Is There Any Poison That Causes Heart Attack?
Not a myocardial infarction, a wound to the heart muscle, but the very powerful heart drug Digoxin - DrugBank (found in the foxglove) can in an overdose cause specific arrhythmias, if not recognised and treated (by infusing specific anti-digoxin antibodies), cause death. A Dutch pharmacist used it to try to murder his young lady ex-lover who wanted to leave him, fortunately the resident who saw her recognised that arrhythmia - PAT = paroxysmal atrial tachycardia with AV block - so she was saved, he was arrested, tried and sentenced to a lengthy jail sentence. For a historical case that ended fatally see How to Treat a Broken Heart, or Poison Your Lover, with Foxglove Continue reading >>
Type 1 Diabetes Complications
Type 1 diabetes is complicated—and if you don’t manage it properly, there are complications, both short-term and long-term. “If you don’t manage it properly” is an important if statement: by carefully managing your blood glucose levels, you can stave off or prevent the short- and long-term complications. And if you’ve already developed diabetes complications, controlling your blood glucose levels can help you manage the symptoms and prevent further damage. Diabetes complications are all related to poor blood glucose control, so you must work carefully with your doctor and diabetes team to correctly manage your blood sugar (or your child’s blood sugar). Short-term Diabetes Complications Hypoglycemia: Hypoglycemia is low blood glucose (blood sugar). It develops when there’s too much insulin—meaning that you’ve taken (or given your child) too much insulin or that you haven’t properly planned insulin around meals or exercise. Other possible causes of hypoglycemia include certain medications (aspirin, for example, lowers the blood glucose level if you take a dose of more than 81mg) and alcohol (alcohol keeps the liver from releasing glucose). There are three levels of hypoglycemia, depending on how low the blood glucose level has dropped: mild, moderate, and severe. If you treat hypoglycemia when it’s in the mild or moderate stages, then you can prevent far more serious problems; severe hypoglycemia can cause a coma and even death (although very, very rarely). The signs and symptoms of low blood glucose are usually easy to recognize: Rapid heartbeat Sweating Paleness of skin Anxiety Numbness in fingers, toes, and lips Sleepiness Confusion Headache Slurred speech For more information about hypoglycemia and how to treat it, please read our article on hy Continue reading >>
Heart Attack And Stroke A Result Of Diabetic Drug Invokana?
Invokana, a relatively new drug used to treat Type 2 diabetes has recently come under fire for a number of potential risks associated with the drug. While much of the bad press regarding Invokana has to do with ketoacidosis, a potentially life-threatening condition, there are other issues associated with Invokana. There is also evidence that manufacturers Johnson & Johnson and Janssen, as well as the FDA, were aware of these issues, in particular the risk of heart attack and stroke linked to Invokana, yet failed to warn consumers. Doctors Disagree with Janssen’s Claim That Invokana is Safe In January, 2013, representatives from Janssen Pharmaceuticals presented information to the FDA on the increase of Type 2 diabetes in the United States and the benefits associated with their new drug, Invokana. During the question and answer session, Dr. Sidney Wolfe raised some questions about the safety of Invokana. The most pressing concern voiced by Wolfe was blood clots which could lead to heart attacks. In studies presented by Janssen, thirteen patients who were taking Invokana suffered cardiovascular events. Further, Wolfe demonstrated that the heart attack risk (measured by increase in hematocrit) for Invokana (canagliflozin) users was as much as one and a half times greater than those in the gliflozin group. Hematocrit is the concentration of red bloods cells. In women, the normal concentration of hematocrit is 40 percent and the normal concentration in men is 45 percent. Any levels higher than this increase the risk of a blood clot which, in turn, causes a heart attack or stroke. Wolfe believed that a full one-quarter of Invokana users would develop a hematocrit of 47 percent—a “very dangerous range.” FDA biostatistician Dr. Mat Soukop testified before the panel rega Continue reading >>
Stroke And Diabetic Ketoacidosis – Some Diagnostic And Therapeutic Considerations
