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Can Fatty Acids Be Converted To Glucose?

Macronutrients

Macronutrients

Overview Carbohydrates, fats and proteins are macronutrients. We require them in relatively large amounts for normal function and good health. These are also energy-yielding nutrients, meaning these nutrients provide calories. On This Page: What are Carbohydrates? Carbohydrates Understanding Carbohydrates Every few years, carbohydrates are vilified as public enemy number one and are accused of being the root of obesity, diabetes, heart disease and more. Carb-bashers shun yogurt and fruit and fill up on bun-less cheeseburgers. Instead of beans, they eat bacon. They dine on the tops of pizza and toss the crusts into the trash. They so vehemently avoid carbs and spout off a list of their evils that they may have you fearing your food. Rest assured, you can and should eat carbohydrates. In fact, much of the world relies on carbohydrates as their major source of energy. Rice, for instance, is a staple in Southeast Asia. The carbohydrate-rich potato was so important to the people of Ireland that when the blight devastated the potato crop in the mid 1800s, much of the population was wiped out. What are Carbohydrates? The basic structure of carbohydrates is a sugar molecule, and they are classified by how many sugar molecules they contain. Simple carbohydrates, usually referred to as sugars, are naturally present in fruit, milk and other unprocessed foods. Plant carbohydrates can be refined into table sugar and syrups, which are then added to foods such as sodas, desserts, sweetened yogurts and more. Simple carbohydrates may be single sugar molecules called monosaccharides or two monosaccharides joined together called disaccharides. Glucose, a monosaccharide, is the most abundant sugar molecule and is the preferred energy source for the brain. It is a part of all disaccharides Continue reading >>

Alcohol Metabolism

Alcohol Metabolism

The metabolic pathways for the disposal of excess NADH and the consequent blocking of other normal metabolic pathways is shown in the graphic on the left. The conversion of pyruvic acid to lactic acid requires NADH: Pyruvic Acid + NADH + H+ ---> Lactic Acid + NAD+ This pyruvic acid normally made by transamination of amino acids, is intended for conversion into glucose by gluconeogenesis. This pathway is inhibited by low concentrations of pyruvic acid, since it has been converted to lactic acid. The final result may be acidosis from lactic acid build-up and hypoglycemia from lack of glucose synthesis. Excess NADH may be used as a reducing agent in two pathways--one to synthesize glycerol (from a glycolysis intermediate) and the other to synthesis fatty acids. As a result, heavy drinkers may initially be overweight. The NADH may be used directly in the electron transport chain to synthesize ATP as a source of energy. This reaction has the direct effect of inhibiting the normal oxidation of fats in the fatty acid spiral and citric acid cycle. Fats may accumulate or acetyl CoA may accumulate with the resulting production of ketone bodies. Accumulation of fat in the liver can be alleviated by secreting lipids into the blood stream. The higher lipid levels in the blood may be responsible for heart attacks. A central role in the toxicity of alcohol may be played by acetaldehyde itself. Although the liver converts acetaldehyde into acetic acid, it reaches a saturation point where some of it escapes into the blood stream. The accumulated acetaldehyde exerts its toxic effects by inhibiting the mitochondria reactions and functions. The alcoholic is a victim of a vicious circle; a high acetaldehyde level impairs mitochondria function, metabolism of acetaldehyde to acetic acid decr Continue reading >>

