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Can Ketoacidosis Cause Brain Damage

Can Prolonged Shallow Breathing Cause Any Brain Damage?

Can Prolonged Shallow Breathing Cause Any Brain Damage?

If shallow breathing translates into faster and more frequent breathing cycles, it can cause brain damage in the long term. Breathing more frequently than the required physiological demand, may induce a state called respiratory alkalosis. It means an increased blood pH, caused by excessive amounts of carbon dioxide being expelled. Carbon dioxide is one of the metabolites of energy production in cells. It is an acid, so its concentration in blood affects blood’s pH. The respiratory system, alongside the kidneys, plays an important role managing blood’s pH, by balancing CO2 levels. Blood’s pH values normally ranges from 7,35 to 7,45. A excessive increase of CO2 excretion may cause those values to raise above 7,45. In order to maintain or pH inside that narrow interval, we have many compensating mechanisms (such as the excretion of bicarbonate by the kidneys), but in some situations, when the changes are too abrupt or harsh, those mechanisms will fail, resulting in pHs higher than 7,45, and alkalosis. The common causes of Respiratory alkalosis are: Panic attacks Severe anxiety Some drugs Fever Infection Some pulmonary diseases such as severe asthma or COPD Its symptoms may range from mild to severe, and can even result in comma or death. Some examples are: Dizziness Confusion Numbness or muscle spasms Palpitations Shortness of breath Continue reading >>

Diabetic Coma Recovery: What You Need To Know

Diabetic Coma Recovery: What You Need To Know

In people with diabetes, a diabetic coma occurs when severe levels of either high or low uncontrolled blood sugar are not corrected. If treated quickly, a person will make a rapid recovery from a diabetic coma. However, diabetic coma can be fatal or result in brain damage. It is important for people with diabetes to control their blood sugars and know what to do when their blood sugar levels are not within their target range. The severe symptoms of uncontrolled blood sugar that can come before a diabetic coma include vomiting, difficulty breathing, confusion, weakness, and dizziness. Recovery from diabetic coma If a diabetic coma is not treated within a couple of hours of it developing, it can cause irreversible brain damage. If no treatment is received, a diabetic coma will be fatal. In addition, having blood sugar levels that continue to be too low or too high can be bad for long-term health. This remains true even if they do not develop into diabetic coma. Recognizing the early signs of low or high blood sugar levels and regular monitoring can help people with diabetes keep their blood sugar levels within the healthy range. Doing so will also reduce the risk of associated complications and diabetic coma. What is diabetes? Diabetes is a long-term condition in which the body is unable to control the level of a sugar called glucose in the blood. Diabetes is caused by either a lack of insulin, the body's inability to use insulin correctly, or both. In people who don't have diabetes, insulin usually ensures that excess glucose is removed from the bloodstream. It does this by stimulating cells to absorb the glucose they need for energy from the blood. Insulin also causes any remaining glucose to be stored in the liver as a substance called glycogen. The production of insul Continue reading >>

Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Print Overview Diabetic ketoacidosis is a serious complication of diabetes that occurs when your body produces high levels of blood acids called ketones. The condition develops when your body can't produce enough insulin. Insulin normally plays a key role in helping sugar (glucose) — a major source of energy for your muscles and other tissues — enter your cells. Without enough insulin, your body begins to break down fat as fuel. This process produces a buildup of acids in the bloodstream called ketones, eventually leading to diabetic ketoacidosis if untreated. If you have diabetes or you're at risk of diabetes, learn the warning signs of diabetic ketoacidosis — and know when to seek emergency care. Symptoms Diabetic ketoacidosis signs and symptoms often develop quickly, sometimes within 24 hours. For some, these signs and symptoms may be the first indication of having diabetes. You may notice: Excessive thirst Frequent urination Nausea and vomiting Abdominal pain Weakness or fatigue Shortness of breath Fruity-scented breath Confusion More-specific signs of diabetic ketoacidosis — which can be detected through home blood and urine testing kits — include: High blood sugar level (hyperglycemia) High ketone levels in your urine When to see a doctor If you feel ill or stressed or you've had a recent illness or injury, check your blood sugar level often. You might also try an over-the-counter urine ketones testing kit. Contact your doctor immediately if: You're vomiting and unable to tolerate food or liquid Your blood sugar level is higher than your target range and doesn't respond to home treatment Your urine ketone level is moderate or high Seek emergency care if: Your blood sugar level is consistently higher than 300 milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL), or 16.7 mill Continue reading >>

