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Can Glycerol Be Converted To Glucose

Glycogenesis, Glycogenolysis,

Glycogenesis, Glycogenolysis,

Biosynthesis of Glycogen: The goal of glycolysis, glycogenolysis, and the citric acid cycle is to conserve energy as ATP from the catabolism of carbohydrates. If the cells have sufficient supplies of ATP, then these pathways and cycles are inhibited. Under these conditions of excess ATP, the liver will attempt to convert a variety of excess molecules into glucose and/or glycogen. Glycogenesis: Glycogenesis is the formation of glycogen from glucose. Glycogen is synthesized depending on the demand for glucose and ATP (energy). If both are present in relatively high amounts, then the excess of insulin promotes the glucose conversion into glycogen for storage in liver and muscle cells. In the synthesis of glycogen, one ATP is required per glucose incorporated into the polymeric branched structure of glycogen. actually, glucose-6-phosphate is the cross-roads compound. Glucose-6-phosphate is synthesized directly from glucose or as the end product of gluconeogenesis. Link to: Interactive Glycogenesis (move cursor over arrows) Jim Hardy, Professor of Chemistry, The University of Akron. Glycogenolysis: In glycogenolysis, glycogen stored in the liver and muscles, is converted first to glucose-1- phosphate and then into glucose-6-phosphate. Two hormones which control glycogenolysis are a peptide, glucagon from the pancreas and epinephrine from the adrenal glands. Glucagon is released from the pancreas in response to low blood glucose and epinephrine is released in response to a threat or stress. Both hormones act upon enzymes to stimulate glycogen phosphorylase to begin glycogenolysis and inhibit glycogen synthetase (to stop glycogenesis). Glycogen is a highly branched polymeric structure containing glucose as the basic monomer. First individual glucose molecules are hydrolyzed fr Continue reading >>

Pyruvate The Conversion Of Glycerol To Pyruvate Is Easy Because They Are Both

Pyruvate The Conversion Of Glycerol To Pyruvate Is Easy Because They Are Both

Pyruvate The conversion of glycerol to pyruvate is easy because they are both three-carbon compounds.TriglycerideGlycerolFatty acids This preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version. Breaking Down Nutrients for Energy Glycerol and Fatty Acids Fatty acids-to-Acetyl CoAFatty acid oxidation2-carbon units at a time then join with CoAHydrogens and electrons carried to electron transport chainFatty acids cannot be used to synthesize glucose. Glucose must be available to provide energy to the red blood cells, brain, and nervous system.TriglycerideGlycerolFatty acids Breaking Down Nutrients for EnergyreversibleNot reversibleFatty acids cannotbe used to synthesize glucose. Glycerol canbe used to synthesize glucose. This preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version. Breaking Down Nutrients for Energy Glycerol and Fatty Acids Breaking Down Nutrients for Energy Glycerol and Fatty Acids Fatty Acid Oxidation This preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version. Breaking Down Nutrients for Energyreversible Breaking Down Nutrients for Energy Amino AcidsAmino acids can be converted energy.Amino acids are a fairly good source of glucose when carbohydrate is notavailable.Deamination of amino acids Amino acids-to-energySeveral entry points in energy pathwayConverted to pyruvate (glucogenic)Converted to acetyl CoA (ketogenic)Enter TCA cycle directly (glucogenic)Amino acids-to-glucoseDeamination This preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version. Breaking Down Nutrients for Energy Amino AcidsGlucose Glucose and fatty acids are primarily used for energy, amino acids to a lesser extent.Glucose is made from all carbohydrates, most amino acids, and the glycerol portion of Continue reading >>

