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Can Fat Be Broken Down Into Glucose

How The Body Uses Carbohydrates, Proteins, And Fats

How The Body Uses Carbohydrates, Proteins, And Fats

How the Body Uses Carbohydrates, Proteins, and Fats The human body is remarkably adept at making do with whatever type of food is available. Our ability to survive on a variety of diets has been a vital adaptation for a species that evolved under conditions where food sources were scarce and unpredictable. Imagine if you had to depend on successfully hunting a woolly mammoth or stumbling upon a berry bush for sustenance! Today, calories are mostly cheap and plentifulperhaps too much so. Understanding what the basic macronutrients have to offer can help us make better choices when it comes to our own diets. From the moment a bite of food enters the mouth, each morsel of nutrition within starts to be broken down for use by the body. So begins the process of metabolism, the series of chemical reactions that transform food into components that can be used for the body's basic processes. Proteins, carbohydrates , and fats move along intersecting sets of metabolic pathways that are unique to each major nutrient. Fundamentallyif all three nutrients are abundant in the dietcarbohydrates and fats will be used primarily for energy while proteins provide the raw materials for making hormones, muscle, and other essential biological equipment. Proteins in food are broken down into pieces (called amino acids) that are then used to build new proteins with specific functions, such as catalyzing chemical reactions, facilitating communication between different cells, or transporting biological molecules from here to there. When there is a shortage of fats or carbohydrates, proteins can also yield energy. Fats typically provide more than half of the body's energy needs. Fat from food is broken down into fatty acids, which can travel in the blood and be captured by hungry cells. Fatty aci Continue reading >>

Gluconeogenesis

Gluconeogenesis

Not to be confused with Glycogenesis or Glyceroneogenesis. Simplified Gluconeogenesis Pathway Gluconeogenesis (GNG) is a metabolic pathway that results in the generation of glucose from certain non-carbohydrate carbon substrates. From breakdown of proteins, these substrates include glucogenic amino acids (although not ketogenic amino acids); from breakdown of lipids (such as triglycerides), they include glycerol (although not fatty acids); and from other steps in metabolism they include pyruvate and lactate. Gluconeogenesis is one of several main mechanisms used by humans and many other animals to maintain blood glucose levels, avoiding low levels (hypoglycemia). Other means include the degradation of glycogen (glycogenolysis)[1] and fatty acid catabolism. Gluconeogenesis is a ubiquitous process, present in plants, animals, fungi, bacteria, and other microorganisms.[2] In vertebrates, gluconeogenesis takes place mainly in the liver and, to a lesser extent, in the cortex of the kidneys. In ruminants, this tends to be a continuous process.[3] In many other animals, the process occurs during periods of fasting, starvation, low-carbohydrate diets, or intense exercise. The process is highly endergonic until it is coupled to the hydrolysis of ATP or GTP, effectively making the process exergonic. For example, the pathway leading from pyruvate to glucose-6-phosphate requires 4 molecules of ATP and 2 molecules of GTP to proceed spontaneously. Gluconeogenesis is often associated with ketosis. Gluconeogenesis is also a target of therapy for type 2 diabetes, such as the antidiabetic drug, metformin, which inhibits glucose formation and stimulates glucose uptake by cells.[4] In ruminants, because dietary carbohydrates tend to be metabolized by rumen organisms, gluconeogenesis occurs Continue reading >>

