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Can Ketosis Cause Sediment In Urine

Urine Ketones - Meanings And False Positives

Urine Ketones - Meanings And False Positives

Professional Reference articles are written by UK doctors and are based on research evidence, UK and European Guidelines. They are designed for health professionals to use. You may find the Urine Ketones article more useful, or one of our other health articles. Description Ketones are produced normally by the liver as part of fatty acid metabolism. In normal states these ketones will be completely metabolised so that very few, if any at all, will appear in the urine. If for any reason the body cannot get enough glucose for energy it will switch to using body fats, resulting in an increase in ketone production making them detectable in the blood and urine. How to test for ketones The urine test for ketones is performed using test strips available on prescription. Strips dedicated to ketone testing in the UK include[1]: GlucoRx KetoRx Sticks 2GK® Ketostix® Mission® Ketone Testing should be performed according to manufacturers' instructions. The sample should be fresh and uncontaminated. Usually the result will be expressed as negative or positive (graded 1 to 4)[2]. Ketonuria is different from ketonaemia (ie presence of ketones in the blood) and often ketonuria does not indicate clinically significant ketonaemia. Depending on the testing strips used, urine testing for ketones either has an excellent sensitivity with a low specificity, or a poor sensitivity with a good specificity. However, this should be viewed in the context of uncertainty of the biochemical level of significant ketosis[3]. Interpretation of results Normally only small amounts of ketones are excreted daily in the urine (3-15 mg). High or increased values may be found in: Poorly controlled diabetes. Starvation: Prolonged vomiting. Rapid weight loss. Frequent strenuous exercise. Poisoning (eg, with isop Continue reading >>

Chronic Kidney Disease: Detection And Evaluation

Chronic Kidney Disease: Detection And Evaluation

Chronic kidney disease affects an estimated 27 million adults in the United States, and is associated with significantly increased risk of cardiovascular disease and stroke. Patients should be assessed annually to determine whether they are at increased risk of developing chronic kidney disease based on clinical and sociodemographic factors. Diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and older age are the primary risk factors that warrant screening. Other risk factors include cardiovascular disease, family history of chronic kidney disease, and ethnic and racial minority status. Serum creatinine levels can be used to estimate the glomerular filtration rate, and spot urine testing can detect proteinuria. After the diagnosis of chronic kidney disease is made, staging based on estimated glomerular filtration rate determines prognosis, evaluation, and management. Further evaluation should focus on the specific type of kidney disease and on identifying complications related to the disease stage. Patients should be assessed for risk factors leading to the further loss of kidney function and cardiovascular disease. Patients with estimated glomerular filtration rates less than 30 mL per minute per 1.73 m2, significant proteinuria, or rapid loss of kidney function should be referred to a nephrologist for further evaluation and management. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) affects an estimated 27 million adults in the United States and is associated with increased mortality, morbidity, and health care costs.1,2 CKD is also associated with significantly increased risks of cardiovascular disease3 and stroke.4 The incidence and prevalence of CKD among U.S. adults have increased dramatically since 1991.5 More than 500,000 Americans were treated for end-stage renal disease in 2007.6 The increases ar Continue reading >>

Ketosis Symptoms

Ketosis Symptoms

Ketosis symptoms are a result of the way the body gets rid of the excess ketone bodies which build up in the blood stream when a person eats a low carb, ketogenic diet. In short, the body has three ways of dealing with excess ketone bodies: First, the muscles liver and brain can burn them for energy in the cells. Second, the body can breathe ketones out through the lungs. And third, the body can flush ketones out through the kidneys and urine. Legionella Testing Lab - High Quality Lab Results CDC ELITE & NYSDOH ELAP Certified - Fast Results North America Lab Locations legionellatesting.com The ketosis symptoms associated with the benign dietary ketosis caused by eating a low carb, ketogenic diet are not dangerous. They may differ for each individual, with the most common symptoms being: Ketosis breath, which has a fruity odor, and the person in deep ketosis may feel a sort of slight burning in the nose and a slight smell of ammonia. Dry mouth, which is alleviated by drinking more regular tap or bottled water. (Reverse osmosis water will make this worse.) In the first week of beginning a ketogenic diet, most people experience frequent urination followed by fatigue, as insulin levels come down, and the kidneys release extraneous water stores. Minerals such as sodium, magnesium and potassium are also lost with excreted urine, and it is the mineral loss that causes the fatigue. This can be offset by eating more salt, drinking more fluids, and increasing the intake of magnesium and potassium containing foods. (Dairy foods and avocados are high in potassium, and you can drink broth for more sodium.) A slight headache at first which goes away in a few days. This is usually a sign of not getting enough salt. Ketone bodies become detectable in the urine. Ketone bodies are molecu Continue reading >>

Fellow Low-carbs, How Yellow Is Your Urine?

