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Can Triglycerides Be Converted To Glucose?

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24.3 Lipid Metabolism

By the end of this section, you will be able to: Describe how, when, and why the body metabolizes lipids Explain how energy can be derived from fat Explain the purpose and process of ketogenesis Describe the process of ketone body oxidation Explain the purpose and the process of lipogenesis Fats (or triglycerides) within the body are ingested as food or synthesized by adipocytes or hepatocytes from carbohydrate precursors ( Figure 1 ). Lipid metabolism entails the oxidation of fatty acids to either generate energy or synthesize new lipids from smaller constituent molecules. Lipid metabolism is associated with carbohydrate metabolism, as products of glucose (such as acetyl CoA) can be converted into lipids. Figure 1. Triglyceride Broken Down into a Monoglyceride A triglyceride molecule (a) breaks down into a monoglyceride and two free fatty acids (b). Lipid metabolism begins in the intestine where ingested triglycerides are broken down into free fatty acids and a monoglyceride molecule (see Figure 1 b) by pancreatic lipases, enzymes that break down fats after they are emulsified by bile salts. When food reaches the small intestine in the form of chyme, a digestive hormone called ch Continue reading >>

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  1. dtraynor

    How are triglycerides and blood sugar related?

    I understand that any excess calories you consume that your body doesn't need right away is converted to a triglyceride, which your body then stores in fat cells. In between meals, when your body needs energy it releases a hormone that triggers the release of these triglycerides to be used as energy. I have done some research online and have found that these can be lowered by exercising and reducing the amount of overall calories you consume. Most sources stated that you should watch your carbohydrates, more specifically your simple sugars...they just don't give any reason why carbohydrates lead to a higher level of triglycerides in one's blood (more so than fats and protein). I would have thought that it would have been fats. Any body have an answer?

  2. baarat

    Basically the excess glycogen after muscles have been topped up go back to the liver to be converted to triglycerides and stored in fat cells. Anything that increases blood glucose will potentially increase triglycerides. Actually triglycerides in the blood is linked to VLDL and a bigtime indicator of problems with plaque and clotting, more so than cholesterol any day.

  3. gfundaro

    When your blood sugar is high, insulin responds by shuttling it around. Glucose is stored in your liver (and muscles) as glycogen. When your liver is full of glycogen--and each individual has a different limit--the glucose is converted to glycerin, which can then be paired with triglycerides to form fatty acids, and those make up your adipose tissue- your fat. That's why it's important to try and keep blood sugar levels even throughout the day; insulin is not only fat-sparing because it preferentailly oxidizes carbs over fat, it also facilitates the synthesis of fats.
    Hope that helped:-)

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What is GLYCOGEN? What does GLYCOGEN mean? GLYCOGEN meaning, definition & explanation. Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/... license. Glycogen is a multibranched polysaccharide of glucose that serves as a form of energy storage in animals and fungi. The polysaccharide structure represents the main storage form of glucose in the body. In humans, glycogen is made and stored primarily in the cells of the liver and the muscles hydrated with three or four parts of water. Glycogen functions as the secondary long-term energy storage, with the primary energy stores being fats held in adipose tissue. Muscle glycogen is converted into glucose by muscle cells, and liver glycogen converts to glucose for use throughout the body including the central nervous system. Glycogen is the analogue of starch, a glucose polymer that functions as energy storage in plants. It has a structure similar to amylopectin (a component of starch), but is more extensively branched and compact than starch. Both are white powders in their dry state. Glycogen is found in the form of granules in the cytosol/cytoplasm in many cell types, and plays an important role in the g

Glycogen And Triglycerides - Lecture 5

glucose concentration will fall during the ____ state ____ plays a crucial role in regulating blood glucose during the postabsoptive / fasting state liver can ________ G6P in cells and the ____ can pump glucose back into the bloodstream which hormone helps break down glycogen and triglycerides glucagon is produced by the ___ cells in the pancreas alpha islet cells in the pancreas detect _____ glucagon interacts with cells in the liver so that they release glucose into the bloodstream by when blood glucose levels ___, we inhibit the secretion of glucagon when blood glucose levels rise we _____ secretion of glucagon glucagon is secreted when you are fasting in order to gluconeogenesis is the formation of glucose from what is the formation of glucose from non glucose sources called an example of gluconeogenesis is the ____ cycle in muscle cell, ___ can be converted to ____ what is secreted by the muscle and enters the liver in the glucose alanine cycle alanine is secreted by ____ and enters the ____ in the glucose alanine cycle in the liver, alanine is converted back to _____ to create ____ when does the glucose alanine cycle happen? we breakdown _____ for energy as a substrate when Continue reading >>

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  1. Christian

    I read conflicting views about whether or not the human body can create glucose out of fat. Can it?