Carbohydrates, Proteins, Fats, And Blood Sugar

Carbohydrates, Proteins, Fats, And Blood Sugar

The body uses three main nutrients to function-carbohydrate, protein, and fat. These nutrients are digested into simpler compounds. Carbohydrates are used for energy (glucose). Fats are used for energy after they are broken into fatty acids. Protein can also be used for energy, but the first job is to help with making hormones, muscle, and other proteins. Nutrients needed by the body and what they are used for Type of nutrient Where it is found How it is used Carbohydrate (starches and sugars) Breads Grains Fruits Vegetables Milk and yogurt Foods with sugar Broken down into glucose, used to supply energy to cells. Extra is stored in the liver. Protein Meat Seafood Legumes Nuts and seeds Eggs Milk products Vegetables Broken down into amino acids, used to build muscle and to make other proteins that are essential for the body to function. ADVERTISINGinRead invented by Teads Fat Oils Butter Egg yolks Animal products Broken down into fatty acids to make cell linings and hormones. Extra is stored in fat cells. After a meal, the blood sugar (glucose) level rises as carbohydrate is digested. This signals the beta cells of the pancreas to release insulin into the bloodstream. Insulin helps glucose enter the body's cells to be used for energy. If all the glucose is not needed for energy, some of it is stored in fat cells and in the liver as glycogen. As sugar moves from the blood to the cells, the blood glucose level returns to a normal between-meal range. Several hormones and processes help regulate the blood sugar level and keep it within a certain range (70 mg/dL to 120 mg/dL). When the blood sugar level falls below that range, which may happen between meals, the body has at least three ways of reacting: Cells in the pancreas can release glucagon, a hormone that signals the b Continue reading >>

We Really Can Make Glucose From Fatty Acids After All! O Textbook, How Thy Biochemistry Hast Deceived Me!

We Really Can Make Glucose From Fatty Acids After All! O Textbook, How Thy Biochemistry Hast Deceived Me!

Biochemistry textbooks generally tell us that we can’t turn fatty acids into glucose. For example, on page 634 of the 2006 and 2008 editions of Biochemistry by Berg, Tymoczko, and Stryer, we find the following: Animals Cannot Convert Fatty Acids to Glucose It is important to note that animals are unable to effect the net synthesis of glucose from fatty acids. Specficially, acetyl CoA cannot be converted into pyruvate or oxaloacetate in animals. In fact this is so important that it should be written in italics and have its own bold heading! But it’s not quite right. Making glucose from fatty acids is low-paying work. It’s not the type of alchemy that would allow us to build imperial palaces out of sugar cubes or offer hourly sweet sacrifices upon the altar of the glorious god of glucose (God forbid!). But it can be done, and it’ll help pay the bills when times are tight. All Aboard the Acetyl CoA! When we’re running primarily on fatty acids, our livers break the bulk of these fatty acids down into two-carbon units called acetate. When acetate hangs out all by its lonesome like it does in a bottle of vinegar, it’s called acetic acid and it gives vinegar its characteristic smell. Our livers aren’t bottles of vinegar, however, and they do things a bit differently. They have a little shuttle called coenzyme A, or “CoA” for short, that carries acetate wherever it needs to go. When the acetate passenger is loaded onto the CoA shuttle, we refer to the whole shebang as acetyl CoA. As acetyl CoA moves its caboose along the biochemical railway, it eventually reaches a crossroads where it has to decide whether to enter the Land of Ketogenesis or traverse the TCA cycle. The Land of Ketogenesis is a quite magical place to which we’ll return in a few moments, but n Continue reading >>

How Our Bodies Turn Food Into Energy

How Our Bodies Turn Food Into Energy

All parts of the body (muscles, brain, heart, and liver) need energy to work. This energy comes from the food we eat. Our bodies digest the food we eat by mixing it with fluids (acids and enzymes) in the stomach. When the stomach digests food, the carbohydrate (sugars and starches) in the food breaks down into another type of sugar, called glucose. The stomach and small intestines absorb the glucose and then release it into the bloodstream. Once in the bloodstream, glucose can be used immediately for energy or stored in our bodies, to be used later. However, our bodies need insulin in order to use or store glucose for energy. Without insulin, glucose stays in the bloodstream, keeping blood sugar levels high. Insulin is a hormone made by beta cells in the pancreas. Beta cells are very sensitive to the amount of glucose in the bloodstream. Normally beta cells check the blood's glucose level every few seconds and sense when they need to speed up or slow down the amount of insulin they're making and releasing. When someone eats something high in carbohydrates, like a piece of bread, the glucose level in the blood rises and the beta cells trigger the pancreas to release more insulin into the bloodstream. When insulin is released from the pancreas, it travels through the bloodstream to the body's cells and tells the cell doors to open up to let the glucose in. Once inside, the cells convert glucose into energy to use right then or store it to use later. As glucose moves from the bloodstream into the cells, blood sugar levels start to drop. The beta cells in the pancreas can tell this is happening, so they slow down the amount of insulin they're making. At the same time, the pancreas slows down the amount of insulin that it's releasing into the bloodstream. When this happens, Continue reading >>