Fellow Low-carbs, How Yellow Is Your Urine?

I'm in Ketosis constantly and I notice that my urine, especially in the morning, is SUPER deep yellow. Like multivitamin-runoff yellow. I hydrate myself at the watering hole (my kitchen) in the morning. I try to sip water or ginger tea throughout the day. Since ketosis is obviously dehydrating (lose all that water weight), I replace lost water by drinking regular filtered water with a pinch of sea salt (my own version of Gatorade) or coconut water. But for the most part, when in ketosis, my pee never really gets as watered down as when I'm not in glycolysis. Continue reading >>

Emedicinehealth Medical Reference From Healthwise

Emedicinehealth Medical Reference From Healthwise

A A A Urine Test Test Overview A urine test checks different components of urine, a waste product made by the kidneys. A regular urine test may be done to help find the cause of symptoms. The test can give information about your health and problems you may have. The kidneys take out waste material, minerals, fluids, and other substances from the blood to be passed in the urine. Urine has hundreds of different body wastes. What you eat and drink, how much you exercise, and how well your kidneys work can affect what is in your urine. More than 100 different tests can be done on urine. A regular urinalysis often includes the following tests: Color. Many things affect urine color, including fluid balance, diet, medicines, and diseases. How dark or light the color is tells you how much water is in it. Vitamin B supplements can turn urine bright yellow. Some medicines, blackberries, beets, rhubarb, or blood in the urine can turn urine red-brown. Clarity. Urine is normally clear. Bacteria, blood, sperm, crystals, or mucus can make urine look cloudy. Odor. Urine does not smell very strong, but it has a slightly "nutty" odor. Some diseases cause a change in the odor of urine. For example, an infection with E. coli bacteria can cause a bad odor, while diabetes or starvation can cause a sweet, fruity odor. Specific gravity. This checks the amount of substances in the urine. It also shows how well the kidneys balance the amount of water in urine. The higher the specific gravity, the more solid material is in the urine. When you drink a lot of fluid, your kidneys make urine with a high amount of water in it, which has a low specific gravity. When you do not drink fluids, your kidneys make urine with a small amount of water in it, which has a high specific gravity. pH. The pH is Continue reading >>

Brown Particles In Urine – What Does It Mean?

Brown Particles In Urine – What Does It Mean?

What Causes Brown Particles In Your Urine? You just woke up, went to the toilet and after you peed you saw a distinct brown sediment in your urine. Should you be worried, what are those brown particles and how did they get there? These are just some of the questions we will address in this article, so read on if you want to hear some answers. Sediments and Particles In Your Urine Legionella Testing Lab - High Quality Lab Results CDC ELITE & NYSDOH ELAP Certified - Fast Results North America Lab Locations legionellatesting.com You should know that some particles exist even in healthy individuals. They are made up of dead cells, bacteria, proteins, leukocytes, and other structures commonly produced in your urinary tract, bladder, and kidneys. So some degree of sediment is natural and expected to see in the urine, but the problem may occur when there is too much of it, especially if there is a change in color. You might be surprised to hear this, but this color change can vary from green, red, white and, of course, brown. These are the cases where you should consider making a doctor’s appointment. The doctor might ask you if you’ve experienced any pain or a burning sensation when you urinate so if you do, it is important to note it. Kids often have this problem (pain during urination), usually because they are not taught to use the potty properly. They often engage in long sitting sessions and might notice a certain degree of discomfort. These are the situations where you should look for more clues that something is wrong with your child – check the skin around the baby’s legs, the diaper, or look for any other indications that something is out of the ordinary. What Causes Brown Particles In Your Urine? In most cases, the causes are benign, for example, it could be Continue reading >>

Sediment In Urine

Sediment In Urine

‘Sediments in urine’ is a condition wherein particles are detected in the urine. This is completely normal condition if the concentration of particles is in insignificant amount. Most people have insignificant amount of particles in urine. Whether the condition is normal or is a concern would depend on the type of particles and degree of concentration. Sediments in urine can be particles of debris, cells and/or other solid material. The condition is determined through a urine specimen. The sample is spun in centrifuge and checked for present sediments under microscope. Sponsored link Signs of Prostate Cancer Top Doctor Reveals 5 Early Warning Signs of Prostate Cancer. w3.brownsteinhealth.com Many patients affected with this condition may experience no pain but the issue can be an indication of a severe underlying medical irregularity such as UTI or Urinary Tract Infection, liver anomalies or bladder stones, etc. Under such situations when you suspect high amount of sediments in your urine, the only best way to treat it is by consulting a doctor. Causes of Sediment In urine Bladder stone Overgrown prostate in aged individuals may press the urethra and cause obstruction to flow of urine. This retains the urine in bladder where its starts converting into crystals. Other circumstances that may retain urine in bladder include weak pressure on bladder, damages to nerves and weakened bladder regions resulted by diverticula of bladder, etc. Kidney stone migrated through ureter and settled into the bladder can also lead to condition called Bladder stone and sediments in urine. Sometimes patients exposed to radio therapy may develop bladder stone as the radiation to pelvic region can cause inflammation of bladder which may eventually cause stone development. Mineral crystals Continue reading >>

