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Can Brain Utilize Ketones?

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*** Get Exogenous Ketones Here *** *http://beoptimal.shopketo.com Note: Links marked with an asterisk (*) are affiliate links. Making a purchase through these links wont cost you anything but we will receive a small commission. This is an easy, free way of supporting the podcast. Thank you! Discussion Alzheimers as the Type 3 Diabetes, or diabetes of the brain Ketone as an alternative fuel source to the brain You dont accumulate fat when you eat MCT Oil Dr. Newports late husband, Steve story with Coconut oil What is Ketogenic diet History of the Ketogenic diet Exogenous ketones Coconut Oil for skin care and oral hygiene Best way to select coconut oil Resources http://www.coconutketones.com http://beoptimal.shopketo.com*

Mary Newport: How To Upgrade Your Brain With Coconut Oil & Ketones – #13

Mary T. Newport, M.D. cured her husband’s Alzheimer’s disease with coconut oil and ketones. After struggling to find a way to help her ailing husband, Dr. Newport stumbled upon evidence ketones and ketogenic diets could be an effective treatment for degenerative diseases. She began testing her hypothesis on her husband and got amazing results. After further research, Dr. Newport realized ketones have a host of other health improving effects. Dr. Mary Newport comes on Bulletproof Executive Radio to share some of these unique health promoting effects, and tells us how we can use them in our daily lives to improve brain performance. If you want to improve your health, become more resilient to disease, and increase your cognitive abilities – you’ll want to listen to our interview with Dr. Newport. Did you know you can get a free PDF download of every transcript of every episode of Bulletproof Executive Radio by entering your email address in the box on the right side of this page? You also get a free copy of the Bulletproof Diet, the Bulletproof Shopping Guide, and much more. What We Cover How Dr. Newport got interested in treating Alzheimer’s disease and the story of her hus Continue reading >>

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  1. Megalomania192

    I recently heard that humans are the only animals that can use ketone bodies (B-hydroxybutyrate) to fuel their brains and I was wondering if this was true. Are other primates capable of doing this? If yes, which ones? In either case, is there any understanding of when this mutation appeared in humans/primates? It seems like the ability to maintain mental acuity in a fasted/starved state would certainly be a useful at whatever point in our history we became meat eating hunters.

  2. danby

    No, humans are not the only the only animals that use ketone bodies.
    Ketone bodies are a normal metabolite within lipolysis, ketogenesis and ketosis (burning fats from your fat tissue) and a great deal of what we know about lipid (fat) metabolism was derived from rat and mouse experiments. So at the very least ketones as fuel existed in the joint ancestor of all mammals, millions and millions of years before the first primates existed.
    But it likely goes back much further.
    Consider also that when many animals sleep they make use of their fat stores to maintain energy homeostasis. Pretty much all animals with nervous systems engage in sleep or a sleep-like process. So lipolysis and ketone utilisation likely goes back at least as far as the joint ancestor of all chordate animals. And it likely goes back even further than that as lipid metabolism in toto is a key pillar of keeping cells functioning
    Here's a paper from 1979 on ketone body metabolism in fish
    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1161766/
    Here's one from 2006 on ketone and glucose metabolism in the honey bee vs fruit flies and mosquitos
    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1847477/
    Edit: As I'd not previously considered animals other than the ones I covered in my undergraduate degree, here are some other references I've found for other animals
    2015: Fruitfly brains can metabolise fatty acids directly (where ketones would be a metabolic intermediate) http://www.nature.com/articles/srep07805
    1976: Ruminants like sheep don't use ketone bodies in their brain https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1309065/

  3. Megalomania192

    Consider also that when many animals sleep they make use of their fat stores to maintain energy homeostasis. Pretty much all animals with nervous systems engage in sleep or a sleep-like process.
    This just me think about hibernating mammals and how they obviously must be able to use it to fuel the brain. I probably should have noticed that myself.
    Thanks!