Blood Proteins - Albumen, Clotting Proteins

Blood Proteins - Albumen, Clotting Proteins

Liver Pathology Functions of the liver: Manufacture - blood proteins - albumen, clotting proteins urea - nitrogenous waste from amino acid metabolism bile - excretory for the bile pigments, emulsification of fats by bile salts Storage - glycogen - carbohydrate fuel iron - as hemosiderin and ferritin fat soluble vitamins A, D, E, K Detoxification - alcohol drugs and medicines environmental toxins Protein metabolism - (See Figure 25.15) transamination - removing the amine from one amino acid and using it to produce a different amino acid. The body can produce all but the essential amino acids; these must be included in the diet. (See Figure 25.3) deamination - removal of the amine group in order to catabolize the remaining keto acid. The amine group enters the blood as urea which is excreted through the kidneys. Glycemic Regulation - the management of blood glucose. glycogenesis - the conversion of glucose into glycogen. glycogenolysis - the breakdown of glycogen into glucose. gluconeogenesis - the manufacture of glucose from non carbohydrate sources, mostly protein. See Disorders below. See [Liver Pathology] Structure of the liver - (See Figure 24.24) The liver is composed mostly of cells known as hepatocytes which perform the functions listed above. They have the ability to shift functions so their efforts can be directed at what is most needed. They can also divide to repair and replace tissue. Cirrhosis is a condition which can occur in the liver and other organs in which the cells are damaged as a result of toxins, pathogenic organisms, etc. Cirrhosis causes thickening and fibrosis and can progressively damage the liver to the point it can no longer recover by replacing its cells. Other functions also suffer as more hepatocytes become committed to detoxification. The Continue reading >>

Metabolism And Energetics

Metabolism And Energetics

Metabolism basically refers to all the chemical reactions within the body used to produce energy. This involves a complex set of processes that convert fuels into specialised compounds loaded with energy. In the body, the primary final agent to produce energy is called adenosine triphosphate (ATP) . When ATP is broken down or used by cells huge amounts of energy is released. This energy is essential for cells to grow and divide, synthesise important compounds, for muscles to contract and numerous other important functions. Metabolism therefore produces energy to perform all the functions of different tissues within the body. Metabolism works by breaking down foods in the diet or compounds in the body into their smaller components. These can then enter into special reactions to produce ATP. The left over components are recycled by the body and used to regenerate the original compounds. The body has three main types of molecules it uses for energy: Carbohydrates: These are the sugar type compounds in the body. Carbohydrates come from foods such as bread, cereal, potatoes, fruits and sugar-containing foods or bevarages. When carbohydrates are digested in the gastrointestinal system they are broken down into smaller molecules such as glucose (a simple sugar). The main storage sites for carbohydrates in the body are the liver and muscles. Lipids: This basically refers to fats (such as cholesterol) from the diet or stored in adipose tissue (in other words the body fat). Lipids are broken down into smaller components called fatty acids for energy. Therefore lipids are really just chains of fatty acids joined together. Proteins: These make up nearly three quarters of all the solid materials in the body. Proteins are thus the basic structural components in the body. They are ma Continue reading >>

Intermediary Metabolism

Intermediary Metabolism

may in certain cells or at certain times be used as a source of ATP . The complexity of the mechanism by which cells use glucose may make you fervently hope that a similarly-constructed system is not needed for each kind of fuel. And indeed it is not. One of the great advantages of the step-by-step oxidation of glucose into CO2 and H2O is that several of the intermediate compounds formed in the process link glucose metabolism to the metabolism of other food molecules. For example, when fats are used as fuel, the glycerol portion of the molecule is converted into PGAL and enters the glycolytic pathway at that point. Fatty acids are converted into molecules of acetyl-CoA and enter the respiratory pathway to be oxidized in the mitochondria. The amino acids liberated by the hydrolysis of proteins can also serve as fuel. First, the nitrogen is removed, a process called deamination . The remaining fragments then enter the respiratory pathway at several points. the amino acids Gly , Ser , Ala , and Cys are converted into pyruvic acid and enter the mitochondria to be respired. acetyl-CoA and several intermediates in the citric acid cycle serve as entry points for other amino acid fragments (shown in blue). These links thus permit the respiration of excess fats and proteins in the diet. No special mechanism of cellular respiration is needed by those animals that depend largely on ingested fats (e.g., many birds) or proteins (e.g., carnivores) for their energy supply. Much of the protein we consume is ultimately converted into glucose (a process called gluconeogenesis ) to provide fuel for the brain and other tissues. Although all our foods are interconvertible to some extent, they are not completely so. In other words, no single food can supply all our anabolic needs. We can in Continue reading >>