Urinalysis – The Secret Life Of Urine

Urinalysis – The Secret Life Of Urine

Urinalysis – The Secret Life of Urine Consider first urine’s keystone measurement, specific gravity (USG.)1 There are drugs and therapies that will considerably change your ability to measure specific gravity and so sampling time is important. Urine should be collected prior to furosemide, mannitol, SC and IV fluids. As an example, even a few hours of IV fluids could alter the USG. Even if you are just able to get a drop for USG, you can get a larger sample for dipstick and sediment at any point. Some argue that a single USG is not a complete picture of urine concentrating ability in a healthy animal, and I would agree. Dogs, for instance, after activity or on a warm day, could drink quite a large amount of water to falsely lower their USG. Most of my patients are not healthy and not drinking a normal amount of water or doing a lot of exercise on a warm day. Arguably, there are post renal diseases that could also lower the USG in many patients, including a urinary tract infection. Normally concentrated urine should be taken as a positive sign; but isosthenuria (1.008-1.012) or incompletely concentrated urine (<1.030) in a dehydrated patient should be taken as a call for further investigation.1,2 Dipstick analysis is very helpful for the “big 3”- glucose, ketones and protein. Not only can we diagnose chronic conditions such as diabetes mellitus, Fanconi’s and protein-losing nephropathy, but acute conditions such as acute tubular necrosis, ketosis and sepsis-induced microalbuminuria. Other dipstick positives that are significant include bilirubin in a cat and hemoglobin without RBCs for possible exposure to hemolytic toxins (ex. onion, Tylenol®), immune disease, or rhabdomyolysis. Urine can be visibly brown, red or orange for a number of different reasons (ex. Continue reading >>

What’s Up With My Pee?

What’s Up With My Pee?

Sometimes new ketonians think of the strangest things to ask about on the Ketogenic Success Facebook group. One thing that just seems to keep coming up, again and again, is the question regarding changes to their urine stream. (I always want to remind people that there are over one hundred forty thousand users in the Ketogenic Success group, and maybe this isn’t a question they would ask in front of a crowd that large, but clearly, the question is on a lot of minds!) So let’s look at a couple of changes you may notice in the toilet after emptying your bladder. Change in Color You may find that your urine is changing color. Frequently folks report it getting lighter. This is totally normal. When you pass more water through your body, the urochrome that gives your urine its yellow color is diluted and your liquid waste may shift in hue to become straw colored. This happens as your cells release their retained water, as well, so this sight is commonly paired with a ‘whoosh’ in weight loss as inflammation decreases in your body. If your urine becomes nearly clear, or entirely transparent, you may be drinking too much water. Don’t force yourself to drink water if you’re not thirsty (unless you are dehydrated, more on that in a moment). If you are continuously drinking water and your pee is clear, be sure to replace your electrolytes with each serving (easiest thing to do is add Himalayan salt to your water bottle, or even pop a couple of H Salt crystals with each new glass of water). You can also replace electrolytes by drinking a shot of pickle or olive brine (just make sure it’s high quality, without unnecessary chemical ingredients). If your urine gets darker, on the other hand, you are likely not drinking enough water. Sometimes when we are dehydrated our b Continue reading >>

Today’s Technician Urinalysis In Companion Animals Part 2: Evaluation Of Urine Chemistry & Sediment

Today’s Technician Urinalysis In Companion Animals Part 2: Evaluation Of Urine Chemistry & Sediment