Gluconeogenesis: Endogenous Glucose Synthesis

Gluconeogenesis: Endogenous Glucose Synthesis

Reactions of Gluconeogenesis: Gluconeogenesis from two moles of pyruvate to two moles of 1,3-bisphosphoglycerate consumes six moles of ATP. This makes the process of gluconeogenesis very costly from an energy standpoint considering that glucose oxidation to two moles of pyruvate yields two moles of ATP. The major hepatic substrates for gluconeogenesis (glycerol, lactate, alanine, and pyruvate) are enclosed in red boxes for highlighting. The reactions that take place in the mitochondria are pyruvate to OAA and OAA to malate. Pyruvate from the cytosol is transported across the inner mitochondrial membrane by the pyruvate transporter. Transport of pyruvate across the plasma membrane is catalyzed by the SLC16A1 protein (also called the monocarboxylic acid transporter 1, MCT1) and transport across the outer mitochondrial membrane involves a voltage-dependent porin transporter. Transport across the inner mitochondrial membrane requires a heterotetrameric transport complex (mitochondrial pyruvate carrier) consisting of the MPC1 gene and MPC2 gene encoded proteins. Following reduction of OAA to malate the malate is transported to the cytosol by the malate transporter (SLC25A11). In the cytosol the malate is oxidized to OAA and the OOA then feeds into the gluconeogenic pathway via conversion to PEP via PEPCK. The PEPCK reaction is another site for consumption of an ATP equivalent (GTP is utilized in the PEPCK reaction). The reversal of the glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) reaction requires a supply of NADH. When lactate is the gluconeogenic substrate the NADH is supplied by the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) reaction (indicated by the dashes lines), and it is supplied by the malate dehydrogenase reaction when pyruvate and alanine are the substrates. Secondly, one mo Continue reading >>

Gluconeogenesis - An Overview | Sciencedirect Topics

Gluconeogenesis - An Overview | Sciencedirect Topics

Gluconeogenesis is the process that leads to the generation of glucose from a variety of sources such as pyruvate, lactate, glycerol, and certain amino acids. Larry R. Engelking, in Textbook of Veterinary Physiological Chemistry (Third Edition) , 2015 Gluconeogenesis occurs in the liver and kidneys. Gluconeogenesis supplies the needs for plasma glucose between meals. Gluconeogenesis is stimulated by the diabetogenic hormones (glucagon, growth hormone, epinephrine, and cortisol). Gluconeogenic substrates include glycerol, lactate, propionate, and certain amino acids. PEP carboxykinase catalyzes the rate-limiting reaction in gluconeogenesis. The dicarboxylic acid shuttle moves hydrocarbons from pyruvate to PEP in gluconeogenesis. Gluconeogenesis is a continual process in carnivores and ruminant animals, therefore they have little need to store glycogen in their liver cells. Of the amino acids transported to liver from muscle during exercise and starvation, Ala predominates. b-Aminoisobutyrate, generated from pyrimidine degradation, is a (minor) gluconeogenic substrate. N.V. Bhagavan, Chung-Eun Ha, in Essentials of Medical Biochemistry , 2011 Gluconeogenesis refers to synthesis of new glucose from noncarbohydrate precursors, provides glucose when dietary intake is insufficient or absent. It also is essential in the regulation of acid-base balance, amino acid metabolism, and synthesis of carbohydrate derived structural components. Gluconeogenesis occurs in liver and kidneys. The precursors of gluconeogenesis are lactate, glycerol, amino acids, and with propionate making a minor contribution. The gluconeogenesis pathway consumes ATP, which is derived primarily from the oxidation of fatty acids. The pathway uses several enzymes of the glycolysis with the exception of enzymes Continue reading >>

Does Fat Convert To Glucose In The Body?

Does Fat Convert To Glucose In The Body?

Your body is an amazing machine that is able to extract energy from just about anything you eat. While glucose is your body's preferred energy source, you can't convert fat into glucose for energy; instead, fatty acids or ketones are used to supply your body with energy from fat. Video of the Day Fat is a concentrated source of energy, and it generally supplies about half the energy you burn daily. During digestion and metabolism, the fat in the food you eat is broken down into fatty acids and glycerol, which are emulsified and absorbed into your blood stream. While some tissues -- including your muscles -- can use fatty acids for energy, your brain can't convert fatty acids to fuel. If you eat more fat than your body needs, the extra is stored in fat cells for later use. Fat has more than twice as many calories per gram as carbs and protein, which makes it an efficient form of stored energy. It would take more than 20 pounds of glycogen -- a type of carbohydrate used for fuel -- to store the same amount of energy in just 10 pounds of fat. Your Body Makes Glucose From Carbs Almost all the glucose in your body originated from carbohydrates, which come from the fruit, vegetables, grains and milk in your diet. When you eat these carb-containing foods, your digestive system breaks them down into glucose, which is then used for energy by your cells. Any excess glucose is converted into glycogen, then stored in your muscles and liver for later use. Once you can't store any more glucose or glycogen, your body stores any leftover carbs as fat. Glucose is your brain's preferred source of energy. However, when glucose is in short supply, your brain can use ketones -- which are derived from fat -- for fuel. Since your brain accounts for approximately one-fifth of your daily calori Continue reading >>

