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Can Ketosis Cause Sediment In Urine

Complicated Catheter-associated Urinary Tract Infections Due To Escherichia Coli And Proteus Mirabilis

Complicated Catheter-associated Urinary Tract Infections Due To Escherichia Coli And Proteus Mirabilis

Go to: INTRODUCTION Indwelling urinary catheters are standard medical devices utilized in both hospital and nursing home settings to relieve urinary retention and urinary incontinence. Of the almost 100 million catheters that are sold annually worldwide, one-quarter of them are sold in the United States (50). The most common urinary catheter in use is the Foley indwelling urethral catheter, a closed sterile system that is comprised of a tube inserted through the urethra and held in place by an inflatable balloon to allow urinary drainage of the bladder. Although these devices were originally designed for short-term use in patients, indwelling catheter use is now commonplace in the long-term setting. Due to the frequent and sometimes unnecessary use of indwelling catheters during hospitalization (21 to 50% of patients) (153), many patients are placed at risk for complications associated with the use of these devices. A study of 1,540 nursing home residents determined that the risk of hospitalization, length of hospitalization, and length of antibiotic therapy were three times higher in catheterized residents than in noncatheterized residents (205). The most notable complication associated with indwelling urinary catheters is the development of nosocomial urinary tract infections (UTIs), known as catheter-associated UTIs (CAUTIs). Infections of the urinary tract associated with catheter use are significant not only due their high incidence and subsequent economic cost but also because of the severe sequelae that can result. CAUTIs, the most common type of nosocomial infection, account for over 1 million cases annually (401) or over 40% of all nosocomial infections in hospitals and nursing homes (382, 383, 438) and constitute 80% of all nosocomial UTIs (132). Due to this h Continue reading >>

Merck And The Merck Veterinary Manual

Merck And The Merck Veterinary Manual

By Trevor J. Whitbread, BSc, BVSc, MRCVS, DECVP, Pathologist, Abbey Veterinary Services Urinalysis is an important laboratory test that can be readily performed in veterinary practice and is considered part of a minimum database. It is useful to document various types of urinary tract diseases and may provide information about other systemic diseases, such as liver failure and hemolysis. Urine may be collected by cystocentesis, urethral catheterization, or voiding. Urine should be evaluated within 30 min, but if this is not possible, it may be refrigerated for up to 24 hr or submitted to an outside diagnostic laboratory; however, this may result in crystal precipitation. Refrigeration does not alter urine pH or specific gravity. If cytologic evaluation is required and a delay in preparing the slides is anticipated, then a preservative should be added. A few drops of 10% formalin (exact concentration not necessary) is better than boric acid. However, the usual Romanowsky stains are unsuitable with formalin; if submitting to an outside laboratory, it should be communicated that formalin has been added. Urine Chemistries Urine must be at room temperature for accurate measurement of urine specific gravity and for chemical analysis. These tests are usually done before centrifugation; however, if urine is discolored or turbid, it may be beneficial to perform these tests on supernatant (see Urine Sediment). The urine specific gravity (SG) is determined using a refractometer designed for veterinary samples, which includes a scale calibrated specifically for cat urine. SG for species other than cats should be determined using the scale for dogs. In healthy animals, SG is highly variable, depending on fluid and electrolyte balance of the body. It is normally at least 1.015. Inter Continue reading >>

