Dangers Of Zero-carb Diets, Iv: Kidney Stones
Kidney stones are a frequent occurrence on the ketogenic diet for epilepsy. [1, 2, 3] About 1 in 20 children on the ketogenic diet develop kidney stones per year, compared with one in several thousand among the general population.  On children who follow the ketogenic diet for six years, the incidence of kidney stones is about 25% . A 100-fold odds ratio is hardly ever seen in medicine. There must be some fundamental cause of kidney stones that is dramatically promoted by clinical ketogenic diets. Just over half of ketogenic diet kidney stones are composed of uric acid and just under half of calcium oxalate mixed with calcium phosphate or uric acid. Among the general public, about 85% of stones are calcium oxalate mixes and about 10% are uric acid. So, roughly speaking, uric acid kidney stones are 500-fold more frequent on the ketogenic diet and calcium oxalate stones are 50-fold more frequent. Causes are Poorly Understood In the nephrology literature, kidney stones are a rather mysterious condition. Wikipedia has a summary of the reasons offered in the literature for high stone formation on the ketogenic diet : Kidney stone formation (nephrolithiasis) is associated with the diet for four reasons: Excess calcium in the urine (hypercalciuria) occurs due to increased bone demineralisation with acidosis. Bones are mainly composed of calcium phosphate. The phosphate reacts with the acid, and the calcium is excreted by the kidneys. Hypocitraturia: the urine has an abnormally low concentration of citrate, which normally helps to dissolve free calcium. The urine has a low pH, which stops uric acid from dissolving, leading to crystals that act as a nidus for calcium stone formation. Many institutions traditionally restricted the water intake of patients on the diet to Continue reading >>
Emedicinehealth Medical Reference From Healthwise
A A A Urine Test Test Overview A urine test checks different components of urine, a waste product made by the kidneys. A regular urine test may be done to help find the cause of symptoms. The test can give information about your health and problems you may have. The kidneys take out waste material, minerals, fluids, and other substances from the blood to be passed in the urine. Urine has hundreds of different body wastes. What you eat and drink, how much you exercise, and how well your kidneys work can affect what is in your urine. More than 100 different tests can be done on urine. A regular urinalysis often includes the following tests: Color. Many things affect urine color, including fluid balance, diet, medicines, and diseases. How dark or light the color is tells you how much water is in it. Vitamin B supplements can turn urine bright yellow. Some medicines, blackberries, beets, rhubarb, or blood in the urine can turn urine red-brown. Clarity. Urine is normally clear. Bacteria, blood, sperm, crystals, or mucus can make urine look cloudy. Odor. Urine does not smell very strong, but it has a slightly "nutty" odor. Some diseases cause a change in the odor of urine. For example, an infection with E. coli bacteria can cause a bad odor, while diabetes or starvation can cause a sweet, fruity odor. Specific gravity. This checks the amount of substances in the urine. It also shows how well the kidneys balance the amount of water in urine. The higher the specific gravity, the more solid material is in the urine. When you drink a lot of fluid, your kidneys make urine with a high amount of water in it, which has a low specific gravity. When you do not drink fluids, your kidneys make urine with a small amount of water in it, which has a high specific gravity. pH. The pH is Continue reading >>
10 Signs And Symptoms That You're In Ketosis
The ketogenic diet is a popular, effective way to lose weight and improve health. When followed correctly, this low-carb, high-fat diet will raise blood ketone levels. These provide a new fuel source for your cells, and cause most of the unique health benefits of this diet (1, 2, 3). On a ketogenic diet, your body undergoes many biological adaptions, including a reduction in insulin and increased fat breakdown. When this happens, your liver starts producing large amounts of ketones to supply energy for your brain. However, it can often be hard to know whether you're "in ketosis" or not. Here are 10 common signs and symptoms of ketosis, both positive and negative. People often report bad breath once they reach full ketosis. It's actually a common side effect. Many people on ketogenic diets and similar diets, such as the Atkins diet, report that their breath takes on a fruity smell. This is caused by elevated ketone levels. The specific culprit is acetone, a ketone that exits the body in your urine and breath (4). While this breath may be less than ideal for your social life, it can be a positive sign for your diet. Many ketogenic dieters brush their teeth several times per day, or use sugar-free gum to solve the issue. If you're using gum or other alternatives like sugar-free drinks, check the label for carbs. These may raise your blood sugar levels and reduce ketone levels. The bad breath usually goes away after some time on the diet. It is not a permanent thing. The ketone acetone is partly expelled via your breath, which can cause bad or fruity-smelling breath on a ketogenic diet. Ketogenic diets, along with normal low-carb diets, are highly effective for losing weight (5, 6). As dozens of weight loss studies have shown, you will likely experience both short- and long Continue reading >>
