Video by Ulf Smith, MD, PhD, Professor of Internal Medicine, The Lundberg Laboratory for Diabetes Research, Center of Excellence for Cardiovascular and Metabolic Research, Sahlgrenska Academy, Gteborg University, Gteborg, Sweden Produced by the International Chair on Cardiometabolic Risk
Insulin Lowers Blood Glucose By Increasing Glucose Uptake In Muscle And Adipose Tissue And By Promoting Glycolysis And Glycogenesis In Liver And Muscle.
Glucose Homeostasis and Starvation Glucose Homeostasis: the balance of insulin and glucagon to maintain blood glucose. Insulin: secreted by the pancreas in response to elevated blood glucose following a meal. Insulin:Glucagon Ratio: everything that happens to glucose, amino acids and fat in the well fed state depends upon a high insulin to glucagon ratio. Glucagon: a fall in blood glucose increases the release of glucagon from the pancreas to promote glucose production. Glucose Tolerance Test: evaluates how quickly an individual can restore their blood glucose to normal following ingestion of a large amount of glucose, i.e. measures an individuals ability to maintain glucose homeostasis Diabetic: can not produce or respond to insulin so thus has a very low glucose tolerance Glucose, Protein and Fat Pathways: Obese Individuals: even with prolonged medically supervised fasting have plasma glucose levels that remain relatively constant even after three months. Glucose / Fatty Acid / Ketone Body Cycle: "explains the reciprocal relationship between the oxidation of glucose versus fatty acids or ketone bodies" Principal Hormone Effects on the Glucose-Fatty Acid Cycle: Under conditions of
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Breakdown Of Other Energy Sources.
The production of ATP through cellular respiration is not limited to glucose as the sole reactant molecule. Whether through fermentation or aerobic respiration, other fuel molecules frequently provide the ATP energy to support cellular life. For example, lactic acid-producing bacteria in the genus Lactobacillus prefer lactose, the disaccharide found in milk, as the starting material for fermentation. Carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins are commonly used by many living organisms to obtain energy by cellular respiration. Because the chemical structure of each of these biomolecules differs, each biomolecule group enters the respiration pathway at the most energy-efficient point after one or a few priming reactions. Carbohydrates. Simple carbohydrates, the mono- and disaccharides, generally enter aerobic respiration at the beginning of glycolysis. Disaccharides are first hydrolyzed into monomers, and then each monosaccharide enters the pathway as a reactant for one of the reactions during glycolysis. For example, fructose is “primed” in many cells by phosphorylation and can enter glycolysis as a reactant for the third reaction (of ten) in the pathway. In other cells, fructose is sp
Respiratory acidosis #sign and symptoms of Respiratory acidosis Respiratory acidosis ABGs Analyse https://youtu.be/L5MWy1iHacI Plz share n subscribe my chanel is a condition that occurs when the lungs cant remove enough of the Suctioning https://youtu.be/hMJGkxvXTW0 carbon dioxide (CO2) produced by the body. Excess CO2 causes the pH of blood and other bodily fluids to decrease, making them too acidic. Normally, the body is able to balance the ions that control acidity. This balance is measured on a pH scale from 0 to 14. Acidosis occurs when the pH of the blood falls below 7.35 (normal blood pH is between 7.35 and 7.45).Rinku Chaudhary NSG officer AMU ALIGARH https://www.facebook.com/rinkutch/ Respiratory acidosis is typically caused by an underlying disease or condition. This is also called respiratory failure or ventilatory failure. Suctioning https://youtu.be/hMJGkxvXTW0 Normally, the lungs take in oxygen and exhale CO2. Oxygen passes from the lungs into the blood. CO2 passes from the blood into the lungs. However, sometimes the lungs cant remove enough CO2. This may be due to a decrease in respiratory rate or decrease in air movement due to an underlying condition such as: asthma COPD pneumonia sleep apnea TYPES Forms of respiratory acidosis There are two forms of respiratory acidosis: acute and chronic. Acute respiratory acidosis occurs quickly. Its a medical emergency. Left untreated, symptoms will get progressively worse. It can become life-threatening. Chronic respiratory acidosis develops over time. It doesnt cause symptoms. Instead, the body adapts to the increased acidity. For example, the kidneys produce more bicarbonate to help maintain balance. Chronic respiratory acidosis may not cause symptoms. Developing another illness may cause chronic respiratory acidosis to worsen and become acute respiratory acidosis. SYMPTOMS Symptoms of respiratory acidosis Initial signs of acute respiratory acidosis include: headache anxiety blurred vision restlessness confusion Without treatment, other symptoms may occur. These include: https://www.healthline.com/health/res... sleepiness or fatigue lethargy delirium or confusion shortness of breath coma The chronic form of respiratory acidosis doesnt typically cause any noticeable symptoms. Signs are subtle and nonspecific and may include: memory loss sleep disturbances personality changes CAUSES Common causes of respiratory acidosis The lungs and the kidneys are the major organs that help regulate your bloods pH. The lungs remove acid by exhaling CO2, and the kidneys excrete acids through the urine. The kidneys also regulate your bloods concentration of bicarbonate (a base). Respiratory acidosis is usually caused by a lung disease or condition that affects normal breathing or impairs the lungs ability to remove CO2. Some common causes of the chronic form are: asthma chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) acute pulmonary edema severe obesity (which can interfere with expansion of the lungs) neuromuscular disorders (such as multiple sclerosis or muscular dystrophy) scoliosis Some common causes of the acute form are: lung disorders (COPD, emphysema, asthma, pneumonia) conditions that affect the rate of breathing muscle weakness that affects breathing or taking a deep breath obstructed airways (due to choking or other causes) sedative overdose cardiac arrest DIAGNOSIS How is respiratory acidosis diagnosed? The goal of diagnostic tests for respiratory acidosis is to look for any pH imbalance, to determine the severity of the imbalance, and to determine the condition causing the imbalance. Several tools can help doctors diagnose respiratory acidosis. Blood gas measurement Blood gas is a series of tests used to measure oxygen and CO2 in the blood. A healthcare provider will take a sample of blood from your artery. High levels of CO2 can indicate acidosis.