Oily Urine

Oily Urine

Urine is usually made up of excess fluids and waste products that are filtered from the body by the kidneys. Oily urine can occur due to a number of causes such as dehydration, chyle, and increased vitamin intake, etc. But the main cause of oily urine is ketones in urine. Causes of Oily Urine Some of the common causes of oily urine are discussed below: 1. Ketones in Urine One of the main causes of oily urine is ketones in urine. Ketones are generally not found in urine; it gets released due to metabolism of fat, which in turn is caused due to the inability of the body to produce energy from carbohydrates, or due to starvation, or due to intake of a protein-rich diet or a carbohydrates deficient diet. Thus, oily urine caused by ketones in urine typically affects people who have endured starvation or fasting for prolonged periods, those with uncontrolled case of diabetes, and those following an abnormal and strict diet. Ketones are acidic in nature and hence harmful for the body. Increased ketones in urine can trigger ketones in urine that can then worsen and lead to development of ketosis, a condition characterized by varied symptoms like weakness, nausea, exhaustion, and elevated sweating. As mentioned above, ketones do not occur in healthy urine. Ketones levels in urine up to 20 mg/dL is classified as small; between 30 and 40 mg/dL as moderate; and over 80 mg/dL as large. Ketones in urine associated oily urine may be caused due to: Low food consumption Diabetic ketoacidosis or mismanaged diabetes Bad diet High fever due to an infection Strenuous workouts High stress levels Starvation, fasting, or nil food intake for more than 18 hours Eating a diet that is low in carbs or high in fat Use of fats by the body to produce energy instead of glucose Loss of carbohydrates due Continue reading >>

Exercise Caution When Using D-mannose For A Urinary Tract Infection If You Have Sibo

Exercise Caution When Using D-mannose For A Urinary Tract Infection If You Have Sibo

D-mannose is commonly prescribed for the treatment of urinary tract infections by many alternative/integrative health practitioners. If you visit the comment sections of blog posts and forums on this topic, you will see that thousands of people attest to the fact that it can be very effective, when the bacteria involved is E.coli. However, as I will demonstrate further ahead, D-mannose can be contraindicated if SIBO is present. Urinary tract infections are the second most common infection in the United States and are becoming increasingly difficult to treat due to antibiotic resistance. Women are much more prone to a UTI, because their urethra (the tube that transports urine from the bladder and out of the body) is shorter and close to the anus which allows bacteria to enter more easily. Most women have had at least one in their life, but for many they can become a recurring problem. Like all microbes, bacteria in the urinary tract build biofilms where they form colonies that enable them to evade the immune system and antibiotics. This contributes greatly to recurrence and resistance. Bacteria in the biofilm can be up to 1000 times more resistant than those outside the biofilm. Infection may occur anywhere within the urinary tract including the bladder, urethra, ureters (ducts that carry urine from kidneys to the bladder) or the kidneys. It is much less complicated and risky if it is confined to the bladder. If treatment of a bladder infection is prompt and effective, then it reduces the risk of traveling to the kidneys. In most cases, a UTI is caused by bacteria, but it may also be caused by a fungus. The most common fungi involved is Candida, but it could also be cryptococcus neoformans, aspergillus species, and the endemic mycoses. The most common bacteria involved i Continue reading >>

Today’s Technician Urinalysis In Companion Animals Part 2: Evaluation Of Urine Chemistry & Sediment

Today’s Technician Urinalysis In Companion Animals Part 2: Evaluation Of Urine Chemistry & Sediment

Theresa E. Rizzi, DVM, Diplomate ACVP, Oklahoma State University Urinalysis (UA) provides information about the urinary system as well as other body systems. It should be performed to: Evaluate any animal with clinical signs related to the urinary tract Assess an animal with systemic illness Monitor response to treatment. The first article in this 2-part series discussed collection, sample handling, and initial evaluation of urine in small animals (March/April 2014, available at tvpjournal .com). This article will describe more detailed evaluation, including chemical analysis and microscopic examination of sediment. CHEMICAL ANALYSIS Urine chemistry test strips have multiple pads impregnated with reagents that change color when the substance of interest is present. The degree of color change corresponds to the approximate amount of the substance present. Because color changes can be subtle, results may be considerably varied between individuals reading the test. Several chemistry multiple-test reagent strips are available, including: Chemstrip (poc.roche.com) Diastix (healthcare.bayer.com) Multistix (healthcare.siemens .com) Petstix (idexx.com). These tests differ in the reagents used and number of tests provided (Figure 1). Urine chemistry test strip analyzers are also available and provide printed reports of results. Not all chemistry tests are useful or reliable in animal species. The test pads for urine specific gravity, urobilinogen, nitrite, and leukocytes are not used for veterinary patients. Urine pH The normal urine pH range for dogs and cats is 6 to 7.5. When a patient is ill, urine pH can be affected by acid–base status. Systemic acid–base abnormalities change urine pH because the kidneys offset the effects of pH change in the body. Increase in urine pH ( Continue reading >>