Sediment In Urine
‘Sediments in urine’ is a condition wherein particles are detected in the urine. This is completely normal condition if the concentration of particles is in insignificant amount. Most people have insignificant amount of particles in urine. Whether the condition is normal or is a concern would depend on the type of particles and degree of concentration. Sediments in urine can be particles of debris, cells and/or other solid material. The condition is determined through a urine specimen. The sample is spun in centrifuge and checked for present sediments under microscope. Sponsored link Signs of Prostate Cancer Top Doctor Reveals 5 Early Warning Signs of Prostate Cancer. w3.brownsteinhealth.com Many patients affected with this condition may experience no pain but the issue can be an indication of a severe underlying medical irregularity such as UTI or Urinary Tract Infection, liver anomalies or bladder stones, etc. Under such situations when you suspect high amount of sediments in your urine, the only best way to treat it is by consulting a doctor. Causes of Sediment In urine Bladder stone Overgrown prostate in aged individuals may press the urethra and cause obstruction to flow of urine. This retains the urine in bladder where its starts converting into crystals. Other circumstances that may retain urine in bladder include weak pressure on bladder, damages to nerves and weakened bladder regions resulted by diverticula of bladder, etc. Kidney stone migrated through ureter and settled into the bladder can also lead to condition called Bladder stone and sediments in urine. Sometimes patients exposed to radio therapy may develop bladder stone as the radiation to pelvic region can cause inflammation of bladder which may eventually cause stone development. Mineral crystals Continue reading >>
What Your Pee May Be Trying To Tell You
During your lifetime, your kidneys will work very hard to filter over one million gallons of water. Urine is about 95% water and 5% uric acid, the stuff that your body does not need – including minerals, enzymes and salts that are dangerous if they accumulate in your body. Urine can fluctuate in color and odor depending on what you are eating and drinking, how active you are, the time of day or what supplements you are taking. However, urine color and odor can also be an indication of something more serious. Would you have ever thought that great things could be learned from your pee? Urine should be pale yellow or clear – not glow-in-the-dark yellow or dark yellow. It should not be cloudy or have a knock-you-over odor unless you have been eating asparagus! Anything apart from the clear and odorless could be a sign of trouble. Urine is made up of excess water and waste that your kidneys have filtered. Urochrome, a pigment found in blood, gives urine its natural light yellow tone. Depending on how hydrated you are, you urine color can fluctuate from clear to darker yellow or even orange tinted. Here is a quick pee primer to fill you in on what you should look for and what your pee may be telling you. Super Clear Urine Yep, there is such a thing as urine that is too clear. If your urine is super clear it may mean that you are drinking too many fluids. Be careful not to over-hydrate. The best rule of thumb is to aim for half of your body weight in ounces each day. This means, if your weight is 120 pounds, you should be drinking 60 ounces of water per day. More serious conditions such as acute viral hepatitis or cirrhosis can also cause your pee to turn very clear. However, you will also have other symptoms such as skin yellowing, nausea or vomiting with these condition Continue reading >>
Urine Ketones - Meanings And False Positives
Professional Reference articles are written by UK doctors and are based on research evidence, UK and European Guidelines. They are designed for health professionals to use. You may find the Urine Ketones article more useful, or one of our other health articles. Description Ketones are produced normally by the liver as part of fatty acid metabolism. In normal states these ketones will be completely metabolised so that very few, if any at all, will appear in the urine. If for any reason the body cannot get enough glucose for energy it will switch to using body fats, resulting in an increase in ketone production making them detectable in the blood and urine. How to test for ketones The urine test for ketones is performed using test strips available on prescription. Strips dedicated to ketone testing in the UK include: GlucoRx KetoRx Sticks 2GK® Ketostix® Mission® Ketone Testing should be performed according to manufacturers' instructions. The sample should be fresh and uncontaminated. Usually the result will be expressed as negative or positive (graded 1 to 4). Ketonuria is different from ketonaemia (ie presence of ketones in the blood) and often ketonuria does not indicate clinically significant ketonaemia. Depending on the testing strips used, urine testing for ketones either has an excellent sensitivity with a low specificity, or a poor sensitivity with a good specificity. However, this should be viewed in the context of uncertainty of the biochemical level of significant ketosis. Interpretation of results Normally only small amounts of ketones are excreted daily in the urine (3-15 mg). High or increased values may be found in: Poorly controlled diabetes. Starvation: Prolonged vomiting. Rapid weight loss. Frequent strenuous exercise. Poisoning (eg, with isop Continue reading >>
