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Can Ketoacidosis Cause Seizures

Diabetes In Dogs

Diabetes In Dogs

Diabetes-Related Emergencies Diabetes in dogs is treated with insulin, much the same way as it is in humans. But if too much or too little insulin is administered, it can be very dangerous for the animal. What To Watch For Diabetes causes high blood sugar levels and is signaled primarily by excessive urination, excessive drinking, increased appetite and weight loss. In cases where the diabetes is not treated promptly and allowed to progress to the point of a crisis, symptoms may include a loss of appetite, weakness, seizures, twitching, and intestinal problems (diarrhea or constipation). Primary Cause Diabetic emergencies can be caused by either injecting too much or too little insulin, or not treating the diabetes in the first place. Both cases are equally dangerous for the dog and can cause coma or death. In cases where the diabetes is not treated, it can progress to diabetic ketoacidosis, a very serious condition that can cause death of your pet. Diabetic ketoacidosis can also be seen in dogs where the diabetes had been regulated and yet in which another condition has developed affecting the body's ability to regulate the diabetes. Immediate Care If signs of an insulin dosage problem are noticed, it should be treated as an extreme emergency. The following steps may provide aid to your dog until you are able to bring her to a veterinarian (which should be as quickly as possible): Syringe liquid glucose into the dog’s mouth. This can be in the form of corn syrup, maple syrup, honey, etc. If the dog is having a seizure, lift its lips and rub glucose syrup on the gums. Be careful not to get bit. Veterinary Care Depending on the cause of the crisis, dogs suffering from diabetic emergencies may need to be given glucose or insulin intravenously. In cases of diabetic ketoa Continue reading >>

Diabetes Complications In Dogs And Cats: Diabetes Ketoacidosis (dka)

Diabetes Complications In Dogs And Cats: Diabetes Ketoacidosis (dka)

Unfortunately, we veterinarians are seeing an increased prevalence of diabetes mellitus in dogs and cats. This is likely due to the growing prevalence of obesity (secondary to inactive lifestyle, a high carbohydrate diet, lack of exercise, etc.). So, if you just had a dog or cat diagnosed with diabetes mellitus, what do you do? First, we encourage you to take a look at these articles for an explanation of the disease: Diabetes Mellitus (Sugar Diabetes) in Dogs Once you have a basic understanding of diabetes mellitus (or if you already had one), this article will teach you about life-threatening complications that can occur as a result of the disease; specifically, I discuss a life-threatening condition called diabetes ketoacidosis (DKA) so that you know how to help prevent it! What is DKA? When diabetes goes undiagnosed, or when it is difficult to control or regulate, the complication of DKA can occur. DKA develops because the body is so lacking in insulin that the sugar can’t get into the cells -- resulting in cell starvation. Cell starvation causes the body to start breaking down fat in an attempt to provide energy (or a fuel source) to the body. Unfortunately, these fat breakdown products, called “ketones,” are also poisonous to the body. Symptoms of DKA Clinical signs of DKA include the following: Weakness Not moving (in cats, hanging out by the water bowl) Not eating to complete anorexia Large urinary clumps in the litter box (my guideline? If it’s bigger than a tennis ball, it’s abnormal) Weight loss (most commonly over the back), despite an overweight body condition Excessively dry or oily skin coat Abnormal breath (typically a sweet “ketotic” odor) In severe cases DKA can also result in more significant signs: Abnormal breathing pattern Jaundice Ab Continue reading >>