Why Can Fatty Acids Not Be Converted Into Glucose? : Mcat

Why Can Fatty Acids Not Be Converted Into Glucose? : Mcat

Rudeness or trolling will not be tolerated. Be nice to each other, hating on other users won't help you get extra points on the MCAT, so why do it? Do not post any question information from any resource in the title of your post. These are considered spoilers and should be marked as such. For an example format for submitting pictures of questions from practice material click here Do not link to content that infringes on copyright laws (MCAT torrents, third party resources, etc). Do not post repeat "GOOD LUCK", "TEST SCORE", or test reaction posts. We have one "stickied" post for each exam and score release day, contain all test day discussion/reactions to that thread only. Do not discuss any specific information from your actual MCAT exam. You have signed an examinee agreement, and it will be enforced on this subreddit. Do not intentionally advertise paid products or services of any sort. These posts will be removed and the user banned without warning, subject to the discretion of the mod team Learn More All of the above rules are subject to moderator discretion C/P = Chemical and Physical Foundations of Biological Systems CARS = Critical Analysis and Reasoning Skills B/B = Biological and Biochemical Foundations of Living Systems P/S = Psychological, Social, and Biological Foundations of Behavior Continue reading >>

Gluconeogenesis - An Overview | Sciencedirect Topics

Gluconeogenesis - An Overview | Sciencedirect Topics

Gluconeogenesis is the process that leads to the generation of glucose from a variety of sources such as pyruvate, lactate, glycerol, and certain amino acids. Larry R. Engelking, in Textbook of Veterinary Physiological Chemistry (Third Edition) , 2015 Gluconeogenesis occurs in the liver and kidneys. Gluconeogenesis supplies the needs for plasma glucose between meals. Gluconeogenesis is stimulated by the diabetogenic hormones (glucagon, growth hormone, epinephrine, and cortisol). Gluconeogenic substrates include glycerol, lactate, propionate, and certain amino acids. PEP carboxykinase catalyzes the rate-limiting reaction in gluconeogenesis. The dicarboxylic acid shuttle moves hydrocarbons from pyruvate to PEP in gluconeogenesis. Gluconeogenesis is a continual process in carnivores and ruminant animals, therefore they have little need to store glycogen in their liver cells. Of the amino acids transported to liver from muscle during exercise and starvation, Ala predominates. b-Aminoisobutyrate, generated from pyrimidine degradation, is a (minor) gluconeogenic substrate. N.V. Bhagavan, Chung-Eun Ha, in Essentials of Medical Biochemistry , 2011 Gluconeogenesis refers to synthesis of new glucose from noncarbohydrate precursors, provides glucose when dietary intake is insufficient or absent. It also is essential in the regulation of acid-base balance, amino acid metabolism, and synthesis of carbohydrate derived structural components. Gluconeogenesis occurs in liver and kidneys. The precursors of gluconeogenesis are lactate, glycerol, amino acids, and with propionate making a minor contribution. The gluconeogenesis pathway consumes ATP, which is derived primarily from the oxidation of fatty acids. The pathway uses several enzymes of the glycolysis with the exception of enzymes Continue reading >>

Introduction To Degradation Of Lipids And Ketone Bodies Metabolism

Introduction To Degradation Of Lipids And Ketone Bodies Metabolism

Content: 1. Introduction to degradation of lipids and ketone bodies metabolism 2. Lipids as source of energy – degradation of TAG in cells, β-oxidation of fatty acids 3. Synthesis and utilisation of ketone bodies _ Triacylglycerol (TAG) contain huge amounts of chemical energy. It is very profitable to store energy in TAG because 1 g of water-free TAG stores 5 times more energy than 1 g of hydrated glycogen. Complete oxidation of 1 g of TAG yields 38 kJ, 1g of saccharides or proteins only 17 kJ. Man that weighs 70 kg has 400 000 kJ in his TAG (that weight approximately 10,5 kg). This reserve of energy makes us able to survive starving in weeks. TAG accumulate predominantly in adipocyte cytoplasm. There are more types of fatty acid oxidation. Individual types can be distinguished by different Greek letters. Greek letter denote atom in the fatty acid chain where reactions take place. β-oxidation is of major importance, it is localised in mitochondrial matrix. ω- and α- oxidation are localised in endoplasmic reticulum. Animal cells cannot convert fatty acids to glucose. Gluconeogenesis requires besides other things (1) energy, (2) carbon residues. Fatty acids are rich source of energy but they are not source of carbon residues (there is however one important exception, i.e. odd-numbered fatty acids). This is because cells are not able to convert AcCoA to neither pyruvate, nor OAA. Both carbons are split away as CO2. PDH is irreversible. Plant cells are capable of conversion of AcCoA to OAA in glyoxylate cycle. _ Lipids as source of energy – degradation of TAG in cells, β-oxidation of fatty acids Lipids are used for energy production, this process take place in 3 phases: 1) Lipid mobilisation – hydrolysis of TAG to FA and glycerol. FA and glycerol are transported Continue reading >>