Complicated Catheter-associated Urinary Tract Infections Due To Escherichia Coli And Proteus Mirabilis
Go to: INTRODUCTION Indwelling urinary catheters are standard medical devices utilized in both hospital and nursing home settings to relieve urinary retention and urinary incontinence. Of the almost 100 million catheters that are sold annually worldwide, one-quarter of them are sold in the United States (50). The most common urinary catheter in use is the Foley indwelling urethral catheter, a closed sterile system that is comprised of a tube inserted through the urethra and held in place by an inflatable balloon to allow urinary drainage of the bladder. Although these devices were originally designed for short-term use in patients, indwelling catheter use is now commonplace in the long-term setting. Due to the frequent and sometimes unnecessary use of indwelling catheters during hospitalization (21 to 50% of patients) (153), many patients are placed at risk for complications associated with the use of these devices. A study of 1,540 nursing home residents determined that the risk of hospitalization, length of hospitalization, and length of antibiotic therapy were three times higher in catheterized residents than in noncatheterized residents (205). The most notable complication associated with indwelling urinary catheters is the development of nosocomial urinary tract infections (UTIs), known as catheter-associated UTIs (CAUTIs). Infections of the urinary tract associated with catheter use are significant not only due their high incidence and subsequent economic cost but also because of the severe sequelae that can result. CAUTIs, the most common type of nosocomial infection, account for over 1 million cases annually (401) or over 40% of all nosocomial infections in hospitals and nursing homes (382, 383, 438) and constitute 80% of all nosocomial UTIs (132). Due to this h Continue reading >>
What’s Up With My Pee?
Sometimes new ketonians think of the strangest things to ask about on the Ketogenic Success Facebook group. One thing that just seems to keep coming up, again and again, is the question regarding changes to their urine stream. (I always want to remind people that there are over one hundred forty thousand users in the Ketogenic Success group, and maybe this isn’t a question they would ask in front of a crowd that large, but clearly, the question is on a lot of minds!) So let’s look at a couple of changes you may notice in the toilet after emptying your bladder. Change in Color You may find that your urine is changing color. Frequently folks report it getting lighter. This is totally normal. When you pass more water through your body, the urochrome that gives your urine its yellow color is diluted and your liquid waste may shift in hue to become straw colored. This happens as your cells release their retained water, as well, so this sight is commonly paired with a ‘whoosh’ in weight loss as inflammation decreases in your body. If your urine becomes nearly clear, or entirely transparent, you may be drinking too much water. Don’t force yourself to drink water if you’re not thirsty (unless you are dehydrated, more on that in a moment). If you are continuously drinking water and your pee is clear, be sure to replace your electrolytes with each serving (easiest thing to do is add Himalayan salt to your water bottle, or even pop a couple of H Salt crystals with each new glass of water). You can also replace electrolytes by drinking a shot of pickle or olive brine (just make sure it’s high quality, without unnecessary chemical ingredients). If your urine gets darker, on the other hand, you are likely not drinking enough water. Sometimes when we are dehydrated our b Continue reading >>
Chemical constituents that are a part of a urinalysis include: pH, protein (Dipstick, SSA, Bence-Jones), protein-to-creatinine ratio, glucose, ketones, bilirubin and heme. pH Knowledge of the urine pH is important in interpreting urine sediment findings. Erythrocytes, leukocytes, and casts tend to disintegrate in alkaline urine (pH > 8.0). In addition, precipitation of urine crystals in supersaturated urine is highly dependent on urine pH (e.g. struvite will precipitate in alkaline not acidic urine). The reportable range of pH by the CLINITEK Advantus Urine Chemistry Analyzer used at Cornell University is from 5.0 to >9.0, in 0.5 unit increments. The table below illustrates the reportable pH results from the CLINITEK Advantus Urine Chemistry Analyzer used at Cornell University. pH 5.0 7.5 5.5 8.0 6.0 8.5 6.5 ≥ 9.0 7.0 Factors affecting the pH of urine Diet: Diet has a marked effect on urine pH. Grazing animals (herbivores) generally have alkaline urine except