  2. David

    Only about 5–6% of triglyceride (fat) can be converted to glucose in humans.
    This is because triglyceride is made up of one 3-carbon glycerol molecule and three 16- or 18-carbon fatty acids. The glycerol (3/51-to-57 = 5.2–5.9%) can be converted to glucose in the liver by gluconeogenesis (after conversion to dihydroxyacetone phosphate).
    The fatty acid chains, however, are oxidized to acetyl-CoA, which cannot be converted to glucose in humans. Acetyl-CoA is a source of ATP when oxidized in the tricarboxylic acid cycle, but the carbon goes to carbon dioxide. (The molecule of oxaloacetate produced in the cycle only balances the one acetyl-CoA condenses with to enter the cycle, and so cannot be tapped off to gluconeogenesis.)
    So triglyceride is a poor source of glucose in starvation, and that is not its primary function. Some Acetyl-CoA is converted to ketone bodies (acetoacetate and β-hydroxybutyrate) in starvation, which can replace part — but not all — of the brain’s requirement for glucose.
    Plants and some bacteria can convert fatty acids to glucose because they possess the glyoxylate shunt enzymes that allow two molecules of Acetyl-CoA to be converted into malate and then oxaloacetate. This is generally lacking in mammals, although it has been reported in hibernating animals (thanks to @Roland for the last piece of info).

  3. blu potatos

    To be more detailed it is the irreversibly of the reaction carried by Pyruvate dehydrogenase that makes the conversion of the fatty acid chains to glucose impossible. The fatty acids chains are converted to acetyl-CoA.
    Acetyl-CoA to be converted into pyruvate need an enzyme that can do the Pyruvate Dehydrogenase's inverse reaction (in humans there is no such enzyme). Than the pyruvete inside the mitochondria is converted into glucose(gluconeogenesis).

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What is BIOLOGICAL PUMP? What does BIOLOGICAL PUMP mean? BIOLOGICAL PUMP meaning - BIOLOGICAL PUMP definition - BIOLOGICAL PUMP explanation. Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/... license. The biological pump, in its simplest form, is the ocean’s biologically driven sequestration of carbon from the atmosphere to the deep sea. It is the part of the oceanic carbon cycle responsible for the cycling of organic matter formed by phytoplankton during photosynthesis (soft-tissue pump), as well as the cycling of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) formed by certain plankton and mollusks as a protective coating (carbonate pump). The biological pump can be divided into three distinct phases, the first of which is the production of fixed carbon by planktonic phototrophs in the euphotic (sunlit) surface region of the ocean. In these surface waters, phytoplankton use carbon dioxide (CO2), nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and other trace elements (barium, iron, zinc, etc.) during photosynthesis to make carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins. Some plankton, (e.g. coccolithophores and foraminifera) combine calcium (Ca) and dissolved carbonates (carbonic acid and bic

Jbc : Journal Of Biological Chemistry

During fasting in all mammals, triglyceride stored in adipose tissue is hydrolyzed by a hormone-sensitive lipase to produce free fatty acids (FFA) 1 and glycerol. Detailed studies of the balance of glycerol and FFA released from white adipose tissue (WAT) during starvation have noted considerable re-esterification of the FFA in adipose tissue during periods of active lipolysis. For example, in rats fasted for 24 h, about 30% of the FFA is recycled back to triglyceride in WAT ( 1 ). In humans, the recycling in this tissue has been estimated to be as high as 40% ( 2 ). The recycling of FFA also occurs in the liver as part of a triglyceride/fatty acid cycle that accounts for a considerable quantity of fatty acid recycling. Thus the triglyceride/fatty acid cycle includes local intracellular cycling within the adipose tissue and extracellular or systemic recycling, i.e. the formation of triglycerides in the liver and possibly skeletal muscle ( Fig. 1 ). Almost 30 years ago, Newsholme and Crabtree ( 3 ) discussed the importance of this cycle in metabolic regulation and heat production. Quantitative estimates of the triglyceride/fatty acid cycle in human adults and newborn infants and st Continue reading >>

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Popular Questions

  1. Christian

    I read conflicting views about whether or not the human body can create glucose out of fat. Can it?

  2. David

    Only about 5–6% of triglyceride (fat) can be converted to glucose in humans.
    This is because triglyceride is made up of one 3-carbon glycerol molecule and three 16- or 18-carbon fatty acids. The glycerol (3/51-to-57 = 5.2–5.9%) can be converted to glucose in the liver by gluconeogenesis (after conversion to dihydroxyacetone phosphate).
    The fatty acid chains, however, are oxidized to acetyl-CoA, which cannot be converted to glucose in humans. Acetyl-CoA is a source of ATP when oxidized in the tricarboxylic acid cycle, but the carbon goes to carbon dioxide. (The molecule of oxaloacetate produced in the cycle only balances the one acetyl-CoA condenses with to enter the cycle, and so cannot be tapped off to gluconeogenesis.)
    So triglyceride is a poor source of glucose in starvation, and that is not its primary function. Some Acetyl-CoA is converted to ketone bodies (acetoacetate and β-hydroxybutyrate) in starvation, which can replace part — but not all — of the brain’s requirement for glucose.
    Plants and some bacteria can convert fatty acids to glucose because they possess the glyoxylate shunt enzymes that allow two molecules of Acetyl-CoA to be converted into malate and then oxaloacetate. This is generally lacking in mammals, although it has been reported in hibernating animals (thanks to @Roland for the last piece of info).

  3. blu potatos

    To be more detailed it is the irreversibly of the reaction carried by Pyruvate dehydrogenase that makes the conversion of the fatty acid chains to glucose impossible. The fatty acids chains are converted to acetyl-CoA.
    Acetyl-CoA to be converted into pyruvate need an enzyme that can do the Pyruvate Dehydrogenase's inverse reaction (in humans there is no such enzyme). Than the pyruvete inside the mitochondria is converted into glucose(gluconeogenesis).

  4. -> Continue reading
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