How Fat Cells Work

How Fat Cells Work

When you are not eating, your body is not absorbing food. If your body is not absorbing food, there is little insulin in the blood. However, your body is always using energy; and if you're not absorbing food, this energy must come from internal stores of complex carbohydrates, fats and proteins. Under these conditions, various organs in your body secrete hormones: pancreas - glucagon pituitary gland - growth hormone pituitary gland - ACTH (adrenocorticotropic hormone) adrenal gland - epinephrine (adrenaline) thyroid gland - thyroid hormone These hormones act on cells of the liver, muscle and fat tissue, and have the opposite effects of insulin. When you are not eating, or you are exercising, your body must draw on its internal energy stores. Your body's prime source of energy is glucose. In fact, some cells in your body, such as brain cells, can get energy only from glucose. The first line of defense in maintaining energy is to break down carbohydrates, or glycogen, into simple glucose molecules -- this process is called glycogenolysis. Next, your body breaks down fats into glycerol and fatty acids in the process of lipolysis. The fatty acids can then be broken down directly to get energy, or can be used to make glucose through a multi-step process called gluconeogenesis. In gluconeogenesis, amino acids can also be used to make glucose. In the fat cell, other types of lipases work to break down fats into fatty acids and glycerol. These lipases are activated by various hormones, such as glucagon, epinephrine and growth hormone. The resulting glycerol and fatty acids are released into the blood, and travel to the liver through the bloodstream. Once in the liver, the glycerol and fatty acids can be either further broken down or used to make glucose. Losing Weight and Losin Continue reading >>

Carbohydrates, Proteins, And Fats

Carbohydrates, Proteins, And Fats

Carbohydrates, proteins, and fats supply 90% of the dry weight of the diet and 100% of its energy. All three provide energy (measured in calories), but the amount of energy in 1 gram (1/28 ounce) differs: These nutrients also differ in how quickly they supply energy. Carbohydrates are the quickest, and fats are the slowest. Carbohydrates, proteins, and fats are digested in the intestine, where they are broken down into their basic units: The body uses these basic units to build substances it needs for growth, maintenance, and activity (including other carbohydrates, proteins, and fats). Carbohydrates Depending on the size of the molecule, carbohydrates may be simple or complex. Simple carbohydrates: Various forms of sugar, such as glucose and sucrose (table sugar), are simple carbohydrates. They are small molecules, so they can be broken down and absorbed by the body quickly and are the quickest source of energy. They quickly increase the level of blood glucose (blood sugar). Fruits, dairy products, honey, and maple syrup contain large amounts of simple carbohydrates, which provide the sweet taste in most candies and cakes. Complex carbohydrates: These carbohydrates are composed of long strings of simple carbohydrates. Because complex carbohydrates are larger molecules than simple carbohydrates, they must be broken down into simple carbohydrates before they can be absorbed. Thus, they tend to provide energy to the body more slowly than simple carbohydrates but still more quickly than protein or fat. Because they are digested more slowly than simple carbohydrates, they are less likely to be converted to fat. They also increase blood sugar levels more slowly and to lower levels than simple carbohydrates but for a longer time. Complex carbohydrates include starches and fib Continue reading >>