Lipid Metabolism

Lipid Metabolism

on on Fats (or triglycerides) within the body are ingested as food or synthesized by adipocytes or hepatocytes from carbohydrate precursors ([link]). Lipid metabolism entails the oxidation of fatty acids to either generate energy or synthesize new lipids from smaller constituent molecules. Lipid metabolism is associated with carbohydrate metabolism, as products of glucose (such as acetyl CoA) can be converted into lipids. Lipid metabolism begins in the intestine where ingested triglycerides are broken down into smaller chain fatty acids and subsequently into monoglyceride molecules (see [link]b) by pancreatic lipases, enzymes that break down fats after they are emulsified by bile salts. When food reaches the small intestine in the form of chyme, a digestive hormone called cholecystokinin (CCK) is released by intestinal cells in the intestinal mucosa. CCK stimulates the release of pancreatic lipase from the pancreas and stimulates the contraction of the gallbladder to release stored bile salts into the intestine. CCK also travels to the brain, where it can act as a hunger suppressant. Together, the pancreatic lipases and bile salts break down triglycerides into free fatty acids. These fatty acids can be transported across the intestinal membrane. However, once they cross the membrane, they are recombined to again form triglyceride molecules. Within the intestinal cells, these triglycerides are packaged along with cholesterol molecules in phospholipid vesicles called chylomicrons ([link]). The chylomicrons enable fats and cholesterol to move within the aqueous environment of your lymphatic and circulatory systems. Chylomicrons leave the enterocytes by exocytosis and enter the lymphatic system via lacteals in the villi of the intestine. From the lymphatic system, the chylo Continue reading >>

Glucose-to-glycerol Conversion In Long-lived Yeast Provides Anti-aging Effects

Glucose-to-glycerol Conversion In Long-lived Yeast Provides Anti-aging Effects

Cell biologists have found a more filling substitute for caloric restriction in extending the life span of simple organisms. Researchers show that yeast cells maintained on a glycerol diet live twice as long as normal -- as long as yeast cells on a severe caloric-restriction diet. They are also more resistant to cell damage. Cell biologists have found a more filling substitute for caloric restriction in extending the life span of simple organisms. In a study published May 8 in the open-access journal PLoS Genetics, researchers from the University of Southern California Andrus Gerontology Center show that yeast cells maintained on a glycerol diet live twice as long as normal -- as long as yeast cells on a severe caloric-restriction diet. They are also more resistant to cell damage. Many studies have shown that caloric restriction can extend the life span of a variety of laboratory animals. Caloric restriction is also known to cause major improvements in a number of markers for cardiovascular diseases in humans. This study is the first to propose that "dietary substitution" can replace "dietary restriction" in a living species. "If you add glycerol, or restrict caloric intake, you obtain the same effect," said senior author Valter Longo. "It's as good as calorie restriction, yet cells can take it up and utilize it to generate energy or for the synthesis of cellular components." Longo and colleagues Min Wei and Paola Fabrizio introduced a glycerol diet after discovering that genetically engineered long-lived yeast cells that survive up to 5-fold longer than normal have increased levels of the genes that produce glycerol. In fact, they convert virtually all the glucose and ethanol into glycerol. Notably, these cells have a reduced activity in the TOR1/SCH9 pathway, which i Continue reading >>