define the term respiratory substrate; explain the difference in relative energy values of carbohydrate, lipid and protein Hydrogens The more hydrogens, the more ATP is produced in the electron transport chain Some molecules have more hydrogens than others The more hydrogen atoms there are in a respiratory substrate, the more ATP is produced If there are more hydrogen atoms per mole (fixed amount) of substrate, the more oxygen is needed to be the final acceptor Carbohydrates Glucose is the most common substrate for most mammalian cells Animals store glucose as glycogen, and plants as starch Theoretical maximum energy yield for one mole of glucose is 2870 kJ It takes 30.6 kJ to produce 1 mol ATP Respiration of 1 mol glucose should produce nearly 94 mol ATP, but the actual yield is more like 30, as it has an efficiency of 32% Remaining energy used to generate heat Protein Excess amino acids are deaminated (removal of amine group converted to urea) Rest is changed to glycogen or fat Protein is then hydrolysed (split with water) to amino acids which can be respired Some can be converted to pyruvate, or acetate and then is carried to Krebs cycle Some can enter Krebs directly Number of h
Not to be confused with Glycogenesis or Glyceroneogenesis. Simplified Gluconeogenesis Pathway Gluconeogenesis (GNG) is a metabolic pathway that results in the generation of glucose from certain non-carbohydrate carbon substrates. From breakdown of proteins, these substrates include glucogenic amino acids (although not ketogenic amino acids); from breakdown of lipids (such as triglycerides), they include glycerol (although not fatty acids); and fr ...
Biochemistry textbooks generally tell us that we can’t turn fatty acids into glucose. For example, on page 634 of the 2006 and 2008 editions of Biochemistry by Berg, Tymoczko, and Stryer, we find the following: Animals Cannot Convert Fatty Acids to Glucose It is important to note that animals are unable to effect the net synthesis of glucose from fatty acids. Specficially, acetyl CoA cannot be converted into pyruvate or oxaloacetate in animals. ...
Fat molecules consist of three fatty acid chains connected by a glycerol backbone. Fatty acids are basically long chains of carbon and hydrogen and are the major source of energy during normal activities. Fatty acids are broken down by progressively cleaving two carbon bits and converting these to acetyl coenzyme A. The acetyl CoA is the oxidized by the same citric acid cycle involved in the metabolism of glucose. For every two carbons in a fatt ...
You have seen how proteins can be built up from amino acids with a particular primary,secondary, tertiary and even quaternary structure to serve particular functions. If theproteins are damaged, or for some reason are no longer needed or no longer able to servethose functions, the proteins can be broken down by hydrolysis reactions to reform theamino acids from which they were made. In the body this hydrolysis process is catalyzed byenzymes. Yes ...
Transamination: attaching amino group to a carboxyl group; process by which cells make nonessential amino acids Does denaturation of protein affect the nutritional content of the protein? Name some examples of protein denaturation in foods. Denaturation: proteins uncoiling; results from change in pH (acids), addition of heat, high salt concentration, mechanical breakdown It does NOT change the nutritional content of protein. High fevers (105.8) ...
Gluconeogenesis (abbreviated GNG) is a metabolic pathway that results in the generation of glucose from non-carbohydrate carbon substrates such as lactate, glycerol, and glucogenic amino acids. It is one of the two main mechanisms humans and many other animals use to keep blood glucose levels from dropping too low (hypoglycemia). The other means of maintaining blood glucose levels is through the degradation of glycogen (glycogenolysis). Gluconeog ...