Dangers Of Zero-carb Diets, Iv: Kidney Stones

Dangers Of Zero-carb Diets, Iv: Kidney Stones

Kidney stones are a frequent occurrence on the ketogenic diet for epilepsy. [1, 2, 3] About 1 in 20 children on the ketogenic diet develop kidney stones per year, compared with one in several thousand among the general population. [4] On children who follow the ketogenic diet for six years, the incidence of kidney stones is about 25% [5]. A 100-fold odds ratio is hardly ever seen in medicine. There must be some fundamental cause of kidney stones that is dramatically promoted by clinical ketogenic diets. Just over half of ketogenic diet kidney stones are composed of uric acid and just under half of calcium oxalate mixed with calcium phosphate or uric acid. Among the general public, about 85% of stones are calcium oxalate mixes and about 10% are uric acid. So, roughly speaking, uric acid kidney stones are 500-fold more frequent on the ketogenic diet and calcium oxalate stones are 50-fold more frequent. Causes are Poorly Understood In the nephrology literature, kidney stones are a rather mysterious condition. Wikipedia has a summary of the reasons offered in the literature for high stone formation on the ketogenic diet [4]: Kidney stone formation (nephrolithiasis) is associated with the diet for four reasons: Excess calcium in the urine (hypercalciuria) occurs due to increased bone demineralisation with acidosis. Bones are mainly composed of calcium phosphate. The phosphate reacts with the acid, and the calcium is excreted by the kidneys. Hypocitraturia: the urine has an abnormally low concentration of citrate, which normally helps to dissolve free calcium. The urine has a low pH, which stops uric acid from dissolving, leading to crystals that act as a nidus for calcium stone formation. Many institutions traditionally restricted the water intake of patients on the diet to Continue reading >>

Fellow Low-carbs, How Yellow Is Your Urine?

Fellow Low-carbs, How Yellow Is Your Urine?

I'm in Ketosis constantly and I notice that my urine, especially in the morning, is SUPER deep yellow. Like multivitamin-runoff yellow. I hydrate myself at the watering hole (my kitchen) in the morning. I try to sip water or ginger tea throughout the day. Since ketosis is obviously dehydrating (lose all that water weight), I replace lost water by drinking regular filtered water with a pinch of sea salt (my own version of Gatorade) or coconut water. But for the most part, when in ketosis, my pee never really gets as watered down as when I'm not in glycolysis. Continue reading >>

Chronic Kidney Disease: Detection And Evaluation

Chronic Kidney Disease: Detection And Evaluation

Chronic kidney disease affects an estimated 27 million adults in the United States, and is associated with significantly increased risk of cardiovascular disease and stroke. Patients should be assessed annually to determine whether they are at increased risk of developing chronic kidney disease based on clinical and sociodemographic factors. Diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and older age are the primary risk factors that warrant screening. Other risk factors include cardiovascular disease, family history of chronic kidney disease, and ethnic and racial minority status. Serum creatinine levels can be used to estimate the glomerular filtration rate, and spot urine testing can detect proteinuria. After the diagnosis of chronic kidney disease is made, staging based on estimated glomerular filtration rate determines prognosis, evaluation, and management. Further evaluation should focus on the specific type of kidney disease and on identifying complications related to the disease stage. Patients should be assessed for risk factors leading to the further loss of kidney function and cardiovascular disease. Patients with estimated glomerular filtration rates less than 30 mL per minute per 1.73 m2, significant proteinuria, or rapid loss of kidney function should be referred to a nephrologist for further evaluation and management. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) affects an estimated 27 million adults in the United States and is associated with increased mortality, morbidity, and health care costs.1,2 CKD is also associated with significantly increased risks of cardiovascular disease3 and stroke.4 The incidence and prevalence of CKD among U.S. adults have increased dramatically since 1991.5 More than 500,000 Americans were treated for end-stage renal disease in 2007.6 The increases ar Continue reading >>