Gluconeogenesis

Gluconeogenesis

Not to be confused with Glycogenesis or Glyceroneogenesis. Simplified Gluconeogenesis Pathway Gluconeogenesis (GNG) is a metabolic pathway that results in the generation of glucose from certain non-carbohydrate carbon substrates. From breakdown of proteins, these substrates include glucogenic amino acids (although not ketogenic amino acids); from breakdown of lipids (such as triglycerides), they include glycerol (although not fatty acids); and from other steps in metabolism they include pyruvate and lactate. Gluconeogenesis is one of several main mechanisms used by humans and many other animals to maintain blood glucose levels, avoiding low levels (hypoglycemia). Other means include the degradation of glycogen (glycogenolysis)[1] and fatty acid catabolism. Gluconeogenesis is a ubiquitous process, present in plants, animals, fungi, bacteria, and other microorganisms.[2] In vertebrates, gluconeogenesis takes place mainly in the liver and, to a lesser extent, in the cortex of the kidneys. In ruminants, this tends to be a continuous process.[3] In many other animals, the process occurs during periods of fasting, starvation, low-carbohydrate diets, or intense exercise. The process is highly endergonic until it is coupled to the hydrolysis of ATP or GTP, effectively making the process exergonic. For example, the pathway leading from pyruvate to glucose-6-phosphate requires 4 molecules of ATP and 2 molecules of GTP to proceed spontaneously. Gluconeogenesis is often associated with ketosis. Gluconeogenesis is also a target of therapy for type 2 diabetes, such as the antidiabetic drug, metformin, which inhibits glucose formation and stimulates glucose uptake by cells.[4] In ruminants, because dietary carbohydrates tend to be metabolized by rumen organisms, gluconeogenesis occurs Continue reading >>

Can Fats Be Turned Into Glycogen For Muscle?

Can Fats Be Turned Into Glycogen For Muscle?

The amount of fat in the average diet and the amount of stored fat in the average body make the notion of converting that fat into usable energy appealing. Glycogen, a form of energy stored in muscles for quick use, is what the body draws on first to perform movements, and higher glycogen levels result in higher usable energy. It is not possible for fats to be converted directly into glycogen because they are not made up glucose, but it is possible for fats to be indirectly broken down into glucose, which can be used to create glycogen. Relationship Between Fats and Glycogen Fats are a nutrient found in food and a compound used for long-term energy storage in the body, while glycogen is a chain of glucose molecules created by the body from glucose for short-term energy storage and utilization. Dietary fats are used for a number of functions in the body, including maintaining cell membranes, but they are not used primarily as a source of fast energy. Instead, for energy the body relies mostly on carbohydrates, which are converted into glucose that is then used to form glycogen. Turning Fats Into Glucose Excess glucose in the body is converted into stored fat under certain conditions, so it seems logical that glucose could be derived from fats. This process is called gluconeogenesis, and there are multiple pathways the body can use to achieve this conversion. Gluconeogenesis generally occurs only when the body cannot produce sufficient glucose from carbohydrates, such as during starvation or on a low-carbohydrate diet. This is less efficient than producing glucose through the metabolizing of carbohydrates, but it is possible under the right conditions. Turning Glucose Into Glycogen Once glucose has been obtained from fats, your body easily converts it into glycogen. In gl Continue reading >>

Glucogenic Amino Acids

Glucogenic Amino Acids

DOUGLAS C. HEIMBURGER MD, in Handbook of Clinical Nutrition (Fourth Edition) , 2006 The major aim of protein catabolism during a state of starvation is to provide the glucogenic amino acids (especially alanine and glutamine) that serve as substrates for endogenous glucose production (gluconeogenesis) in the liver. In the hypometabolic/starved state, protein breakdown for gluconeogenesis is minimized, especially as ketones become the substrate preferred by certain tissues. In the hypermetabolic/stress state, gluconeogenesis increases dramatically and in proportion to the degree of the insult to increase the supply of glucose (the major fuel of reparation). Glucose is the only fuel that can be utilized by hypoxic tissues (anaerobic glycolysis), by phagocytosing (bacteria-killing) white cells, and by young fibroblasts. Infusions of glucose partially offset a negative energy balance but do not significantly suppress the high rates of gluconeogenesis in the catabolic patient. Hence, adequate supplies of protein are needed to replace the amino acids utilized for this metabolic response. In summary, the two physiologic states represent different responses to starvation. The hypometabolic patient, who conserves body mass by reducing the metabolic rate and using fat as the primary fuel (rather than glucose and its precursor amino acids), is adapted to starvation. The hypermetabolic patient also uses fat as a fuel but rapidly breaks down body protein to produce glucose, the fuel of reparation, thereby causing loss of muscle and organ tissue and endangering vital body functions. Joerg Klepper*, in Handbook of Clinical Neurology , 2013 Gluconeogenesis, predominantly in the liver, generates glucose from noncarbohydrate substrates such as lactate, glycerol, and glucogenic amino acid Continue reading >>

We Really Can Make Glucose From Fatty Acids After All! O Textbook, How Thy Biochemistry Hast Deceived Me!