Go to: Cerebrovascular insult (CVI) is a known and important risk factor for the development of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA); still, it seems that the prevalence of DKA among the patients suffering CVI and its influence on stroke outcome might be underestimated. Diabetic ketoacidosis itself has been reported to be a risk factor for the occurrence of stroke in children and youth. A cerebral hypoperfusion in untreated DKA may lead to cerebral injury, arterial ischemic stroke, cerebral venous thrombosis, and hemorrhagic stroke. All these were noted following DKA episodes in children. At least some of these mechanisms may be operative in adults and complicate the course and outcome of CVI. There is a considerable overlap of symptoms, signs, and laboratory findings in the two conditions, making their interpretation difficult, particularly in the elderly and less communicative patients. Serum pH and bicarbonate, blood gases, and anion gap levels should be routinely measured in all type 1 and type 2 diabetics, regardless of symptomatology, for the early detection of existing or pending ketoacidosis. The capacity for rehydration in patients with stroke is limited, and the treatment of the cerebrovascular disease requires intensive use of osmotic and loop diuretics. Fluid repletion may be difficult, and the precise management algorithms are required. Intravenous insulin is the backbone of treatment, although its effect may be diminished due to delayed fluid replenishment. Therefore, the clinical course of diabetic ketoacidosis in patients with CVI may be prolonged and complicated. Keywords: CVI, type 2 diabetes complications, acid-base disturbances, fluid management Go to: Introduction Cerebrovascular incidents (CVI) are significant and well-known risk factors for the development Continue reading >>
- The Pathophysiology of Hyperglycemia in Older Adults: Clinical Considerations
- Diagnostic accuracy of resting systolic toe pressure for diagnosis of peripheral arterial disease in people with and without diabetes: a cross-sectional retrospective case-control study
- Pharmacology and therapeutic implications of current drugs for type 2 diabetes mellitus
Type 2 Diabetes And Cardiovascular (cv) Disease Go Hand In Hand.
JARDIANCE is a prescription medicine used along with diet and exercise to lower blood sugar in adults with type 2 diabetes, and also to reduce the risk of cardiovascular death in adults with type 2 diabetes who have known cardiovascular disease. JARDIANCE is not for people with type 1 diabetes or for people with diabetic ketoacidosis (increased ketones in the blood or urine). Dehydration. JARDIANCE can cause some people to have dehydration (the loss of body water and salt). Dehydration may cause you to feel dizzy, faint, light-headed, or weak, especially when you stand up. You may be at a higher risk of dehydration if you: have low blood pressure, take medicines to lower your blood pressure, including water pills (diuretics), are on a low salt diet, have kidney problems, are 65 years of age or older. Ketoacidosis (increased ketones in your blood or urine). Ketoacidosis is a serious condition and may need to be treated in the hospital. Ketoacidosis may lead to death. Ketoacidosis occurs in people with type 1 diabetes and can also occur in people with type 2 diabetes taking JARDIANCE, even if blood sugar is less than 250 mg/dL. Stop taking JARDIANCE and call your doctor right away if you get any of the following symptoms, and if possible, check for ketones in your urine: nausea, vomiting, stomach-area (abdominal) pain, tiredness, or trouble breathing. Serious urinary tract infections. Serious urinary tract infections can occur in people taking JARDIANCE and may lead to hospitalization. Tell your doctor if you have symptoms of a urinary tract infection such as a burning feeling when passing urine, a need to urinate often or right away, pain in the lower part of your stomach or pelvis, or blood in the urine. Sometimes people also may have a fever, back pain, nausea or vomit Continue reading >>
- Mortality and Cardiovascular Disease in Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes
- American Diabetes Association® Releases 2018 Standards of Medical Care in Diabetes, with Notable New Recommendations for People with Cardiovascular Disease and Diabetes
- Conjoint Associations of Gestational Diabetes and Hypertension With Diabetes, Hypertension, and Cardiovascular Disease in Parents: A Retrospective Cohort Study
Hyperkalemia (high Blood Potassium)