Diabetic Coma Recovery: What You Need To Know

Diabetic Coma Recovery: What You Need To Know

In people with diabetes, a diabetic coma occurs when severe levels of either high or low uncontrolled blood sugar are not corrected. If treated quickly, a person will make a rapid recovery from a diabetic coma. However, diabetic coma can be fatal or result in brain damage. It is important for people with diabetes to control their blood sugars and know what to do when their blood sugar levels are not within their target range. The severe symptoms of uncontrolled blood sugar that can come before a diabetic coma include vomiting, difficulty breathing, confusion, weakness, and dizziness. Recovery from diabetic coma If a diabetic coma is not treated within a couple of hours of it developing, it can cause irreversible brain damage. If no treatment is received, a diabetic coma will be fatal. In addition, having blood sugar levels that continue to be too low or too high can be bad for long-term health. This remains true even if they do not develop into diabetic coma. Recognizing the early signs of low or high blood sugar levels and regular monitoring can help people with diabetes keep their blood sugar levels within the healthy range. Doing so will also reduce the risk of associated complications and diabetic coma. What is diabetes? Diabetes is a long-term condition in which the body is unable to control the level of a sugar called glucose in the blood. Diabetes is caused by either a lack of insulin, the body's inability to use insulin correctly, or both. In people who don't have diabetes, insulin usually ensures that excess glucose is removed from the bloodstream. It does this by stimulating cells to absorb the glucose they need for energy from the blood. Insulin also causes any remaining glucose to be stored in the liver as a substance called glycogen. The production of insul Continue reading >>

Feline Diabetes Mellitus

Feline Diabetes Mellitus

4 0 Diabetes Mellitus is a metabolic disease caused by a failure of the pancreas to produce enough insulin. Insulin allows cells in the body to absorb glucose (sugar) from the blood. Glucose is the cells’ main energy source and is critical to cellular function. Without insulin, the cells do not get the energy they need to function, and glucose levels in the blood rise. The body can use fats as an energy source; however this can occasionally lead to a life threatening condition called diabetic ketoacidosis which requires emergency treatment. Symptoms of diabetes include the following: 1. Weight loss – as fats are mobilized for energy instead of glucose 2. Increased appetite – as the body tries to increase its energy supplies 3. Increased drinking and urination – the glucose in the blood overwhelms the kidneys and spills into the urine drawing excessive amounts of water with it 4. Untreated diabetics can develop diabetic ketoacidosis. If this happens, the cat will show signs of severe illness including loss of appetite, lethargy and vomiting. Diagnosing diabetes is generally straightforward. Most diabetic patients have significantly elevated glucose levels in their blood as well as in their urine. In many cats we recommend a fructosamine test to confirm the diagnosis and make sure the elevated glucose was not due to stress. Most diabetic cats do very well with treatment and can live for many years with the disease. In addition to treating the diabetes, it is important to closely monitor all aspects of your cat’s health, since diabetes can make cats more susceptible to other problems such as infections. Dental health is especially important! Treating diabetes involves several steps: 1. Diet – Recent studies have shown that decreasing the intake of carbohydrates Continue reading >>

Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a serious problem that can occur in people with diabetes if their body starts to run out of insulin. This causes harmful substances called ketones to build up in the body, which can be life-threatening if not spotted and treated quickly. DKA mainly affects people with type 1 diabetes, but can sometimes occur in people with type 2 diabetes. If you have diabetes, it's important to be aware of the risk and know what to do if DKA occurs. Symptoms of diabetic ketoacidosis Signs of DKA include: needing to pee more than usual being sick breath that smells fruity (like pear drop sweets or nail varnish) deep or fast breathing feeling very tired or sleepy passing out DKA can also cause high blood sugar (hyperglycaemia) and a high level of ketones in your blood or urine, which you can check for using home-testing kits. Symptoms usually develop over 24 hours, but can come on faster. Check your blood sugar and ketone levels Check your blood sugar level if you have symptoms of DKA. If your blood sugar is 11mmol/L or over and you have a blood or urine ketone testing kit, check your ketone level. If you do a blood ketone test: lower than 0.6mmol/L is a normal reading 0.6 to 1.5mmol/L means you're at a slightly increased risk of DKA and should test again in a couple of hours 1.6 to 2.9mmol/L means you're at an increased risk of DKA and should contact your diabetes team or GP as soon as possible 3mmol/L or over means you have a very high risk of DKA and should get medical help immediately If you do a urine ketone test, a result of more than 2+ means there's a high chance you have DKA. When to get medical help Go to your nearest accident and emergency (A&E) department straight away if you think you have DKA, especially if you have a high level of ketones in Continue reading >>

What Are The Advantages And Disadvantages Of A Ketogenic Diet?