We Really Can Make Glucose From Fatty Acids After All! O Textbook, How Thy Biochemistry Hast Deceived Me!

Biochemistry textbooks generally tell us that we can’t turn fatty acids into glucose. For example, on page 634 of the 2006 and 2008 editions of Biochemistry by Berg, Tymoczko, and Stryer, we find the following: Animals Cannot Convert Fatty Acids to Glucose It is important to note that animals are unable to effect the net synthesis of glucose from fatty acids. Specficially, acetyl CoA cannot be converted into pyruvate or oxaloacetate in animals. In fact this is so important that it should be written in italics and have its own bold heading! But it’s not quite right. Making glucose from fatty acids is low-paying work. It’s not the type of alchemy that would allow us to build imperial palaces out of sugar cubes or offer hourly sweet sacrifices upon the altar of the glorious god of glucose (God forbid!). But it can be done, and it’ll help pay the bills when times are tight. All Aboard the Acetyl CoA! When we’re running primarily on fatty acids, our livers break the bulk of these fatty acids down into two-carbon units called acetate. When acetate hangs out all by its lonesome like it does in a bottle of vinegar, it’s called acetic acid and it gives vinegar its characteristic smell. Our livers aren’t bottles of vinegar, however, and they do things a bit differently. They have a little shuttle called coenzyme A, or “CoA” for short, that carries acetate wherever it needs to go. When the acetate passenger is loaded onto the CoA shuttle, we refer to the whole shebang as acetyl CoA. As acetyl CoA moves its caboose along the biochemical railway, it eventually reaches a crossroads where it has to decide whether to enter the Land of Ketogenesis or traverse the TCA cycle. The Land of Ketogenesis is a quite magical place to which we’ll return in a few moments, but n Continue reading >>

Why Can Fatty Acids Not Be Converted Into Glucose? : Mcat

Why Can Fatty Acids Not Be Converted Into Glucose? : Mcat

Rudeness or trolling will not be tolerated. Be nice to each other, hating on other users won't help you get extra points on the MCAT, so why do it? Do not post any question information from any resource in the title of your post. These are considered spoilers and should be marked as such. For an example format for submitting pictures of questions from practice material click here Do not link to content that infringes on copyright laws (MCAT torrents, third party resources, etc). Do not post repeat "GOOD LUCK", "TEST SCORE", or test reaction posts. We have one "stickied" post for each exam and score release day, contain all test day discussion/reactions to that thread only. Do not discuss any specific information from your actual MCAT exam. You have signed an examinee agreement, and it will be enforced on this subreddit. Do not intentionally advertise paid products or services of any sort. These posts will be removed and the user banned without warning, subject to the discretion of the mod team Learn More All of the above rules are subject to moderator discretion C/P = Chemical and Physical Foundations of Biological Systems CARS = Critical Analysis and Reasoning Skills B/B = Biological and Biochemical Foundations of Living Systems P/S = Psychological, Social, and Biological Foundations of Behavior Continue reading >>

Connections Between Cellular Respiration And Other Pathways

Connections Between Cellular Respiration And Other Pathways

So far, we’ve spent a lot of time describing the pathways used to break down glucose. When you sit down for lunch, you might have a turkey sandwich, a veggie burger, or a salad, but you’re probably not going to dig in to a bowl of pure glucose. How, then, are the other components of food – such as proteins, lipids, and non-glucose carbohydrates – broken down to generate ATP? As it turns out, the cellular respiration pathways we’ve already seen are central to the extraction of energy from all these different molecules. Amino acids, lipids, and other carbohydrates can be converted to various intermediates of glycolysis and the citric acid cycle, allowing them to slip into the cellular respiration pathway through a multitude of side doors. Once these molecules enter the pathway, it makes no difference where they came from: they’ll simply go through the remaining steps, yielding NADH, FADH​, and ATP. Simplified image of cellular respiration pathways, showing the different stages at which various types of molecules can enter. Glycolysis: Sugars, glycerol from fats, and some types of amino acids can enter cellular respiration during glycolysis. Pyruvate oxidation: Some types of amino acids can enter as pyruvate. Citric acid cycle: Fatty acids from fats and certain types of amino acids can enter as acetyl CoA, and other types of amino acids can enter as citric acid cycle intermediates. In addition, not every molecule that enters cellular respiration will complete the entire pathway. Just as various types of molecules can feed into cellular respiration through different intermediates, so intermediates of glycolysis and the citric acid cycle may be removed at various stages and used to make other molecules. For instance, many intermediates of glycolysis and the cit Continue reading >>

Why Can't Fat Produce Glucose?

