetes, kidney disease, hypertension, liver disease To evaluate new pregnancy To monitor progression and response to treatment of diseases such as diabetes, kidney impairment/disease Continue reading >>
I Have A Pretty Serious Uti And I Went Back…
A: A urinary tract infection causes a significant amount of irritation in the bladder and can cause the urine dipstick to show protein, red blood cells and white blood cells. These abnormal results are usually transient, meaning they will go away once the infection is treated. Ketones are not commonly associated with a urinary tract infection, but can be present in the urine during times of illness if you don’t eat enough. It might be that you were not eating as much as usual and for this reason you had ketones in your urine. There is no need to worry currently about these abnormalities, but it is a good idea to get your urine rechecked once the infection is gone. The two tests we recommend to make sure your kidneys are in good health are a microalbumin test (urine) and a blood creatinine test. The microalbumin test checks for microscopic amounts of protein in the urine and is the most sensitive test we have to detect early kidney damage. A result above 30 is considered abnormal and should be rechecked. For those who have type 2 diabetes, their urine should be checked for microalbumin yearly to rule out early kidney disease. The blood creatinine test also should be done yearly and is used to calculate your “glomerular filtration rate,” which tells how well your kidneys are filtering your blood. It’s important to know the results of both your microalbumin and your blood creatinine tests. Talk to your doctor to see if you have had either of these tests and, if so, what the results showed. Continue reading >>
What Causes High Ketones In A Canine?
A dog with a high level of ketones in his urine suffers from a condition known as ketonuria, usually resulting from a buildup of these substances in the dog's blood. A ketone is a type of acid, which, if allowed to accumulate in the blood, can lead to ketoacidosis, a potentially fatal condition. The main health conditions that can cause high ketone levels in a canine are starvation and diabetes. A dog's body breaks down the food that he eats into sugars, also called glucose, that the cells of the body use for energy. The dog's pancreas then produces the hormone insulin to regulate the amount of glucose that the body will absorb. If the insulin to regulate the glucose is insufficient, typically due to chronic diabetes mellitus, the body breaks down alternate sources of fuel for its cells; a dog's body that is starved of nutrition will do the same. One of these sources is the fat stored in the dog's body. When the body breaks down this fat, it produces as a by-product toxic acids known as a ketones. These ketones then build up in the dog's blood and also his urine, leading to ketoacidosis. Always consult an experienced veterinarian regarding the health and treatment of your pet. A dog suffering from high ketone levels in his blood and urine exhibits symptoms of weight loss, vomiting, increased thirst, decreased appetite, increased urination, lethargy, low body temperature and yellowing of the skin and gums, according to PetMD. The dog's breath may also have a sweet, fruity smell due to the presence of acetone caused by ketoacidosis, says VetInfo. To properly diagnose high ketone levels and ketoacidosis in your dog, a veterinarian will take blood tests and a urinalysis, which will also check your dog's blood glucose levels. Depending on the dog's physical condition, hospit Continue reading >>