What Are The Advantages And Disadvantages Of A Ketogenic Diet?

Here are 10 ADVANTAGES (with scientific references) of the ketogenic diet that you may not even me aware of! Advantages One study found that people on a ketogenic diet lost 2.2 times more weight than those on a calorie-restricted low-fat diet. Triglyceride and HDL cholesterol levels also improved. [1] ketogenic diets reduce hunger and lower food intake significantly more than do high-protein, medium-carbohydrate nonketogenic diets. [2] Keto diet is currently being used to treat several types of cancer and slow tumor growth. [3] study found that the ketogenic diet improved insulin sensitivity by 75%. [4] The ketogenic diet can improve risk factors like body fat, HDL levels, blood pressure and blood sugar. [5] ketogenic diets can lead to weight loss and favorable changes in serum triglycerides and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. [6] Studies show Keto Helps Improve Acne [7] The Effects of Ketogenic Dieting on Body Composition, Strength, Power, and Hormonal Profiles in Resistance Training Males. [8] Body composition and hormonal responses to a carbohydrate-restricted diet. [9] Ketogenic diet's affect on strength and performance. [10] Disadvantages: There are only a few disadvantages of keto such as the keto flu (where you’ll feel tired the first few weeks), suppress thyroid, and sometimes get constipation. That’s all I experienced, but there is one clever way to make keto even more powerful and I use it all the time. It’s called Cyclical Keto. This is where you cheat once a week to purposely throw yourself out of ketosis. This will reset leptin and thyroid levels so fat loss can continue in the right direction. References: The Ketogenic Diet has some pretty sweet benefits, including putting a high priority on bacon consumption. Beyond that, there’s: Fat Loss I Continue reading >>

Your Cat And Diabetes: Everything You Need To Know

Your Cat And Diabetes: Everything You Need To Know

Diabetes is a very serious issue – and not just in people either. That’s right, this chronic and potentially debilitating condition also affects cats (and dogs). And while it’s difficult to know the exact incidence of diabetes in cats, best estimates put it somewhere in the range of 1 cat in every 100-200 cats will become diabetic. What’s even sadder is that this incidence seems to be on the increase. Fortunately, armed with some good information, important tips, and a good working relationship with your veterinarian, you can give your cats the best chance at avoiding this frustrating condition. And if they’ve already developed it, know that these same tools can help you best manage your cat’s diabetic state; avoiding the potential complications and perhaps even getting them into diabetic remission. What is diabetes? In the most basic sense, diabetes mellitus is a disorder where blood sugar, or glucose, cannot be effectively utilized and regulated within the body. There are several hormones within the body that play important roles in glucose metabolism. Insulin is one of the most important, if not the most important, and it’s the hormone most central to the development and control of the diabetic state. Glucose fuels the body and insulin is the hormone that helps to get it into most cells within the body. Diabetes is often easily diagnosed and controllable. However, when undiagnosed or poorly managed, diabetes can be devastating. Diabetes can absolutely be managed and your cat can still lead a long and happy life. Routine veterinary care and evaluation are important, as is achieving and maintaining an appropriate weight in your cat and feeding him an appropriate diet. There are two types of diabetes – Type I and Type II. In Type I diabetes, the pancreas Continue reading >>