Why Can't Fat Produce Glucose?

Tousief Irshad Ahmed Sirwal Author has 77 answers and 106.2k answer views Acetyl CoA is NOT a substrate for gluconeogenesis in animals 1. Pyruvate dehydrogenase reaction is irreversible. So, acetyl CoA cannot be converted back to pyruvate. 2. 2C Acetyl CoA enters the TCA cycle by condensing with 4C oxaloacetate. 2 molecules of CO2 are released & the oxaloacetate is regenerated. There is no NET production of oxaloacetate. Animals cannot convert fat into glucose with minimal exceptions 1. Propionyl CoA derived from odd chain fatty acids are converted to Succinyl CoA Glucogenic 2. Glycerol derived from triglycerides are glucogenic. Answered Mar 26, 2017 Author has 942 answers and 259.1k answer views Yijia Xiong pointed out that the glycerol portion of triglycerides (fats) can indeed be converted to glucose. It is not so energy-inefficient that it is avoided by our bodies. If nutritionally, we are in a gluconeogenesis mode (building up glucose stores rather than consuming them), glycerol would be a perfectly acceptable precursor. However, I think the original question had more to do with the vast bulk of the triglycerides that are not glycerol, but are fatty acids. And it is true that we cant produce glucose from fatty acids. The reason is that the catabolic reactions of fatty acids break off two carbon atoms at a time as Acetyl-CoA. But our metabolic suite of pathways has no way to convert a two-carbon fragment to glucose. The end product of glycolysis is pyruvate, a three-carbon compound. Pyruvate can be back-synthesized into glucose. But the committing reaction for the Krebs cycle is the pyruvate dehydrogenase step, forming acetyl-CoA. That reaction is not reversible. Once pyruvate loses a carbon atom, it cant go back. The three main macronutrients are carbohydrates, pr Continue reading >>

Glucose Can Be Synthesized From Noncarbohydrate Precursors - Biochemistry - Ncbi Bookshelf

Glucose Can Be Synthesized From Noncarbohydrate Precursors - Biochemistry - Ncbi Bookshelf

Glucose is formed by hydrolysis of glucose 6-phosphate in a reaction catalyzed by glucose 6-phosphatase. We will examine each of these steps in turn. 16.3.2. The Conversion of Pyruvate into Phosphoenolpyruvate Begins with the Formation of Oxaloacetate The first step in gluconeogenesis is the carboxylation of pyruvate to form oxaloacetate at the expense of a molecule of ATP . Then, oxaloacetate is decarboxylated and phosphorylated to yield phosphoenolpyruvate, at the expense of the high phosphoryl-transfer potential of GTP . Both of these reactions take place inside the mitochondria. The first reaction is catalyzed by pyruvate carboxylase and the second by phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase. The sum of these reactions is: Pyruvate carboxylase is of special interest because of its structural, catalytic, and allosteric properties. The N-terminal 300 to 350 amino acids form an ATP -grasp domain ( Figure 16.25 ), which is a widely used ATP-activating domain to be discussed in more detail when we investigate nucleotide biosynthesis ( Section 25.1.1 ). The C -terminal 80 amino acids constitute a biotin-binding domain ( Figure 16.26 ) that we will see again in fatty acid synthesis ( Section 22.4.1 ). Biotin is a covalently attached prosthetic group, which serves as a carrier of activated CO2. The carboxylate group of biotin is linked to the -amino group of a specific lysine residue by an amide bond ( Figure 16.27 ). Note that biotin is attached to pyruvate carboxylase by a long, flexible chain. The carboxylation of pyruvate takes place in three stages: Recall that, in aqueous solutions, CO2 exists as HCO3- with the aid of carbonic anhydrase (Section 9.2). The HCO3- is activated to carboxyphosphate. This activated CO2 is subsequently bonded to the N-1 atom of the biotin ring to Continue reading >>

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