Effects Of Diabetes

Effects Of Diabetes

In some cases the effects may be short term and can be eliminated through appropriate treatment. In the case of long term complications, any damage sustained tends to be permanent. Whilst there are a lot of ways in which diabetes can affect the body, it’s important to note that the risks of developing health problems can be significantly reduced through good management of diabetes and living a healthy life. Heart Higher than normal blood sugar levels over a period of time can lead to an increase in risk of damage occurring to larger blood vessels in the body. This raises the risk of blood clots forming in blood vessels which can lead to heart attacks – a form of coronary heart disease. Approximately, 600,000 people die of heart disease in the United States every year–that’s 1 in every 4 deaths. Learn more about Heart disease. Brain The brain is another major organ that can pose a threat to life if it is affected by damage or blockages in its blood supply. Elevated blood sugar levels over a long period of time can cause blockages in the blood vessels supplying the brain, resulting in stroke, and can also damage the very small blood vessels in the outer part of the brain, increasing the risk of brain damage and conditions such as Alzheimer’s disease. In the short term, too low blood glucose levels can lead to a reduced ability to make decisions and cause confusion and disorientation. Nerves The nerves play a very important part throughout the body. Not only do they allow us to sense touch, nerves also allow our organs to function properly. For instance, nerves are crucial in helping the digestive system to sense how it should respond. If the nerves become damaged we can lose our ability to sense pain in parts of the body that are affected and if nerve damage (ne Continue reading >>

Drug And Alcohol Use With Diabetes

Drug And Alcohol Use With Diabetes

Comprehensive Guide to Research on Risk, Complications and Treatment Substance abuse is described as the excessive use of a substance such as alcohol or drugs that results in significant clinical impairments as well as the loss of ability to function academically, professionally, and socially [1]. An individual who was healthy before the substance abuse began will typically begin to experience serious health problems over time, but extensive damage may be avoided or reversed if effective substance abuse treatment is received. This is not the case, however, for individuals who have been diagnosed with diabetes, and although this is a manageable disease with proper treatment, substance abuse may cause it to become life-threatening. This guide will discuss, in detail, how substance abuse can negatively impact the life and health of a person with diabetes. Diabetes, also referred to as diabetes mellitus, is a condition in which the body is unable to properly regulate blood sugar levels. There are two forms known as type 1 and type 2 diabetes, but in order to better understand the difference between the two types, the role that insulin plays in the regulation of healthy blood sugar levels will be briefly described. During the digestive process, carbohydrates are broken down into glucose, which is a form of sugar that easily enters the bloodstream and is used by the body for energy. The pancreas normally responds to increasing blood sugar levels by initiating the production of the hormone known as insulin. As insulin levels increase, it signals the transfer of glucose into cells throughout the body and it also ensures that excess glucose will be stored in the liver in order to prevent high blood sugar levels. Type 1 diabetes, which is also called juvenile or insulin dependent Continue reading >>

Can Overthinking Cause Brain Damage?

Can Overthinking Cause Brain Damage?

The answer seems to be yes. Stress causes the release of a hormone called cortisol. Without cortisol you would die – but too much of it is not a good thing. It seems it makes your brain more vulnerable to damage such as strokes, ageing and stressful events. Of course too much of anything is too bad. Continue reading >>

Clinical Review: Ketones And Brain Injury

Clinical Review: Ketones And Brain Injury

Abstract Although much feared by clinicians, the ability to produce ketones has allowed humans to withstand prolonged periods of starvation. At such times, ketones can supply up to 50% of basal energy requirements. More interesting, however, is the fact that ketones can provide as much as 70% of the brain's energy needs, more efficiently than glucose. Studies suggest that during times of acute brain injury, cerebral uptake of ketones increases significantly. Researchers have thus attempted to attenuate the effects of cerebral injury by administering ketones exogenously. Hypertonic saline is commonly utilized for management of intracranial hypertension following cerebral injury. A solution containing both hypertonic saline and ketones may prove ideal for managing the dual problems of refractory intracranial hypertension and low cerebral energy levels. The purpose of the present review is to explore the physiology of ketone body utilization by the brain in health and in a variety of neurological conditions, and to discuss the potential for ketone supplementation as a therapeutic option in traumatic brain injury. Introduction Ketogenesis is the process by which ketone bodies (KB), during times of starvation, are produced via fatty acid metabolism. Although much feared by physicians, mild ketosis can have therapeutic potential in a variety of disparate disease states. The principle ketones include acetoacetate (AcAc), β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) and ace-tone. In times of starvation and low insulin levels, ketones supply up to 50% of basal energy requirements for most tissues, and up to 70% for the brain. Although glucose is the main metabolic substrate for neurons, ketones are capable of fulfilling the energy requirements of the brain. The purpose of the present review is to e Continue reading >>

Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a potentially life-threatening complication of diabetes mellitus.[1] Signs and symptoms may include vomiting, abdominal pain, deep gasping breathing, increased urination, weakness, confusion, and occasionally loss of consciousness.[1] A person's breath may develop a specific smell.[1] Onset of symptoms is usually rapid.[1] In some cases people may not realize they previously had diabetes.[1] DKA happens most often in those with type 1 diabetes, but can also occur in those with other types of diabetes under certain circumstances.[1] Triggers may include infection, not taking insulin correctly, stroke, and certain medications such as steroids.[1] DKA results from a shortage of insulin; in response the body switches to burning fatty acids which produces acidic ketone bodies.[3] DKA is typically diagnosed when testing finds high blood sugar, low blood pH, and ketoacids in either the blood or urine.[1] The primary treatment of DKA is with intravenous fluids and insulin.[1] Depending on the severity, insulin may be given intravenously or by injection under the skin.[3] Usually potassium is also needed to prevent the development of low blood potassium.[1] Throughout treatment blood sugar and potassium levels should be regularly checked.[1] Antibiotics may be required in those with an underlying infection.[6] In those with severely low blood pH, sodium bicarbonate may be given; however, its use is of unclear benefit and typically not recommended.[1][6] Rates of DKA vary around the world.[5] In the United Kingdom, about 4% of people with type 1 diabetes develop DKA each year, while in Malaysia the condition affects about 25% a year.[1][5] DKA was first described in 1886 and, until the introduction of insulin therapy in the 1920s, it was almost univ Continue reading >>

Are People With Diabetes More Prone To Aggression?

Are People With Diabetes More Prone To Aggression?

Relationship Between Blood Glucose Level and Self-Control Blood sugar can make people do crazy things. According to a recent scientific study on the link between low blood glucose level and relationship clashes (Bushman et al, 2014), being hungry makes an individual generally cranky and act more hostile to others. In the study, couples who are hungry tend to have a much higher tendency to exhibit aggression towards each other and become more impulsive in their reactions. This phenomenon is often referred to “hangry” (meaning feeling angry when you are hungry). If this irritable state can happen to any healthy person who experiences a change in their blood glucose level, imagine the ordeals individuals with diabetes frequently go through on a daily basis. However, do not jump to the conclusion that diabetes leads to aggression. In fact, scientists find a more direct correlation between blood glucose level and self-control. I recommend reading the following articles: In a way, you can visualize self-control as a muscle that requires a lot of energy to sustain so that it does not become ineffective quickly. This energy source comes from the glucose in the blood. So what kind of activities can wear out this “muscle”? Any daily activities that require self-discipline such as forcing yourself to get out of bed early to exercise, resisting from having a soda drink or another cookie with your meal, stopping yourself from smoking, dealing with stressful situations at work and at home, and abstaining yourself from road rage. As you can see, self-control plays a crucial part in restraining inappropriate and aggressive behaviors. So when people are low in glucose, the self-control mechanism cannot function properly to prevent these outbursts of hostile actions. In a researc Continue reading >>

How Does Ketoacidosis Affect The Human Brain?

How Does Ketoacidosis Affect The Human Brain?