How does hyperkalemia affect the body? Potassium is critical for the normal functioning of the muscles, heart, and nerves. It plays an important role in controlling activity of smooth muscle (such as the muscle found in the digestive tract) and skeletal muscle (muscles of the extremities and torso), as well as the muscles of the heart. It is also important for normal transmission of electrical signals throughout the nervous system within the body. Normal blood levels of potassium are critical for maintaining normal heart electrical rhythm. Both low blood potassium levels (hypokalemia) and high blood potassium levels (hyperkalemia) can lead to abnormal heart rhythms. The most important clinical effect of hyperkalemia is related to electrical rhythm of the heart. While mild hyperkalemia probably has a limited effect on the heart, moderate hyperkalemia can produce EKG changes (EKG is a reading of theelectrical activity of the heart muscles), and severe hyperkalemia can cause suppression of electrical activity of the heart and can cause the heart to stop beating. Another important effect of hyperkalemia is interference with functioning of the skeletal muscles. Hyperkalemic periodic paralysis is a rare inherited disorder in which patients can develop sudden onset of hyperkalemia which in turn causes muscle paralysis. The reason for the muscle paralysis is not clearly understood, but it is probably due to hyperkalemia suppressing the electrical activity of the muscle. Common electrolytes that are measured by doctors with blood testing include sodium, potassium, chloride, and bicarbonate. The functions and normal range values for these electrolytes are described below. Hypokalemia, or decreased potassium, can arise due to kidney diseases; excessive losses due to heavy sweating Continue reading >>
What Is It? Diabetic ketoacidosis is a potentially fatal complication of diabetes that occurs when you have much less insulin than your body needs. This problem causes the blood to become acidic and the body to become dangerously dehydrated. Diabetic ketoacidosis can occur when diabetes is not treated adequately, or it can occur during times of serious sickness. To understand this illness, you need to understand the way your body powers itself with sugar and other fuels. Foods we eat are broken down by the body, and much of what we eat becomes glucose (a type of sugar), which enters the bloodstream. Insulin helps glucose to pass from the bloodstream into body cells, where it is used for energy. Insulin normally is made by the pancreas, but people with type 1 diabetes (insulin-dependent diabetes) don't produce enough insulin and must inject it daily. Subscribe to Harvard Health Online for immediate access to health news and information from Harvard Medical School. Continue reading >>
Diabetic Ketoacidosis Treatment
Diabetic ketoacidosis is a life-threatening medical condition that is a complication of diabetes mellitus that is not in control. It is more common among type 1 diabetics that have no insulin but it can also be seen in severe cases of type 2 diabetes. In diabetic ketoacidosis, there are ketones in the bloodstream and urine because the fat in the body is broken down with ketones as a byproduct. Diabetic ketoacidosis occurs when the body isn’t making enough insulin by the pancreatic islet cells. In a normal person, insulin is secreted by the pancreas in response to elevated blood sugar levels. The insulin helps glucose (sugar) to enter the cells to be used as cellular fuel. If insulin is absent, the body breaks down fatty acids to be used for fuel. Ketones build up in the urine and blood, leading to the condition known as diabetic ketoacidosis. The main cause is being a type 1 diabetic who has not taken enough insulin. Symptoms of Diabetic Ketoacidosis The signs and symptoms of diabetic ketoacidosis can come on suddenly, within a day or so of having no insulin. When signs and symptoms do show up, the patient may have any or all of the following symptoms: Confusion Breath that smells fruity Shortness of breath Tiredness or weakness Pain in the abdomen Nausea and vomiting Increased frequency of urination Being excessively thirsty Clinical signs that the individual has diabetic ketoacidosis includes have extremely high blood sugar levels as well as elevated levels of ketones in the urine. Causes of Diabetic Ketoacidosis The main source of cellular fuel is glucose. All of the cells of the body rely on glucose to make energy to allow the cells to function in whatever capacity they happen to be in. When insulin is lacking, the body is unable to use glucose as fuel. These caus Continue reading >>
What Are The Causes And Symptoms Of Diabetic Ketoacidosis?