Sediment In Urine

Sediment In Urine

‘Sediments in urine’ is a condition wherein particles are detected in the urine. This is completely normal condition if the concentration of particles is in insignificant amount. Most people have insignificant amount of particles in urine. Whether the condition is normal or is a concern would depend on the type of particles and degree of concentration. Sediments in urine can be particles of debris, cells and/or other solid material. The condition is determined through a urine specimen. The sample is spun in centrifuge and checked for present sediments under microscope. Sponsored link Signs of Prostate Cancer Top Doctor Reveals 5 Early Warning Signs of Prostate Cancer. w3.brownsteinhealth.com Many patients affected with this condition may experience no pain but the issue can be an indication of a severe underlying medical irregularity such as UTI or Urinary Tract Infection, liver anomalies or bladder stones, etc. Under such situations when you suspect high amount of sediments in your urine, the only best way to treat it is by consulting a doctor. Causes of Sediment In urine Bladder stone Overgrown prostate in aged individuals may press the urethra and cause obstruction to flow of urine. This retains the urine in bladder where its starts converting into crystals. Other circumstances that may retain urine in bladder include weak pressure on bladder, damages to nerves and weakened bladder regions resulted by diverticula of bladder, etc. Kidney stone migrated through ureter and settled into the bladder can also lead to condition called Bladder stone and sediments in urine. Sometimes patients exposed to radio therapy may develop bladder stone as the radiation to pelvic region can cause inflammation of bladder which may eventually cause stone development. Mineral crystals Continue reading >>

10 Signs And Symptoms That You're In Ketosis

10 Signs And Symptoms That You're In Ketosis

The ketogenic diet is a popular, effective way to lose weight and improve health. When followed correctly, this low-carb, high-fat diet will raise blood ketone levels. These provide a new fuel source for your cells, and cause most of the unique health benefits of this diet (1, 2, 3). On a ketogenic diet, your body undergoes many biological adaptions, including a reduction in insulin and increased fat breakdown. When this happens, your liver starts producing large amounts of ketones to supply energy for your brain. However, it can often be hard to know whether you're "in ketosis" or not. Here are 10 common signs and symptoms of ketosis, both positive and negative. People often report bad breath once they reach full ketosis. It's actually a common side effect. Many people on ketogenic diets and similar diets, such as the Atkins diet, report that their breath takes on a fruity smell. This is caused by elevated ketone levels. The specific culprit is acetone, a ketone that exits the body in your urine and breath (4). While this breath may be less than ideal for your social life, it can be a positive sign for your diet. Many ketogenic dieters brush their teeth several times per day, or use sugar-free gum to solve the issue. If you're using gum or other alternatives like sugar-free drinks, check the label for carbs. These may raise your blood sugar levels and reduce ketone levels. The bad breath usually goes away after some time on the diet. It is not a permanent thing. The ketone acetone is partly expelled via your breath, which can cause bad or fruity-smelling breath on a ketogenic diet. Ketogenic diets, along with normal low-carb diets, are highly effective for losing weight (5, 6). As dozens of weight loss studies have shown, you will likely experience both short- and long Continue reading >>