Diabetic Ketoacidosis (DKA) is the body’s emergency reaction to glucose starvation in the absence of insulin. It is a disastrous reaction — in general, it makes things worse rather than better, and starts a vicious cycle of blood acidity, rising blood glucose, dehydration, and blood hyperosmolality (high concentration of dissolved stuff) that can be hard to break. One of the hardest-hit organs in DKA is the brain, due to the dehydration and acidic blood entering that sensitive organ. Severe DKA may lead to brain swelling (edema) which is life-threatening. But recent studies have shown that even a short, apparently fully-recovered stint of DKA leads to measurable brain injury. Diabetic Ketoacidosis (DKA) is a life–threatening consequence of diabetes. DKA occurs when there is a lack of insulin in the body causing hyperglycemia. As a result of the inability of glucose to enter the cells, the body must find other means to obtain energy. As such, fat breakdown occurs resulting in the accumulation of fatty acids. The fatty acids are metabolized to ketones that cause the blood to become acidotic (pH less than7.3). Because glucose remains in the blood, there is an increase in thirst and drinking to eliminate the solute load of glucose, which also results in increased urination (polyuria and polydipsia). Thus, the combination of increased serum acidity, weight loss, polyuria, and polydipsia may lead to extreme dehydration, coma, or brain damage. Without a doubt, the most severe acute complication of DKA is cerebral edema. Many cases of new onset type 1 diabetes present DKA (15-70 percent depending on age and geographic region, according to multiple studies), hence the importance of an early diagnosis of diabetes in order to avoid potential consequences. Much research is be Continue reading >>

High Alert: The Emergency Complications Of Diabetes

High Alert: The Emergency Complications Of Diabetes

Diabetes has become such a chronic long-term condition that it’s easy to forget about the serious acute complications that can arise, which can lead to a coma or death if not treated. There are only two types of emergencies – having very high glucose and having a very low glucose. The warning signs of an looming coma range from a mild headache to hallucinations.. If not identified or treated both types of emergencies can lead to serious irreversible complications including brain damage, kidney failure and death. When your glucose is very very high The fundamental issue in diabetes is raised blood glucose levels. Medically this is called hyperglycaemia. When glucose rises very rapidly or to very high levels, it can result in a diabetic ketoacidotic coma or a hyperglycaemic coma. Diabetic ketoacidotic coma This happens in type 1 diabetes and the high risk people include children and teens. A person can go into a ketoacidotic coma within a few hours. A person in a ketoacidotic crisis presents with: a complete lack of insulin in the body very high glucose levels dehydration break down of muscle abnormal potassium, sodium and other electrolyte levels. Causes of ketoacidotic crisis or coma A person who hasn’t been diagnosed with diabetes as yet Missing an insulin dose Illness such as gastroenteritis, nausea and vomiting Not adjusting insulin when glucose is high What to look out for if you suspect you may be going into a ketoacidotic crisis or coma Shortness of breath Fruity smelling breath Nausea and vomiting Severe fatigue Abdominal pain and headache Thirst Passing urine more often. Danger signs to watch out for Slurred speech Blurred vision Reduced concentration Coma. What you must do if yoususpect you may be going into a ketoacidotic crisis or coma Get to a casualty Continue reading >>

Diabetic Coma Symptoms

Diabetic Coma Symptoms

A diabetic coma is one of the most life-threatening complications of diabetes. The main symptom is unconsciousness. A diabetic coma can be the result of having a blood glucose level that is too high (hyperglycemia) or a blood glucose level that is too low (hypoglycemia). The diabetic in a diabetic coma is unconscious and can die if the condition is not treated. Symptoms of Diabetic Coma Before you lapse into a diabetic coma, there are usually warning signs of blood sugar levels that are too low or blood sugar levels that are too high. For example, if the blood sugar is too high, the you may experience tiredness, abdominal pain, shortness of breath, increased urination, increased thirst, a rapid heart rate, a dry mouth, and a fruity smell to your breath. If the blood sugar is too low, you may experience signs and symptoms of hypoglycemia, including weakness, tiredness, anxiety, tremulousness, nervousness, nausea, confusion, problems communicating, light-headedness, hunger, or dizziness. If you have had diabetes for many years, you may not have many symptoms of low blood sugar and won’t know you have the condition prior to falling into a coma. If you suspect that you have either high blood sugar or low blood sugar, you need to check your blood glucose levels and do what your doctor has recommended for you to treat the disease. If you don’t feel better after trying home remedies, you need to call 911 and get some kind of emergency care. Causes of Diabetic Coma The main cause of a diabetic coma is an extremely high blood sugar or an extremely low blood sugar. The following medical conditions can cause a diabetic coma: Diabetic hyperosmolar syndrome. This is a condition in which the blood sugar is as high as 600 mg/d: or 33.3 mmol per liter. There are no ketones in the u Continue reading >>

Can A Slap To The Head Cause Brain Damage?

Can A Slap To The Head Cause Brain Damage?