Epilepsy

Epilepsy

Tweet Epilepsy is a neurological condition which only has one visible symptom - repeated seizures, the severity of which can vary from person to person. While epilepsy is most commonly diagnosed during childhood, it can develop at any age, even in people who are over 65 years old. It is possible for people to have type 1 diabetes or type 2 diabetes alongside epilepsy, but the relationship between diabetes and epilepsy is unclear - there is currently a lack of research investigating a link between the two conditions. How do seizures happen? Seizures happen when there is too much electrical activity in groups of neurons in the brain. There are two main types of seizures: generalised and focal. Generalised seizures occur when large areas on both sides of the brain are affected by disruptions to its normal activity. Consciousness can often be lost during generalised seizures. In focal seizures a specific region of the brain is affected, and while consciousness may be altered, it is not always lost. Focal seizures can often present as if a person is daydreaming. Most times people recover quickly from seizures, which normally end within a few minutes. But frequent seizures can severely limit a person’s quality of life – for example, people can be prevented from driving and some might require regular supervision. Diabetes and seizures Seizures that happen as a direct result of diabetes, notably if very low sugar levels occur, are known as non-epileptic seizures. Tweet Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder that results in hyperglycemia (high blood glucose levels) due to the body: Being ineffective at using the insulin it has produced; also known as insulin resistance and/or Being unable to produce enough insulin Type 2 diabetes is characterised by the body being Continue reading >>

Understanding And Treating Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Understanding And Treating Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a serious metabolic disorder that can occur in animals with diabetes mellitus (DM).1,2 Veterinary technicians play an integral role in managing and treating patients with this life-threatening condition. In addition to recognizing the clinical signs of this disorder and evaluating the patient's response to therapy, technicians should understand how this disorder occurs. DM is caused by a relative or absolute lack of insulin production by the pancreatic b-cells or by inactivity or loss of insulin receptors, which are usually found on membranes of skeletal muscle, fat, and liver cells.1,3 In dogs and cats, DM is classified as either insulin-dependent (the body is unable to produce sufficient insulin) or non-insulin-dependent (the body produces insulin, but the tissues in the body are resistant to the insulin).4 Most dogs and cats that develop DKA have an insulin deficiency. Insulin has many functions, including the enhancement of glucose uptake by the cells for energy.1 Without insulin, the cells cannot access glucose, thereby causing them to undergo starvation.2 The unused glucose remains in the circulation, resulting in hyperglycemia. To provide cells with an alternative energy source, the body breaks down adipocytes, releasing free fatty acids (FFAs) into the bloodstream. The liver subsequently converts FFAs to triglycerides and ketone bodies. These ketone bodies (i.e., acetone, acetoacetic acid, b-hydroxybutyric acid) can be used as energy by the tissues when there is a lack of glucose or nutritional intake.1,2 The breakdown of fat, combined with the body's inability to use glucose, causes many pets with diabetes to present with weight loss, despite having a ravenous appetite. If diabetes is undiagnosed or uncontrolled, a series of metab Continue reading >>

Diabetic Coma

Diabetic Coma

Diabetic coma is a reversible form of coma found in people with diabetes mellitus. It is a medical emergency.[1] Three different types of diabetic coma are identified: Severe low blood sugar in a diabetic person Diabetic ketoacidosis (usually type 1) advanced enough to result in unconsciousness from a combination of a severely increased blood sugar level, dehydration and shock, and exhaustion Hyperosmolar nonketotic coma (usually type 2) in which an extremely high blood sugar level and dehydration alone are sufficient to cause unconsciousness. In most medical contexts, the term diabetic coma refers to the diagnostical dilemma posed when a physician is confronted with an unconscious patient about whom nothing is known except that they have diabetes. An example might be a physician working in an emergency department who receives an unconscious patient wearing a medical identification tag saying DIABETIC. Paramedics may be called to rescue an unconscious person by friends who identify them as diabetic. Brief descriptions of the three major conditions are followed by a discussion of the diagnostic process used to distinguish among them, as well as a few other conditions which must be considered. An estimated 2 to 15 percent of diabetics will suffer from at least one episode of diabetic coma in their lifetimes as a result of severe hypoglycemia. Types[edit] Severe hypoglycemia[edit] People with type 1 diabetes mellitus who must take insulin in full replacement doses are most vulnerable to episodes of hypoglycemia. It is usually mild enough to reverse by eating or drinking carbohydrates, but blood glucose occasionally can fall fast enough and low enough to produce unconsciousness before hypoglycemia can be recognized and reversed. Hypoglycemia can be severe enough to cause un Continue reading >>

Why Do We Cry While Sleeping?