Converting Carbohydrates To Triglycerides

Converting Carbohydrates To Triglycerides

Consumers are inundated with diet solutions on a daily basis. High protein, low fat, non-impact carbohydrates, and other marketing “adjectives” are abundant within food manufacturing advertising. Of all the food descriptors, the most common ones individuals look for are “fat free” or “low fat”. Food and snack companies have found the low fat food market to be financially lucrative. The tie between fat intake, weight gain, and health risks has been well documented. The dietary guidelines suggest to keep fat intake to no more than 30% of the total diet and to consume foods low in saturated and trans fatty acids. But, this does not mean that we can consume as much fat free food as we want: “Fat free does not mean calorie free.” In many cases the foods that are low in fat have a large amount of carbohydrates. Carbohydrate intake, like any nutrient, can lead to adverse affects when over consumed. Carbohydrates are a necessary macronutrient, vital for maintenance of the nervous system and energy for physical activity. However, if consumed in amounts greater than 55% to 65% of total caloric intake as recommended by the American Heart Association can cause an increase in health risks. According to the World Health Organization the Upper Limit for carbohydrates for average people is 60% of the total dietary intake. Carbohydrates are formed in plants where carbons are bonded with oxygen and hydrogen to form chains of varying complexity. The complexity of the chains ultimately determines the carbohydrate classification and how they will digest and be absorbed in the body. Mono-and disaccharides are classified as simple carbohydrates, whereas polysaccharides (starch and fiber) are classified as complex. All carbohydrates are broken down into monosaccharides before b Continue reading >>

The Catabolism Of Fats And Proteins For Energy

The Catabolism Of Fats And Proteins For Energy

Before we get into anything, what does the word catabolism mean? When we went over catabolic and anabolic reactions, we said that catabolic reactions are the ones that break apart molecules. To remember what catabolic means, think of a CATastrophe where things are falling apart and breaking apart. You could also remember cats that tear apart your furniture. In order to make ATP for energy, the body breaks down mostly carbs, some fats and very small amounts of protein. Carbs are the go-to food, the favorite food that cells use to make ATP but now we’re going to see how our cells use fats and proteins for energy. What we’re going to find is that they are ALL going to be turned into sugars (acetyl) as this picture below shows. First let’s do a quick review of things you already know because it is assumed you learned cell respiration already and how glucose levels are regulated in your blood! Glucose can be stored as glycogen through a process known as glycogenesis. The hormone that promotes this process is insulin. Then when glycogen needs to be broken down, the hormone glucagon, promotes glycogenolysis (Glycogen-o-lysis) to break apart the glycogen and increase the blood sugar level. Glucose breaks down to form phosphoglycerate (PGAL) and then pyruvic acid. What do we call this process of splitting glucose into two pyruvic sugars? That’s glycolysis (glyco=glucose, and -lysis is to break down). When there’s not enough oxygen, pyruvic acid is converted into lactic acid. When oxygen becomes available, lactic acid is converted back to pyruvic acid. Remember that this all occurs in the cytoplasm. The pyruvates are then, aerobically, broken apart in the mitochondria into Acetyl-CoA. The acetyl sugars are put into the Krebs citric acid cycle and they are totally broken Continue reading >>

The Science Behind Fat Metabolism

The Science Behind Fat Metabolism

Per the usual disclaimer, always consult with your doctor before experimenting with your diet (seriously, go see a doctor, get data from blood tests, etc.). Please feel free to comment below if you’re aware of anything that should be updated; I’d appreciate knowing and I’ll update the content quickly. My goal here is to help a scientifically curious audience know the basic story and where to dive in for further study. If I’m successful, the pros will say “duh”, and everyone else will be better informed about how this all works. [UPDATE: based on a ton a helpful feedback and questions on the content below, I’ve written up a separate article summarizing the science behind ketogenic (low-carb) diets. Check it out. Also, the below content has been updated and is still very much applicable to fat metabolism on various kinds of diets. Thanks, everyone!] tl;dr The concentration of glucose in your blood is the critical upstream switch that places your body into a “fat-storing” or “fat-burning” state. The metabolic efficiency of either state — and the time it takes to get into one from the other — depends on a large variety of factors such as food and drink volume and composition, vitamin and mineral balances, stress, hydration, liver and pancreas function, insulin sensitivity, exercise, mental health, and sleep. Carbohydrates you eat, with the exception of indigestible forms like most fibers, eventually become glucose in your blood. Assuming your metabolism is functioning normally, if the switch is on you will store fat. If the switch is off, you will burn fat. Therefore, all things being equal, “diets” are just ways of hacking your body into a sufficiently low-glycemic state to trigger the release of a variety of hormones that, in turn, result in Continue reading >>

Can Fats Be Turned Into Glycogen For Muscle?