for young animals on a milk diet, where urine pH is more likely to be acidic. In contrast, carnivorous animals (dogs and cats) tend to have more acidic urine than adult herbivores, except straight after eating (called the post-prandial alkaline tide, due to increased secretion of HCl into the stomach). Renal hydrogen (H+) excretion and bicarbonate (HCO3–) resorption Pathologic abnormalities of systemic acid/base balance. Pathologic abnormalities of tubular function: Failure to excrete an acid load (e.g. H+ excretion in distal tubules) or failure to absorb bicarbonate in the proximal tubules. Age of urine specimen: Over time, loss of CO2 to the air occurs, raising the urine pH. Presence of contaminant or pathogenic bacteria: Some bacteria can alter the pH of urine. Urease-positive bacteria such as Streptococcus, Continue reading >>
Exercise Caution When Using D-mannose For A Urinary Tract Infection If You Have Sibo
D-mannose is commonly prescribed for the treatment of urinary tract infections by many alternative/integrative health practitioners. If you visit the comment sections of blog posts and forums on this topic, you will see that thousands of people attest to the fact that it can be very effective, when the bacteria involved is E.coli. However, as I will demonstrate further ahead, D-mannose can be contraindicated if SIBO is present. Urinary tract infections are the second most common infection in the United States and are becoming increasingly difficult to treat due to antibiotic resistance. Women are much more prone to a UTI, because their urethra (the tube that transports urine from the bladder and out of the body) is shorter and close to the anus which allows bacteria to enter more easily. Most women have had at least one in their life, but for many they can become a recurring problem. Like all microbes, bacteria in the urinary tract build biofilms where they form colonies that enable them to evade the immune system and antibiotics. This contributes greatly to recurrence and resistance. Bacteria in the biofilm can be up to 1000 times more resistant than those outside the biofilm. Infection may occur anywhere within the urinary tract including the bladder, urethra, ureters (ducts that carry urine from kidneys to the bladder) or the kidneys. It is much less complicated and risky if it is confined to the bladder. If treatment of a bladder infection is prompt and effective, then it reduces the risk of traveling to the kidneys. In most cases, a UTI is caused by bacteria, but it may also be caused by a fungus. The most common fungi involved is Candida, but it could also be cryptococcus neoformans, aspergillus species, and the endemic mycoses. The most common bacteria involved i Continue reading >>
Fellow Low-carbs, How Yellow Is Your Urine?
I'm in Ketosis constantly and I notice that my urine, especially in the morning, is SUPER deep yellow. Like multivitamin-runoff yellow. I hydrate myself at the watering hole (my kitchen) in the morning. I try to sip water or ginger tea throughout the day. Since ketosis is obviously dehydrating (lose all that water weight), I replace lost water by drinking regular filtered water with a pinch of sea salt (my own version of Gatorade) or coconut water. But for the most part, when in ketosis, my pee never really gets as watered down as when I'm not in glycolysis. Continue reading >>
Brown Particles In Urine – What Does It Mean?
What Causes Brown Particles In Your Urine? You just woke up, went to the toilet and after you peed you saw a distinct brown sediment in your urine. Should you be worried, what are those brown particles and how did they get there? These are just some of the questions we will address in this article, so read on if you want to hear some answers. Sediments and Particles In Your Urine Legionella Testing Lab - High Quality Lab Results CDC ELITE & NYSDOH ELAP Certified - Fast Results North America Lab Locations legionellatesting.com You should know that some particles exist even in healthy individuals. They are made up of dead cells, bacteria, proteins, leukocytes, and other structures commonly produced in your urinary tract, bladder, and kidneys. So some degree of sediment is natural and expected to see in the urine, but the problem may occur when there is too much of it, especially if there is a change in color. You might be surprised to hear this, but this color change can vary from green, red, white and, of course, brown. These are the cases where you should consider making a doctor’s appointment. The doctor might ask you if you’ve experienced any pain or a burning sensation when you urinate so if you do, it is important to note it. Kids often have this problem (pain during urination), usually because they are not taught to use the potty properly. They often engage in long sitting sessions and might notice a certain degree of discomfort. These are the situations where you should look for more clues that something is wrong with your child – check the skin around the baby’s legs, the diaper, or look for any other indications that something is out of the ordinary. What Causes Brown Particles In Your Urine? In most cases, the causes are benign, for example, it could be Continue reading >>
Can A Low-carb Diet Make One's Urine Smell Bad?