Why Do We Cry While Sleeping?

I would like to answer this as this happened to me years before. When I was in college, I had a spat with my then boyfriend. He had hurt me immensely with his words and told me that he no longer wanted to see me. I went home with a very heavy heart and fell asleep as I felt so tired. I remember dreaming about him, feeling very hurt and asking him if he wants to talk. After 12 hours I woke up suddenly feeling thirtsy. As I was nearing the kitchen I heard my aunt telling my mother that she heard me sobbing while sleeping. I dont want to believe it first as I can’t remember crying. But something in her voice told me that it’s true. I retreated my steps and went back to my room. There I reflected and assessed how I feel. You know the feeling when you are hurt but somewhat feels a little lighter? I believed my mind has reacted instinctively. It wants me to feel better and get off the bone crushing pain i feel by urging my eyes to cry without me knowing. I think its your mind helping you get off the pain and heartache that you feel. I am praying that you feel better soon and that you feel lighter everytime you wake up. I hope that you survive whatever hurdle you are having right now and come out as a survivor. Continue reading >>

Which Foods Increase Blood Acidity?

Which Foods Increase Blood Acidity?

Before Having Your Tonsils Removed Tonsillectomies are performed under general anesthesia. You will be completely asleep and will not be able to feel pain during the procedure. You will not be able to eat before surgery. This is because there is a risk of vomiting with anesthesia. Your physician or nurse will give you exact instructions about when to stop eating and drinking. In addition to not eating or drinking, you should not smoke, chew gum, or suck on mints or candy. Tonsillectomies are mostly performed in same day surgery settings. This means that you will go home the same day that you have your tonsils removed. You should wear loose comfortable clothing to the surgical center. Arrive on time. In some cases a medication called Versed can be given prior to the procedure to reduce anxiety, especially in small children. If you have other health problems, your doctor may order blood work or other tests before the surgery. If you are a woman of childbearing age (usually age 12 to 55 unless you have had a hysterectomy), it is mandatory that you have a pregnancy test before the surgery. This requires a small amount of urine. If the patient is a child and has a comfort item, such as a blanket or a favorite toy, bring it with you. Also, if your child drinks from a bottle or special cup, bring it along so your child can drink after the surgery. Make sure you bring comfortable clothing and extra diapers or underwear. Prior to having your tonsils removed, you will need to remove any metal from your body, including jewelry, retainers or body piercings. You will also need to remove contact lenses, dentures, and hearing aids. You will also need to refrain from medications that have the ability to thin your blood for one to two weeks before surgery. These medications include aspi Continue reading >>

Diabetic Encephalopathy

Diabetic Encephalopathy

Diabetic encephalopathy is damage to the brain caused by diabetes. A relatively unknown complication, encephalopathy is becoming more widely recognized as more people are diagnosed with type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Diabetic encephalopathy presents itself both mentally and physically. It can induce an altered mental state, cognitive decline, changes in personality, memory lapses, or severe impairment like dementia. The complication can also cause tremors, lack of coordination, and even seizures. Diabetic encephalopathy is largely due to acute hypoglycemia (blood sugar levels are too low) or severe hyperglycemia (blood sugar levels are too high). The condition manifests itself differently between the two major types of diabetes. Type 2 diabetes Encephalopathy in those with type 2 diabetes increases the risk of developing Alzheimer’s disease or other forms of dementia. According to a 2011 study, those with type 2 diabetes were twice as likely to develop Alzheimer’s and 1.75 times more likely to develop other forms of dementia than healthy participants. This increased risk could be due to many different factors brought about from type 2 diabetes. It could be caused by the body’s resistance to insulin, which makes it difficult for the brain to break down amyloid, a protein that forms brain plaques. Brain plaques are abnormal clusters of this protein that block cell-to-cell signaling at the synapses—a symptom infamous for contributing to the development of Alzheimer’s disease. Type 2 diabetic encephalopathy can also be generated from hyperglycemia or the conditions that commonly accompany type 2 diabetes like high blood pressure, obesity, or high cholesterol. Oxidative stress is another provoker of the complication. This stems from an imbalance between reactive oxyge Continue reading >>