Can Fats Be Turned Into Glycogen For Muscle?

The amount of fat in the average diet and the amount of stored fat in the average body make the notion of converting that fat into usable energy appealing. Glycogen, a form of energy stored in muscles for quick use, is what the body draws on first to perform movements, and higher glycogen levels result in higher usable energy. It is not possible for fats to be converted directly into glycogen because they are not made up glucose, but it is possible for fats to be indirectly broken down into glucose, which can be used to create glycogen. Relationship Between Fats and Glycogen Fats are a nutrient found in food and a compound used for long-term energy storage in the body, while glycogen is a chain of glucose molecules created by the body from glucose for short-term energy storage and utilization. Dietary fats are used for a number of functions in the body, including maintaining cell membranes, but they are not used primarily as a source of fast energy. Instead, for energy the body relies mostly on carbohydrates, which are converted into glucose that is then used to form glycogen. Turning Fats Into Glucose Excess glucose in the body is converted into stored fat under certain conditions, so it seems logical that glucose could be derived from fats. This process is called gluconeogenesis, and there are multiple pathways the body can use to achieve this conversion. Gluconeogenesis generally occurs only when the body cannot produce sufficient glucose from carbohydrates, such as during starvation or on a low-carbohydrate diet. This is less efficient than producing glucose through the metabolizing of carbohydrates, but it is possible under the right conditions. Turning Glucose Into Glycogen Once glucose has been obtained from fats, your body easily converts it into glycogen. In gl Continue reading >>

How Does Fat Get Converted Into Energy - _

How Does Fat Get Converted Into Energy - _

This is perhaps a little on the 'nerdy' side of questions, but is something I don't quite understand. It's not really necessary to fully understand it, to follow a 'whole foods' diet, or an 'ssos' lifestyle, but still, I would like to get my head around it. So in that regard... I understand that carbohydrates are converted into glucose, which is then used as energy in the body, and whatever energy the body does not use, it then moves into the adipose tissue, with the help of our friendly hormone called insulin. I understand that protein gets converted into amino acids, that the body then uses to restore, rebuild, and construct muscle tissue, along with other healthy tissues throughout the body. Whatever protein is not used for amino acids, is then moved into the liver, where it is converted into glucose, and at that point, the body can then use this glucose for energy. Just like our buddy, carbohydrate up above, whatever glucose (that originated from protein) that is not used for energy, can then be shuffled on over to the adipose (fat) tissue, with the help of insulin, where it is stored as body fat. Now, with Fat, this is where things get a little confusing, because my understanding, is that fat molecules can not be converted into glucose. In fact, step 1 on this journey, is that fat is utilized by the body, for fatty acids, which are required and needed for proper metabolism and biology. Whatever fat is not used for fatty acids, is then converted to triglycerides (do I got that right?), and moves on over to our adipose tissue, where it is stored as body fat. So, with that in mind, how does the body convert fat into energy, if it does not convert fat into glucose? Let me give you an example; Let's say we have a person who chooses to eat a 100% all fat diet, no protei Continue reading >>

Do Fat And Protein Turn Into Glucose?

Do Fat And Protein Turn Into Glucose?