Urine usually has little odor to it, so you may be puzzled if yours smells stronger than usual. A restrictive low-carb diet can put you into a state of ketosis, a side effect of which is a fruity-smelling urine. Moderate low-carb diets are unlikely to give your urine an unusual odor, however, so consider other causes and, if still not sure why your urine smells, consult your medical provider. Video of the Day It's unlikely that you'll reach the state of ketosis with moderately low-carb diets. You'll need to follow a restrictive plan, such as the Atkins 20™ diet, which only allows 20 grams of carbs per day, with virtually all high-carb foods off your plate. You focus on moderate amounts of protein and large amounts of fat. No added sugar, fruit, grains or starchy vegetables are allowed in a ketogenic diet. Meals consists of meats, cold-pressed oils and leafy, watery vegetables. Nuts, eggs and cheese serve as snacks. After several days or weeks of following this extremely low-carb plan, your body starts to produce ketones. You don't have enough carbs for energy, so, to fuel activity, your body becomes efficient at burning fat and the liver produces ketones to fuel the brain. This production is normal, but not regularly experienced by people that consume the 225 to 300 grams of carbohydrates recommended on a standard American 2,000-calorie diet. Benefits of the ketogenic diet include stabilization of blood sugar and insulin levels and the weight loss that results from your body reaching into your fat stores for energy. The diet may also help alleviate symptoms of a number of diseases, including neurological conditions and some cancers. Your Urine on Ketosis One of the first signs that you've reached a state of ketosis is frequent urination. As the diet stabilizes your in Continue reading >>
Urine is usually made up of excess fluids and waste products that are filtered from the body by the kidneys. Oily urine can occur due to a number of causes such as dehydration, chyle, and increased vitamin intake, etc. But the main cause of oily urine is ketones in urine. Causes of Oily Urine Some of the common causes of oily urine are discussed below: 1. Ketones in Urine One of the main causes of oily urine is ketones in urine. Ketones are generally not found in urine; it gets released due to metabolism of fat, which in turn is caused due to the inability of the body to produce energy from carbohydrates, or due to starvation, or due to intake of a protein-rich diet or a carbohydrates deficient diet. Thus, oily urine caused by ketones in urine typically affects people who have endured starvation or fasting for prolonged periods, those with uncontrolled case of diabetes, and those following an abnormal and strict diet. Ketones are acidic in nature and hence harmful for the body. Increased ketones in urine can trigger ketones in urine that can then worsen and lead to development of ketosis, a condition characterized by varied symptoms like weakness, nausea, exhaustion, and elevated sweating. As mentioned above, ketones do not occur in healthy urine. Ketones levels in urine up to 20 mg/dL is classified as small; between 30 and 40 mg/dL as moderate; and over 80 mg/dL as large. Ketones in urine associated oily urine may be caused due to: Low food consumption Diabetic ketoacidosis or mismanaged diabetes Bad diet High fever due to an infection Strenuous workouts High stress levels Starvation, fasting, or nil food intake for more than 18 hours Eating a diet that is low in carbs or high in fat Use of fats by the body to produce energy instead of glucose Loss of carbohydrates due Continue reading >>
Elevated White Blood Cells In The Urine Of Women And Men
When do elevated leukocytes in the urine occur? Elevated white blood cells in the urine can be a sign of serious health problems. Microscopic analysis of the urine are normal to spot in one or two white blood cells in the sample. Anything above may be indicative of leukocyturia, which is due to inflammation, infection, or greater physical exertion. It is very important not lose these cells through urine, because they are the most important defence mechanism of our body. Their presence in this exudate may also indicate to kidney disease, inflammation of the bladder or urinary tract. Therefore it is extremely important to immediately access to adequate medical treatment, but also natural methods. We will share with you more useful tips and recipes. Learn what it means to have high levels of leukocytes in urine, which symptoms accompany them, and what kind of measures should be taken What are the normal values of leukocytes in urine? It is known that leukocytes in the blood are an important factor in the defence of the organism against diseases. They are formed in the bone marrow and are produced using stem cells. They surround the area, which is affected by inflammation or infection, thereby destroying all that is of foreign origin. Then they themselves suffer, thus creating their accumulation, which can create puss. However, when there is an infection that is not visible to the naked eye, it can be very problematic. It is particularly serious if one affects the kidneys or ureters. In this case, there are high levels of leukocytes in urine, and they cannot be predicted. Sometimes the disease progresses, while we do not feel any discomfort, we see them only when we carry out laboratory analysis. In this case, there is a scale on which to determine the level of their Continue reading >>