Do you think this had happened to your brain when you got slapped on the head? I highly doubt it because if it did, you would've been knocked out. Ever wonder why uppercuts can cause KO? Because with enough force and thanks to inertia it can cause your brain to smash at the side of your skull. This will cause temporary unconsciousness aka a knock out. If this keeps happening, brain damage wouldn't be much of a surprise to that fellow. Good examples are american football players which have the highest rate of receiving concussions. So yeah run along now child. No brain damage for you today. No. It is simply not sufficient force to cause cognitive impairment. However, punches to the head, or repeated hits to the head can have cumulative damage. We see this with some professional athletes (dementia pugilistica or mild cognitive impairment), and with persons who are victims of domestic violence. The headache issue itself however may be important though, and you should talk to your physician if it continues. You said this blow was “fairly hard” and you had a headache afterwards. It’s possible you had a concussion, which is the result of your brain hitting the side of your skull. Symptoms of concussion can be as serious as unconsciousness or amnesia, to just a headache. Such symptoms can last for hours or days depending on the force behind the blow. While most concussions are resolved within a few weeks, some can have lasting effects for decades. I’m sure this is not the case for you, but this also depends on how many symptoms you have and the duration in which they last. Let me know in the comments if you still have symptoms. Continue reading >>

Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Diabetic Ketoacidosis

What is Diabetic Ketoacidosis Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is the hallmark of type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus. DKA is an emergency condition caused by a disturbance in your body’s metabolism. Extremely high blood glucose levels, along with a severe lack of insulin, result in the breakdown of body fat for energy and an accumulation of ketones in the blood and urine. Statistics on Diabetic Ketoacidosis Diabetic ketoacidosis can occur in between 16%-80% of children presenting with newly diagnosed diabetes. It remains the most common cause of death for young type 1 diabetes sufferers. Before the discovery of insulin, mortality rates were up to 100%. Today, the mortality has fallen to around 2% due to early identification and treatment. Death is usually caused by cerebral oedema (swelling of the brain). DKA is most common in type 1 diabetes sufferers but may also occur in those with type 2 diabetes mellitus. However, the latter group usually has at least some functioning insulin so suffer from another disorder called hyperosmolar non-ketotic coma (HONK). DKA tends to occur in individuals younger than 19 years, the more brittle of type 1 diabetic patients. However, DKA can affect diabetic patients of any age or sex. Risk Factors for Diabetic Ketoacidosis People with diabetes lack sufficient insulin, a hormone the body uses to metabolise glucose (a simple sugar) for energy. Therefore in diabetic patients glucose is not available as a fuel, so the body turns to fat stores for energy. However when fats are broken down they produce byproducts called ketones which build up in the blood and can be damaging to the body. In particular, accumulated ketones can “spill” over into the urine and make the blood become more acidic than body tissues (ketoacidosis). Blood gl Continue reading >>

Cerebral Edema: A Complication Of Dka

Cerebral Edema: A Complication Of Dka

DKA, or diabetic ketoacidosis, is a severe life-threatening medical complication that must be treated by doctors in a hospital. DKA is a condition in which blood glucose levels have risen dangerously high due to lack of insulin and insulin resistance. Fat begins to break down in response to energy requirements leading to high ketone levels in the blood causing your blood to become too acidic. DKA sometimes leads to cerebral edema, which is brain swelling, and if left untreated, cerebral edema can cause brain damage or lead to death. Cerebral Edema: Its relationship to DKA In order to understand cerebral edema, you must understand diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA). DKA is a situation in which blood sugar levels rise to dangerous levels in response to a lack of insulin and insulin resistance. The liver keeps producing glucose, which collects in the blood. Normally, insulin will move that glucose out of the blood and into the cells that need it, but when there is insufficient insulin or significant insulin resistance, the glucose builds up to dangerous levels (severe hyperglycemia). Because the cells that need the glucose are not getting it (remember the glucose is stuck in the blood), they signal the body to produce more glucose through the breakdown of fat. The breakdown of fat results in fat components called ketones. When ketones continue to build up in your blood stream, the patient develops a condition called diabetic ketoacidosis or DKA. Symptoms include: Abdominal pain Signifant thirst Blurry vision Nausea and vomiting[1] Polyuria (Frequent urination) Polydipsia – excessive thirst that lasts for a day or more Weight loss Weakness Confusion Cold body temperature Acetone on the breath, Rapid breathing that is shallow then deep and labored– called Kussmaul’s respirati Continue reading >>

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