10 Things Your Pee Can Tell You About Your Body: Taking A Deep Dive Into Urinalysis, Dehydration, Ketosis, Ph & More!

10 Things Your Pee Can Tell You About Your Body: Taking A Deep Dive Into Urinalysis, Dehydration, Ketosis, Ph & More!

See, for the past several days, I’ve been randomly grabbing drinking glasses from the shelf in the kitchen… …and peeing into them. And yes, I realize that now you will likely never want to join me at my home for a dinner party. So why the heck am I urinating into our family’s kitchenware? It’s all about better living through science and figuring out ways to live longer and feel better (at least that’s what I tell my wife to appease her). It’s also about my sheer curiosity and desire to delve into an N=1 experiment in self-quantification with urinalysis. It’s also because I’ve been too lazy to order one of those special urinalysis specimen cups with the cute plastic lid. And let’s face it: with my relatively frequent use of a three day gut testing panel, my wife is already somewhat accustomed to giant Fed-Ex bags full of poop tubes sitting in the fridge, so urine can’t be all that bad, right? Anyways, in this article, you’re going to learn exactly why I think it’s a good idea to occasionally study one’s own urine, and you’ll also discover 10 very interesting things your pee can tell you about your body. Enjoy, and as usual, leave your questions, thoughts, feedback, and stories of your own adventures in urinalysis below this post. ———————– The History Of My Interest In Urinalysis Two years ago, I first became interested in urinalysis when I discovered a new start-up called “uChek”. The premise of uChek was quite simple. People with diabetes who want to check the amount of glucose in their urine would simply be able to download uChek to their iPhone or iPad. Then, after a “mid-stream collection,” (yes, that’s exactly what it sounds like and, in my experience, despite my Private Gym training, can be quite difficult to Continue reading >>

The Perfect Pee

The Perfect Pee

Yes, I wrote an article called, “The Perfect Poop” and now it seems only fitting to espouse on the subtleties of “the perfect pee.” I am sure you all spend hours trying to figure out why it bubbles, runs clear, dark, pink, yellow, green, brown, its pH, or why drinking alcohol can send one running to the bathroom. According to Ayurveda, much can be learned about your body’s health from a quick urine analysis. Join me as we take a peek and decipher what your pee might be trying to tell you! Why is it Yellow Anyway? Urine gets its pretty yellow color from urobilinogen, which is a byproduct of bilirubin, which is a byproduct of the breakdown of red blood cells from the liver. Bilirubin enters the kidneys and breaks down into yellow urobilins, which make the urine yellow. This depends much on the concentration, or specific gravity, of the urine. Basically, if you drink a lot of water the urobilins are diluted. If you are dehydrated the urobilins are concentrated, and the urine becomes a darker yellow. Too many B vitamins, certain herbs like senna, and certain medications can also make the urine very yellow! The Drinker’s Pee Interestingly, within 20 minutes after ingesting an alcoholic beverage, the body’s level of ADH (anti-diuretic hormone) plummets, which basically opens the flood gates, resulting in lots of clear urine in an attempt to help detox the indigestible spirits. If you keep drinking, you will keep urinating yourself into a state of dehydration. This is in fact one of the main causes of hangover. The kidneys – which usually filter the bad stuff and save the water – are in flush-it-all-out mode when drinking alcohol, so let the drinker beware! Bubbly Pee Bubbles in the urine can be caused by a strong stream causing turbulence in the bowl, but th Continue reading >>

What Your Pee May Be Trying To Tell You

What Your Pee May Be Trying To Tell You

During your lifetime, your kidneys will work very hard to filter over one million gallons of water. Urine is about 95% water and 5% uric acid, the stuff that your body does not need – including minerals, enzymes and salts that are dangerous if they accumulate in your body. Urine can fluctuate in color and odor depending on what you are eating and drinking, how active you are, the time of day or what supplements you are taking. However, urine color and odor can also be an indication of something more serious. Would you have ever thought that great things could be learned from your pee? Urine should be pale yellow or clear – not glow-in-the-dark yellow or dark yellow. It should not be cloudy or have a knock-you-over odor unless you have been eating asparagus! Anything apart from the clear and odorless could be a sign of trouble. Urine is made up of excess water and waste that your kidneys have filtered. Urochrome, a pigment found in blood, gives urine its natural light yellow tone. Depending on how hydrated you are, you urine color can fluctuate from clear to darker yellow or even orange tinted. Here is a quick pee primer to fill you in on what you should look for and what your pee may be telling you. Super Clear Urine Yep, there is such a thing as urine that is too clear. If your urine is super clear it may mean that you are drinking too many fluids. Be careful not to over-hydrate. The best rule of thumb is to aim for half of your body weight in ounces each day. This means, if your weight is 120 pounds, you should be drinking 60 ounces of water per day. More serious conditions such as acute viral hepatitis or cirrhosis can also cause your pee to turn very clear. However, you will also have other symptoms such as skin yellowing, nausea or vomiting with these condition Continue reading >>