Multiple Choice Quiz 1

Multiple Choice Quiz 1

(See related pages) 1 Which one of the following would not be a nutrient? 2 Most vitamins, minerals, and water all have this in common: 3 When the body metabolizes nutrients for energy, fats yield about _______ times the energy as carbohydrates or proteins. 4 A calorie is the amount of energy necessary to raise the temperature of one gram of _________ one degree __________. 5 One piece of apple pie would yield about 6 The disaccharide that most people think of as table sugar is 7 When lactose is digested, it yields two monosaccharides called 8 The complex carbohydrate (polysaccharide) that is digested to the monosaccharide, glucose, and is found in vegetables, fruits, and grains and is called 9 If excess glucose is present in the body, the glucose first will be stored as __________ in muscle and the liver. 10 Triglycerides that contain one or more double covalent bonds between carbon atoms of their fatty acids are called 11 Bubbling hydrogen gas through polyunsaturated vegetable oil will cause the oil to become more 12 The lipid that is a component of the plasma membrane and can be used to form bile salts and steroid hormones is 13 The American Heart Association recommends that saturated fats should contribute no more than 10% of total fat intake. Excess fats, especially cholesterol and saturated fat, can increase the risk of 16 The daily-recommended consumption amount of protein for a healthy adult is about _____% of total kilocalorie intake per day. 20 Inorganic nutrients that are necessary for normal metabolism are called 23 When a molecule loses an electron, that molecule is said to be ___________ and often a(n) _____________ ion is lost along with the electron. 25 When a hydrogen ion and an associated electron are lost from a nutrient molecule, which of the followi Continue reading >>

Breakdown Of Other Energy Sources.

Breakdown Of Other Energy Sources.

The production of ATP through cellular respiration is not limited to glucose as the sole reactant molecule. Whether through fermentation or aerobic respiration, other fuel molecules frequently provide the ATP energy to support cellular life. For example, lactic acid-producing bacteria in the genus Lactobacillus prefer lactose, the disaccharide found in milk, as the starting material for fermentation. Carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins are commonly used by many living organisms to obtain energy by cellular respiration. Because the chemical structure of each of these biomolecules differs, each biomolecule group enters the respiration pathway at the most energy-efficient point after one or a few priming reactions. Carbohydrates. Simple carbohydrates, the mono- and disaccharides, generally enter aerobic respiration at the beginning of glycolysis. Disaccharides are first hydrolyzed into monomers, and then each monosaccharide enters the pathway as a reactant for one of the reactions during glycolysis. For example, fructose is “primed” in many cells by phosphorylation and can enter glycolysis as a reactant for the third reaction (of ten) in the pathway. In other cells, fructose is split by special enzymes and enters as two three-carbon molecules in a later glycolysis reaction. The complex carbohydrates that store energy in living organisms are glucose polymers: starch in plants and glycogen in animals. These polymers are hydrolyzed to release individual glucose monomers for entry into glycolysis. Most plants and animals hydrolyze glucose polymers using specialized enzymes that attach a phosphate as the glucose is released, producing glucose-6-phosphate for entry into the second reaction of glycolysis. Lipids. Animals primarily store energy as fat molecules. These complex Continue reading >>