Sandi Busch received a Bachelor of Arts in psychology, then pursued training in nursing and nutrition. She taught families to plan and prepare special diets, worked as a therapeutic support specialist, and now writes about her favorite topics nutrition, food, families and parenting for hospitals and trade magazines. Glucose keeps you energized.Photo Credit: Ridofranz/iStock/Getty Images When blood glucose gets low, your energy plummets and you may find it hard to concentrate. Your body can temporarily fill the gap by drawing on glucose stored in your liver, but those supplies are limited. When they run out, your body can produce glucose from fats and proteins. Fats are good for backup energy, but your body doesnt like to divert protein into energy due to its other vital functions. The best way to keep your body fueled is to consume the right amount of fats, proteins and carbs. Carbohydrates consist of molecules of sugar, which your body digests into glucose and uses for energy. When youre short on carbs, glucose can be created from fat and protein in a process called gluconeogenesis. Gluconeogenesis takes place mostly in your liver, which also has the job of maintaining a steady amount of glucose in your blood. If blood sugar drops too low due to problems in the liver, your kidneys can boost blood sugar by converting the amino acid glutamine into glucose. The saturated and unsaturated fats in your diet consist of two substances bound together: glycerol and fatty acids. During digestion, they're separated, and each one follows a different path. Glycerol is easily metabolized and used to make glucose. Fatty acids are carried to tissues throughout your body, where they help build cell walls, produce hormones and digest fat-soluble nutrients. Fatty acids can be converted i Continue reading >>

Breaking Down Fatty Acid Synthesis: Energy From Fat Stores

Breaking Down Fatty Acid Synthesis: Energy From Fat Stores

Fatty acids are important as a source of energy in our bodies. Knowing the effects from breaking down fatty acid synthesis and energy from fat stores is important to those who are dieting or working out. If you have an excess amount of glucose, another source of energy, in your system, this can easily be stored as fat as well. All of the cell membranes in the human body are made up of phospholipids, which have two different fatty acids in them. These fatty acids are used for protein modification, and the resulting metabolism of these fatty acids ends in the production of energy. How Your Body Uses Stored Fat When you are not eating, your body is not producing energy and it will rely on the stored energy in carbohydrates, fats and proteins. When this happens, certain organs in the body secrete hormones that have an effect on the liver, fat and muscle tissues. During this period your body is pulling energy from these sources and depleting them at the same time. Fat cells do not disappear, but they do get smaller as more energy is used. Fatty acids are stored in the body as triglycerides and are an important source of energy since they are both anhydrous, meaning that is contains no water, and reduced which has to do with the changing of the oxidation of an atom. The energy created from fatty acids is more than twice that of the same amount of carbohydrates. One gram of carbohydrates results in 4Kcal/g while the same amount of fatty acids delivers 9Kcal/g. Fat is an important and powerful means of storing energy just as they are a noticeable source of dietary calories. About 30-40% of calories, at least in the American diet, are from fat. As can be noted from this chart, fatty acids are excellent at storing energy that can later be used when needed: Fat: 100,000 Kcal Prote Continue reading >>

How Does Fat Get Converted To Calories?

How Does Fat Get Converted To Calories?

Opinions expressed by Forbes Contributors are their own. Answer by Bart Loews , passionate exercise enthusiast, on Quora : How is fat being converted into calories at cellular level? First lets get some term clarification: A calorie is a measure of energy, specifically heat. Its a measurement of an indirect use of your biological fuels. Your body doesnt really convert things to calories, it converts them to ATP which is used as energy. Calories are, sadly, the best way we have to measure this process.Ill assume that the point of this question is: How does fat turn into energy? Fat is a term used interchangeably with lipids and with adipose tissue. Lipids are molecules that consist of a hydrophobic tail with a hydrophilic head. Because of this polarized set up, they are able to cluster together to form barriers between water and non water, like bubbles. Your cell membranes are composed of lipids. Adipose tissue is what makes you fat. Adipose tissue stores lipids in the form of triglycerides or 3 fatty acid chains with a glycerol backbone. These triglycerides are what is broken down to be used for energy. Adipose tissue is made up of collections of adipocytes or fat cells. Adipose tissue is used for insulation, cushioning, and energy storage. You get a particular number of fat cells (between 30 and 300 billion) during adolescence and childhood. You don't lose them naturally, but you can gain more if they grow more than 4 fold from their original size. They grow and shrink as they take on more energy. Fat cells have a few other roles in the endocrine system, they release the hormone, Leptin when they receive energy from insulin. Leptin signals to your body that you're full. The more fat cells you have, the more leptin is released. It's been found that obese people are lep Continue reading >>

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