Diabetic Seizures In Dogs

Diabetic Seizures In Dogs

Seeing your dog have a seizure can be pretty scary, especially the first time this happens. If the seizure is caused by diabetes complications, the good news is that future seizures can be prevented by controlling the dog's diabetes. Why Seizures Happen Any seizure—in a dog or a human—is caused by a kind of electrical storm in the brain. If a dog has diabetes, her body doesn't produce the right amount of insulin for control of blood sugar levels. Insulin is produced by the pancreas, and diabetes can be caused by too much or too little. Very low blood sugar levels can interrupt the normal functioning of the brain, leading to a diabetic seizure. Hypoglycemia and Hyperglycemia Problems relating to diabetes in dogs usually stem from a state of either hypoglycemia or hyperglycemia. A hypoglycemic dog has very low blood sugar and may experience a seizure as a result. In diabetic dogs, hypoglycemia commonly occurs when an insulin dose is given without sufficient food for the dog's body to utilize the insulin properly. The opposite diabetic state, hyperglycemia, occurs when the dog's blood sugar levels are extremely high. Although hyperglycemia does not typically cause seizures, this is a serious state in which the dog may become depressed, weak and anorexic. Hyperglycemia can cause a dog to become comatose. Seizure Prevention If your dog is diabetic, seizure prevention primarily involves preventing a state of hypoglycemia. Use insulin that is formulated specifically for dogs—Novolin, Vetsulin and Caninsulin are some of the most commonly used forms of canine insulin. Monitor your dog's blood glucose regularly to make sure the insulin dosage is correct and having the desired effect. Monitor your dog's feeding and exercise patterns, if possible with a regular daily schedule Continue reading >>

Type 1 Diabetes

Type 1 Diabetes

Definition | Causes | Risk Factors | Symptoms | Diagnosis | Treatment | Prevention Definition Diabetes is a higher level of glucose in the blood than is normal. Glucose travels through the body in the blood. A hormone called insulin then helps glucose move from the blood to the cells. Once glucose is in the cells it can be used for energy. A problem making or using insulin means glucose cannot move into cells. Insulin also helps glucose to move into the liver for storage if there is too much to use. Without enough insulin, glucose will build up in the blood. In type 1 diabetes, the body does not make insulin. This will lead to the build up of glucose in the blood, also called hyperglycemia. At the same time, cells are not getting glucose they need to function well. Over a long period of time high blood glucose levels can also damage vital organs. The blood vessels, heart, kidneys, eyes, and nerves are most commonly affected organs. Type 1 diabetes is often found during childhood and young adulthood. Causes Our immune system keeps us well by fighting off and destroying viruses and bacteria. Unfortunately, sometimes the immune system attacks healthy tissue. Most type 1 diabetes develop because the immune system attacks and destroys the cells that make insulin. These cells are in the pancreas. It is not yet clear why the immune system attacks these cells. It is believed that some people have genes that make them prone to getting diabetes. For these people, certain triggers in the environment may make the immune system attack the pancreas. The triggers are not known but may be certain viruses, foods, or chemicals. Type 1 diabetes may also develop as a complication of other medical conditions. It may develop in: People with chronic type 2 diabetes who lose the ability to mak Continue reading >>

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