Theresa E. Rizzi, DVM, Diplomate ACVP, Oklahoma State University Urinalysis (UA) provides information about the urinary system as well as other body systems. It should be performed to: Evaluate any animal with clinical signs related to the urinary tract Assess an animal with systemic illness Monitor response to treatment. The first article in this 2-part series discussed collection, sample handling, and initial evaluation of urine in small animals (March/April 2014, available at tvpjournal .com). This article will describe more detailed evaluation, including chemical analysis and microscopic examination of sediment. CHEMICAL ANALYSIS Urine chemistry test strips have multiple pads impregnated with reagents that change color when the substance of interest is present. The degree of color change corresponds to the approximate amount of the substance present. Because color changes can be subtle, results may be considerably varied between individuals reading the test. Several chemistry multiple-test reagent strips are available, including: Chemstrip (poc.roche.com) Diastix (healthcare.bayer.com) Multistix (healthcare.siemens .com) Petstix (idexx.com). These tests differ in the reagents used and number of tests provided (Figure 1). Urine chemistry test strip analyzers are also available and provide printed reports of results. Not all chemistry tests are useful or reliable in animal species. The test pads for urine specific gravity, urobilinogen, nitrite, and leukocytes are not used for veterinary patients. Urine pH The normal urine pH range for dogs and cats is 6 to 7.5. When a patient is ill, urine pH can be affected by acid–base status. Systemic acid–base abnormalities change urine pH because the kidneys offset the effects of pH change in the body. Increase in urine pH ( Continue reading >>

Chemical Constituents

Chemical Constituents

Chemical constituents that are a part of a urinalysis include: pH, protein (Dipstick, SSA, Bence-Jones), protein-to-creatinine ratio, glucose, ketones, bilirubin and heme. pH Knowledge of the urine pH is important in interpreting urine sediment findings. Erythrocytes, leukocytes, and casts tend to disintegrate in alkaline urine (pH > 8.0). In addition, precipitation of urine crystals in supersaturated urine is highly dependent on urine pH (e.g. struvite will precipitate in alkaline not acidic urine). The reportable range of pH by the CLINITEK Advantus Urine Chemistry Analyzer used at Cornell University is from 5.0 to >9.0, in 0.5 unit increments. The table below illustrates the reportable pH results from the CLINITEK Advantus Urine Chemistry Analyzer used at Cornell University. pH 5.0 7.5 5.5 8.0 6.0 8.5 6.5 ≥ 9.0 7.0 Factors affecting the pH of urine Diet: Diet has a marked effect on urine pH. Grazing animals (herbivores) generally have alkaline urine except for young animals on a milk diet, where urine pH is more likely to be acidic. In contrast, carnivorous animals (dogs and cats) tend to have more acidic urine than adult herbivores, except straight after eating (called the post-prandial alkaline tide, due to increased secretion of HCl into the stomach). Renal hydrogen (H+) excretion and bicarbonate (HCO3–) resorption Pathologic abnormalities of systemic acid/base balance. Pathologic abnormalities of tubular function: Failure to excrete an acid load (e.g. H+ excretion in distal tubules) or failure to absorb bicarbonate in the proximal tubules. Age of urine specimen: Over time, loss of CO2 to the air occurs, raising the urine pH. Presence of contaminant or pathogenic bacteria: Some bacteria can alter the pH of urine. Urease-positive bacteria such as Streptococcus, Continue reading >>

Elevated White Blood Cells In The Urine Of Women And Men

Elevated White Blood Cells In The Urine Of Women And Men

When do elevated leukocytes in the urine occur? Elevated white blood cells in the urine can be a sign of serious health problems. Microscopic analysis of the urine are normal to spot in one or two white blood cells in the sample. Anything above may be indicative of leukocyturia, which is due to inflammation, infection, or greater physical exertion. It is very important not lose these cells through urine, because they are the most important defence mechanism of our body. Their presence in this exudate may also indicate to kidney disease, inflammation of the bladder or urinary tract. Therefore it is extremely important to immediately access to adequate medical treatment, but also natural methods. We will share with you more useful tips and recipes. Learn what it means to have high levels of leukocytes in urine, which symptoms accompany them, and what kind of measures should be taken What are the normal values ​​of leukocytes in urine? It is known that leukocytes in the blood are an important factor in the defence of the organism against diseases. They are formed in the bone marrow and are produced using stem cells. They surround the area, which is affected by inflammation or infection, thereby destroying all that is of foreign origin. Then they themselves suffer, thus creating their accumulation, which can create puss. However, when there is an infection that is not visible to the naked eye, it can be very problematic. It is particularly serious if one affects the kidneys or ureters. In this case, there are high levels of leukocytes in urine, and they cannot be predicted. Sometimes the disease progresses, while we do not feel any discomfort, we see them only when we carry out laboratory analysis. In this case, there is a scale on which to determine the level of their Continue reading >>