An Overview Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is considered to be one of the most severe metabolic imbalance associated with type 1 diabetes mellitus. Type 1 diabetes mellitus is also known as insulin dependent diabetes mellitus, wherein a patient depends upon external sources of insulin as its body is unable to make it as per the body’s requirement. DKA is seen very commonly in about 35% to 40% of young diabetic patients including small children and teenagers when diagnosed with type 1 diabetes. Patients who are not suffering with type 1 form of diabetes could also fall under the risk of acquiring DKA condition due to various other reasons. Every diabetic patient irrespective of the type of diabetes, can develop DKA, when facing any other form of illness. Diabetic ketoacidosis is often a serious condition that may require immediate hospitalization for the patient. Approximately, 160,000 hospital admissions per year in the United States occur in this regard. Unfortunately DKA is seen to show maximum complication in young adults including teenagers and of course the elderly patients. Complication arising out diabetic ketoacidosis also accounts for a number of deaths in the US for children and young patients suffering from diabetes. The biggest challenge in the management of this condition comes with the lack of awareness of the unmanaged diabetes in patients that is not taken very seriously event today. What is Diabetic Ketoacidosis? Diabetic ketoacidosis is a life threatening complication associated with diabetes. This condition arises when the body produces excess quantities of ketoacids. The risk of developing ketoacidosis is greater in people with Type 1 diabetes. The condition develops when the amount of insulin produced by the body is insufficient. As insulin levels dr Continue reading >>
Diabetic ketoacidosis is a complication of diabetes that occurs when sugar (glucose) is not available as a fuel source by the body and fat is used instead. Byproducts of fat breakdown, called ketones, build up in the body. People with Type I diabetes lack enough insulin, a hormone the body uses to process sugar (glucose) for energy. When glucose is not available, body fat is broken down instead. The byproducts of fat metabolism are ketones and acid. When fat is broken down, ketones and acid build up in the blood. A condition called ketoacidosis develops when the blood has more acid than normal. Blood glucose levels rise (usually higher than 300 mg/dL) because the liver produces glucose to try to combat the problem. However the cells cannot pull in that glucose without insulin. Diabetic ketoacidosis may lead to a diagnosis of type 1 diabetes, because it is often the first symptom that causes a person to see a doctor. It can also be the result of increased insulin needs in someone already diagnosed with type 1 diabetes. Infection, trauma, heart attack, or surgery can lead to diabetic ketoacidosis in such cases. Missing doses of insulin can also lead to ketoacidosis in people with diabetes. People with type 2 diabetes can develop ketoacidosis, but it is rare. It is usually triggered by a severe illness. People of Hispanic and African-American ethnicity seem to be more likely to have ketoacidosis as a complication of type 2 diabetes. Fruity breath (breath odor) Mental stupor that may progress to coma Shortness of breath Other symptoms that can occur with this disease: This disease may also affect the results of the following tests: Acidosis can lead to severe illness or death. Improved therapy for young people with diabetes has decreased the death rate from this condition. Continue reading >>
Can A Heart Attack Cause A Fever?
There is a condition called “Dressler’s syndrome” which is a pleuropericarditis that develops post a myocardial infarct - AKA heart attack. Also seen in post Cardiac Surgery patients. Pleuropericarditis is a kind of inflammatory/immune response to the damaged myocardial muscle fiber and/or pericardium, which generates an inflammatory response that includes - in latin “dolor, rubor, calor” ie pain, redness, temperature (fever) - all manifestations of inflammation. There is chest pain typical of pericarditis/pleuritic, pericardial friction rub, pericardial effusion, temperature So, the answer to your question is YES, you can get a fever that can occur a few days to a couple of weeks post myocardial infarction . Treatment is with anti inflammatory medications notably NSAIDs like Indomethacin, steroids or colchicine. Continue reading >>
Diabetes, Heart Attack Risk And Diabetic Ketoacidosis
People with diabetes have heart attacks or strokes more than twice as often as people without diabetes. 1 In addition, two out of three people with diabetes eventually die from these conditions, according to the American Diabetes Association. 2 Heart Disease Risk Factors According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), if you have diabetes your risk of death by heart disease may be two to four times greater than for someone who doesn’t have diabetes. 3 The American Heart Association cites the same statistic, adding that at least 68 percent of people with diabetes who are older than 65 years of age die of heart disease. 4 Other risks for heart disease include high LDL cholesterol levels, high blood pressure (hypertension), and high triglyceride levels, according to the CDC. 5 Many people with diabetes also have a combination of other risk factors: low HDL cholesterol, obesity and a sedentary lifestyle. 6 High Blood Sugar and Heart Disease Over time, high blood sugar may lead to increased fatty deposits on blood vessel walls, affecting blood flow and increasing the chance of blood vessel hardening. This is according to the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK), part of the National Institutes of Health (NIH). 7 Heart Attack Warning Signs The risk of having a heart attack is higher for diabetics and diabetics who have already suffered one heart attack have an even greater risk of having a second. NIDDK mentions some important warning signs that may indicate you might be experiencing a heart attack, such as chest, arm, jaw, neck, back or stomach pain. 8 Other possible symptoms of a heart attack include shortness of breath, nausea, sweating and lightheadedness. 9 Reducing Your Risks as a Diabetic If you have diabetes, th Continue reading >>
Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a serious complications of untreated diabetes. In this complication, severely insufficient insulin levels in the body results into high blood sugar that leads to the production and buildup of ketones in the blood. These ketones are slightly acidic, and large amounts of them can lead to ketoacidosis. If remained untreated, the condition leads to diabetic coma and may be fatal. Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) gets triggered by a stressful event on the body, such as an illness or severe lack of insulin. DKA is more common in people with type 1 diabetes. In some cases, identification of DKA is the first indication that a person has diabetes. Early Sluggish and extreme tiredness Fruity smell to breath (like acetone) Extreme thirst, despite large fluid intake Constant urination/bedwetting Extreme weight loss Presence of Oral Thrush or yeast infections that fail to go away Muscle wasting Agitation / Irritation / Aggression / Confusion Late At this stage, Diabetic ketoacidosis reaches a life-threatening level: Vomiting. Although this can be a sign of hyperglycemia and isn't always a late-stage sign, it can occur with or without ketoacidosis. Confusion Abdominal pain Loss of appetite Flu-like symptoms Unconsciousness (diabetic coma) Being lethargic and apathetic Extreme weakness Kussmaul breathing (air hunger). In this condition, patients breathe more deeply and/or more rapidly The major risk factors accelerating on set of diabetic ketoacidosis include the following: Diabetes mellitus: Type 1 diabetics are at a higher risk of DKA, because they must rely on outside insulin sources for survival. DKA can occur in patients with type 2, particularly in obese children. Age: DKA may occur at any age, but younger people below 19 years of age are more susceptib Continue reading >>
The Silent Heart Attacks That Can Strike Diabetics Without Warning
Property consultant Michael Green was adamant that his type 2 diabetes was nothing to worry about. 'It's the non-serious type,' he'd say dismissively. Michael's laid-back attitude is in some ways understandable. The father-of-one had never suffered any obvious ill-effects from the condition he'd lived with for 28 years, and he'd been diagnosed not as a result of any troubling symptoms, but by chance following a routine blood test. Compared to a family friend who had type 1 diabetes, he was lucky, he insisted. At least he didn't have to monitor his blood sugar levels every few hours, and inject insulin. Then one night, two years ago, he went to sleep and never woke up. At just 53, he'd suffered a 'silent heart attack' - a little-known complication of diabetes. A silent attack is almost symptomless and occurs without any of the chest pain normally associated with a heart attack. Yet they can be just as dangerous - if not more so - as a normal heart attack. They're also surprisingly common. It is estimated that around a quarter of the 175,000 heart attacks in the UK each year are the silent type - and people with diabetes are at greatest risk. This is because the nerve damage linked to their condition can prevent warning signals being transmitted in the usual way. This, in turn, can lead to a delay in seeking treatment and result in damage to the blood vessels and heart muscle that make the heart attack more lethal. Heart attacks occur when there is a blockage in the artery supplying blood to the heart. Normally, this is as a result of a fatty plaque breaking off from the artery wall, triggering a blood clot. When the blood supply to the heart is reduced, the body produces chemicals that affect nerves and trigger pain. Often, people describe the pain of a heart attack as a Continue reading >>
The Facts Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a condition that may occur in people who have diabetes, most often in those who have type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes. It involves the buildup of toxic substances called ketones that make the blood too acidic. High ketone levels can be readily managed, but if they aren't detected and treated in time, a person can eventually slip into a fatal coma. DKA can occur in people who are newly diagnosed with type 1 diabetes and have had ketones building up in their blood prior to the start of treatment. It can also occur in people already diagnosed with type 1 diabetes that have missed an insulin dose, have an infection, or have suffered a traumatic event or injury. Although much less common, DKA can occasionally occur in people with type 2 diabetes under extreme physiologic stress. Causes With type 1 diabetes, the pancreas is unable to make the hormone insulin, which the body's cells need in order to take in glucose from the blood. In the case of type 2 diabetes, the pancreas is unable to make sufficient amounts of insulin in order to take in glucose from the blood. Glucose, a simple sugar we get from the foods we eat, is necessary for making the energy our cells need to function. People with diabetes can't get glucose into their cells, so their bodies look for alternative energy sources. Meanwhile, glucose builds up in the bloodstream, and by the time DKA occurs, blood glucose levels are often greater than 22 mmol/L (400 mg/dL) while insulin levels are very low. Since glucose isn't available for cells to use, fat from fat cells is broken down for energy instead, releasing ketones. Ketones accumulate in the blood, causing it to become more acidic. As a result, many of the enzymes that control the body's metabolic processes aren't able Continue reading >>