New Metabolic Pathways Gluconeogenesis From Fatty Acids

New Metabolic Pathways Gluconeogenesis From Fatty Acids

You are here: Home / Biochemistry / New Metabolic Pathways Gluconeogenesis from Fatty Acids New Metabolic Pathways Gluconeogenesis from Fatty Acids In silico evidence for gluconeogenesis in humans from fatty acids This study was technological and theoretical in nature. Using a flux model (to be described and linked to later) to determine conversion of one molecule into another (in this case, Acetyl-CoA into Glucose-6-Phosphate) it was determined that dietary fatty acids can be converted into glucose. This bolded claim is one that is taught as both false and fact in most educational institutions at the moment, thus this linked study is a huge paradigm shift in the nutritional world. This blog post is essentially reviewing the linked article. I will be going through this summary in the same order (and same headings) as the article for easy following and to minimize my potential of getting lost in translation. The first step outlined in this paper wascomputing the elementary flux pattern of a subsystem just encompassing the inflow reaction of acetyl-CoA and the outflow reaction of G6P to see if a possible direct mechanism of converting Acetyl-CoA to G6P existed in humans. Two fluxes were found. One of which consumes Acetyl-CoA and the other produces G6P. Evidence that there is a link between Acetyl-CoA (seen as the start of gluconeogenesis from fatty acids) and G6P (normally the first metabolite of glycolysis, can be seen as the final step in gluconeogenesis from fatty acids). In case of oral health, oral sedation can range from minimal to moderate. For minimal sedation, you take a pill. Typically, the pill is Halcion, which is a member of the same drug family as Valium, and its usually taken about an hour before the procedure. The pill will make you drowsy, although youl Continue reading >>

Full Text Of

Full Text Of "msqs Biochemistry"

G. Vidya Sagar NEW AGE INTERNATIONAL PUBLISHERS MCQs Biochemistry This page intentionally left blank MCQs in Biochemistry G. Vidya Sagar Director and Principal Veerayatan Institute of Pharmacy Mandvi, Kutch (Gujarat) Dean, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences KSKV Kachchh University Bhuj (Gujarat) NEW AGE INTERNATIONAL (P) LIMITED, PUBLISHERS New Delhi Bangalore Chennai Cochin Guwahati Hyderabad Jalandhar Kolkata Lucknow Mumbai Ranchi Publishing for one world Visit us at www.newagepublishers.com Copyright 2008, New Age International (P) Ltd., Publishers Published by New Age International (P) Ltd., Publishers All rights reserved. No part of this ebook may be reproduced in any form, by photostat, microfilm, xerography, or any other means, or incorporated into any information retrieval system, electronic or mechanical, without the written permission of the publisher. All inquiries should be emailed to [email protected] ISBN (13) : 978-81-224-2627-4 Publishing for one world NEW AGE INTERNATIONAL (P) LIMITED, PUBLISHERS 4835/24, Ansari Road, Daryaganj, New Delhi - 1 10002 Visit us at www.newagepublishers.com Dedicated to PROF. DR. F.V. MANVI KLE Society, BELGAUM KARNATAKA. "To My First Pharmacy teacher with Love" This page intentionally left blank FOREWORD Competitive Examinations are the order of the day. All Colleges conducting professional courses at PG level are admitting students based on common entrance examination, which is of objective type. In Pharmacy, M .Pharm admissions are based on qualifying the GATE enterance examination conducted by G ovt. of India. In this book, The author has done good work in preparing several objective questions which help the students to face the subjectin the examination with poise and confidence. The book is well balanced and Continue reading >>

Nutrition Ch. 7

Nutrition Ch. 7

Front Back .Wirisformula{ margin:0 !important; padding:0 !important; vertical-align:top !important;} Metabolism The sum total of all the chemcial reactions that go on in living cells. Energy metabolism includes all the reactions by which the body obtains and spends energy from food. Example: Nutrients provide the body with FUEL and follows them through a series of reactions that release energy from their chemical bonds. As the bonds break, they release energy in a controlled version of the process by which wood burns in a fire. Energy metabolism All of the chemical reactions through which the human body acquires and spends energy from food Anabolism Small compounds joined together to make largers ones; energy must be used in order to do this Ana = up Catabolism Larger compounds BROKEN down into smaller ones; energy is RELEASED kata = down Coupled reactions Energy released from the breakdown of a large compounds is used to drive other reactions ATP Adenosine triphosphate; energy currency of the body -- produced when large compounds are broken down ATP is used to make large compounds from smaller ones. Ribosomes Cellular machinery used to make proteins Mitochondria Where energy is derived from fat, CHO, protein via TCA cycle, electron transport chain Coenzyme Complex organic molecules that work with enzymes to facilitate the enzymes' activity. Many coenzymes have B vitamins as part of their structures. co = with Cofactor The general term for substances that facilitate enzyme action is cofactors; they include both organic coenzymes such as vitamins and inorganic substances such as minerals Enzymes Protein catalysts - proteins that facilitate chemical reactions without being changed in the process Metalloenzyme Enzymes that contain one or more minerals as part of their stru Continue reading >>