Ketogenic Diets For Psychiatric Disorders: A New 2017 Review

Ketogenic Diets For Psychiatric Disorders: A New 2017 Review

If you have a brain, you need to know about ketogenic diets. The fact that these specially-formulated low-carbohydrate diets have the power to stop seizures in their tracks is concrete evidence that food has a tremendous impact on brain chemistry and should inspire curiosity about how they work. I first became interested in ketogenic diets as a potential treatment for bipolar mood disorders, given the many similarities between epilepsy and bipolar disorder. Ketogenic diets have been around for about 100 years, and have proved to be invaluable tools in the treatment of stubborn neurological conditions, most notably epilepsy. They have also shown promise in the management of other brain-based disorders such as Parkinson’s Disease, ALS, Traumatic Brain Injury, Multiple Sclerosis, and chronic headaches, as well as in metabolic disorders like obesity, cancer, and type 2 diabetes. But where does the science currently stand on the ketogenic diet and psychiatric disorders like bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, and Alzheimer’s Disease? How many human studies do we have, and what do they tell us? If you are struggling with mood, attention, or memory problems, should you try a ketogenic diet? If you are a clinician, should you recommend a ketogenic diet to your patients? A recent review article “The Current Status of the Ketogenic Diet in Psychiatry” by researchers at the University of Tasmania in Australia [Bostock et al 2017 Front Psychiatry 20(8)] brings us nicely up to date on all things ketogenic and mental health. I summarize the paper below and offer some thoughts and suggestions of my own. [Full disclosure: I am a psychiatrist who studies nutrition and eats a ketogenic diet.] First, some basics for those of you who are unfamiliar with these special diets. Definition Continue reading >>

Complicated Catheter-associated Urinary Tract Infections Due To Escherichia Coli And Proteus Mirabilis

Complicated Catheter-associated Urinary Tract Infections Due To Escherichia Coli And Proteus Mirabilis

Go to: INTRODUCTION Indwelling urinary catheters are standard medical devices utilized in both hospital and nursing home settings to relieve urinary retention and urinary incontinence. Of the almost 100 million catheters that are sold annually worldwide, one-quarter of them are sold in the United States (50). The most common urinary catheter in use is the Foley indwelling urethral catheter, a closed sterile system that is comprised of a tube inserted through the urethra and held in place by an inflatable balloon to allow urinary drainage of the bladder. Although these devices were originally designed for short-term use in patients, indwelling catheter use is now commonplace in the long-term setting. Due to the frequent and sometimes unnecessary use of indwelling catheters during hospitalization (21 to 50% of patients) (153), many patients are placed at risk for complications associated with the use of these devices. A study of 1,540 nursing home residents determined that the risk of hospitalization, length of hospitalization, and length of antibiotic therapy were three times higher in catheterized residents than in noncatheterized residents (205). The most notable complication associated with indwelling urinary catheters is the development of nosocomial urinary tract infections (UTIs), known as catheter-associated UTIs (CAUTIs). Infections of the urinary tract associated with catheter use are significant not only due their high incidence and subsequent economic cost but also because of the severe sequelae that can result. CAUTIs, the most common type of nosocomial infection, account for over 1 million cases annually (401) or over 40% of all nosocomial infections in hospitals and nursing homes (382, 383, 438) and constitute 80% of all nosocomial UTIs (132). Due to this h Continue reading >>

What Your Pee May Be Trying To Tell You

What Your Pee May Be Trying To Tell You

During your lifetime, your kidneys will work very hard to filter over one million gallons of water. Urine is about 95% water and 5% uric acid, the stuff that your body does not need – including minerals, enzymes and salts that are dangerous if they accumulate in your body. Urine can fluctuate in color and odor depending on what you are eating and drinking, how active you are, the time of day or what supplements you are taking. However, urine color and odor can also be an indication of something more serious. Would you have ever thought that great things could be learned from your pee? Urine should be pale yellow or clear – not glow-in-the-dark yellow or dark yellow. It should not be cloudy or have a knock-you-over odor unless you have been eating asparagus! Anything apart from the clear and odorless could be a sign of trouble. Urine is made up of excess water and waste that your kidneys have filtered. Urochrome, a pigment found in blood, gives urine its natural light yellow tone. Depending on how hydrated you are, you urine color can fluctuate from clear to darker yellow or even orange tinted. Here is a quick pee primer to fill you in on what you should look for and what your pee may be telling you. Super Clear Urine Yep, there is such a thing as urine that is too clear. If your urine is super clear it may mean that you are drinking too many fluids. Be careful not to over-hydrate. The best rule of thumb is to aim for half of your body weight in ounces each day. This means, if your weight is 120 pounds, you should be drinking 60 ounces of water per day. More serious conditions such as acute viral hepatitis or cirrhosis can also cause your pee to turn very clear. However, you will also have other symptoms such as skin yellowing, nausea or vomiting with these condition Continue reading >>

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