Urinalysis – The Secret Life Of Urine

Urinalysis – The Secret Life Of Urine

Urinalysis – The Secret Life of Urine Consider first urine’s keystone measurement, specific gravity (USG.)1 There are drugs and therapies that will considerably change your ability to measure specific gravity and so sampling time is important. Urine should be collected prior to furosemide, mannitol, SC and IV fluids. As an example, even a few hours of IV fluids could alter the USG. Even if you are just able to get a drop for USG, you can get a larger sample for dipstick and sediment at any point. Some argue that a single USG is not a complete picture of urine concentrating ability in a healthy animal, and I would agree. Dogs, for instance, after activity or on a warm day, could drink quite a large amount of water to falsely lower their USG. Most of my patients are not healthy and not drinking a normal amount of water or doing a lot of exercise on a warm day. Arguably, there are post renal diseases that could also lower the USG in many patients, including a urinary tract infection. Normally concentrated urine should be taken as a positive sign; but isosthenuria (1.008-1.012) or incompletely concentrated urine (<1.030) in a dehydrated patient should be taken as a call for further investigation.1,2 Dipstick analysis is very helpful for the “big 3”- glucose, ketones and protein. Not only can we diagnose chronic conditions such as diabetes mellitus, Fanconi’s and protein-losing nephropathy, but acute conditions such as acute tubular necrosis, ketosis and sepsis-induced microalbuminuria. Other dipstick positives that are significant include bilirubin in a cat and hemoglobin without RBCs for possible exposure to hemolytic toxins (ex. onion, Tylenol®), immune disease, or rhabdomyolysis. Urine can be visibly brown, red or orange for a number of different reasons (ex. Continue reading >>

Emedicinehealth Medical Reference From Healthwise

Emedicinehealth Medical Reference From Healthwise

A A A Urine Test Test Overview A urine test checks different components of urine, a waste product made by the kidneys. A regular urine test may be done to help find the cause of symptoms. The test can give information about your health and problems you may have. The kidneys take out waste material, minerals, fluids, and other substances from the blood to be passed in the urine. Urine has hundreds of different body wastes. What you eat and drink, how much you exercise, and how well your kidneys work can affect what is in your urine. More than 100 different tests can be done on urine. A regular urinalysis often includes the following tests: Color. Many things affect urine color, including fluid balance, diet, medicines, and diseases. How dark or light the color is tells you how much water is in it. Vitamin B supplements can turn urine bright yellow. Some medicines, blackberries, beets, rhubarb, or blood in the urine can turn urine red-brown. Clarity. Urine is normally clear. Bacteria, blood, sperm, crystals, or mucus can make urine look cloudy. Odor. Urine does not smell very strong, but it has a slightly "nutty" odor. Some diseases cause a change in the odor of urine. For example, an infection with E. coli bacteria can cause a bad odor, while diabetes or starvation can cause a sweet, fruity odor. Specific gravity. This checks the amount of substances in the urine. It also shows how well the kidneys balance the amount of water in urine. The higher the specific gravity, the more solid material is in the urine. When you drink a lot of fluid, your kidneys make urine with a high amount of water in it, which has a low specific gravity. When you do not drink fluids, your kidneys make urine with a small amount of water in it, which has a high specific gravity. pH. The pH is Continue reading >>

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