Why Can't Fat Produce Glucose?

Why Can't Fat Produce Glucose?

Tousief Irshad Ahmed Sirwal Author has 77 answers and 106.2k answer views Acetyl CoA is NOT a substrate for gluconeogenesis in animals 1. Pyruvate dehydrogenase reaction is irreversible. So, acetyl CoA cannot be converted back to pyruvate. 2. 2C Acetyl CoA enters the TCA cycle by condensing with 4C oxaloacetate. 2 molecules of CO2 are released & the oxaloacetate is regenerated. There is no NET production of oxaloacetate. Animals cannot convert fat into glucose with minimal exceptions 1. Propionyl CoA derived from odd chain fatty acids are converted to Succinyl CoA Glucogenic 2. Glycerol derived from triglycerides are glucogenic. Answered Mar 26, 2017 Author has 942 answers and 259.1k answer views Yijia Xiong pointed out that the glycerol portion of triglycerides (fats) can indeed be converted to glucose. It is not so energy-inefficient that it is avoided by our bodies. If nutritionally, we are in a gluconeogenesis mode (building up glucose stores rather than consuming them), glycerol would be a perfectly acceptable precursor. However, I think the original question had more to do with the vast bulk of the triglycerides that are not glycerol, but are fatty acids. And it is true that we cant produce glucose from fatty acids. The reason is that the catabolic reactions of fatty acids break off two carbon atoms at a time as Acetyl-CoA. But our metabolic suite of pathways has no way to convert a two-carbon fragment to glucose. The end product of glycolysis is pyruvate, a three-carbon compound. Pyruvate can be back-synthesized into glucose. But the committing reaction for the Krebs cycle is the pyruvate dehydrogenase step, forming acetyl-CoA. That reaction is not reversible. Once pyruvate loses a carbon atom, it cant go back. The three main macronutrients are carbohydrates, pr Continue reading >>

Ketosis, Ketones, And How It All Works

Ketosis, Ketones, And How It All Works

Ketosis is a process that the body does on an everyday basis, regardless of the number of carbs you eat. Your body adapts to what is put in it, processing different types of nutrients into the fuels that it needs. Proteins, fats, and carbs can all be processed for use. Eating a low carb, high fat diet just ramps up this process, which is a normal and safe chemical reaction. When you eat carbohydrate based foods or excess amounts of protein, your body will break this down into sugar – known as glucose. Why? Glucose is needed in the creation of ATP (an energy molecule), which is a fuel that is needed for the daily activities and maintenance inside our bodies. If you’ve ever used our keto calculator to determine your caloric needs, you will see that your body uses up quite a lot of calories. It’s true, our bodies use up much of the nutrients we intake just to maintain itself on a daily basis. If you eat enough food, there will likely be an excess of glucose that your body doesn’t need. There are two main things that happen to excess glucose if your body doesn’t need it: Glycogenesis. Excess glucose will be converted to glycogen and stored in your liver and muscles. Estimates show that only about half of your daily energy can be stored as glycogen. Lipogenesis. If there’s already enough glycogen in your muscles and liver, any extra glucose will be converted into fats and stored. So, what happens to you once your body has no more glucose or glycogen? Ketosis happens. When your body has no access to food, like when you are sleeping or when you are on a ketogenic diet, the body will burn fat and create molecules called ketones. We can thank our body’s ability to switch metabolic pathways for that. These ketones are created when the body breaks down fats, creating Continue reading >>

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