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READ MORE HERE: https://goo.gl/RBTAiv Beta hydroxybutyrate (BHB) is the first ketone body produced in a fasting state. It is commonly produced by the body during periods without much food (glucose) in order to provide an alternative energy fuel source. Although it is not technically a ketone (owing to the bonding structure), for the purposes of this post it is. Diets that are low in carbohydrates and high in fatty acids can either prompt the body to produce ketone bodies, such as beta hydroxybutyrate, or allow people to consume them exogenously (outside the body) instead. These exogenous ketone supplements have grown in popularity along with the ketogenic diet and media attention from popular icons such as Tim Ferriss and Dave Asprey. Although supplementation of beta hydroxybutyrate has been described as jet fuel and undesirable, modern iterations of exogenous ketones are making it easier for anyone to utilize these ketone bodies for optimal brain performance. There are a host of benefits of beta hydroxybutyrate, but it is primarily known as a fuel source in the absence of glucose. Within 24 72 hours without food, the body no longer uses glucose as the main fuel support system, wh

Ketones Suppress Brain Glucose Consumption

Abstract The brain is dependent on glucose as a primary energy substrate, but is capable of utilizing ketones such as beta-hydroxybutyrate (beta HB) and acetoacetate (AcAc), as occurs with fasting, prolonged starvation or chronic feeding of a high fat/low carbohydrate diet (ketogenic diet). In this study, the local cerebral metabolic rate of glucose consumption (CMRglu; microM/min/100g) was calculated in the cortex and cerebellum of control and ketotic rats using Patlak analysis. Rats were imaged on a rodent PET scanner and MRI was performed on a 7-Tesla Bruker scanner for registration with the PET images. Plasma glucose and beta HB concentrations were measured and 90-minute dynamic PET scans were started simultaneously with bolus injection of 2-Deoxy-2[18F]Fluoro-D-Glucose (FDG). The blood radioactivity concentration was automatically sampled from the tail vein for 3 min following injection and manual periodic blood samples were taken. The calculated local CMRGlu decreased with increasing plasma BHB concentration in the cerebellum (CMRGlu = -4.07*[BHB] + 61.4, r2 = 0.3) and in the frontal cortex (CMRGlu = -3.93*[BHB] + 42.7, r2 = 0.5). These data indicate that, under conditions of Continue reading >>

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  1. LuRsT

    As with all cells in our body, I know that the brain can get fed from both glucose and ketones, so my question is, given both of them, which one would the brain prefer to utilize first?

  2. Don_S

    First of all, for those readers with less knowledge of the general principles of biology, I want to state an important, even if obvious, point: The brain doesn't "prefer" anything. Despite being the smartest organ in the body, it is subjected (like any other biological system) to changes in the concentrations of the substances in question, that is, glucose and ketone bodies.
    According to a study in rats from 2010, it seems that ketone bodies suppress glucose metabolism in order to conserve glucose when its concentration is too low for the body to be used regularly. Therefore, the ketone bodies are regarded as neuroprotective, since their metabolism prevents the brain cells from starving.
    Another study in rats from 2013 emphasizes this point further. Please note the following excerpt from the discussion section:
    The brain's ability to switch from glucose oxidation towards ketone bodies requires a type of ‘cerebral metabolic adaptation'. This process is not well understood but is thought to be highly associated with the duration and level of ketosis. Ketones are considered to supply up to 70% of the total energy demands once maximal metabolic adaptation occurs. Blood ketones become elevated during prolonged fasting or with a ketogenic diet reaching a state [of] ketosis and glucose sparing. During this process, monoca[r]boxylic transporters upregulate at the blood–brain barrier with increasing demand for ketone utilization by brain. Recently, investigators have recognized additional therapeutic properties of ketosis, such as neuroprotection after stroke or injury. What remains unclear is whether the neuroprotective or therapeutic properties of ketosis is as a result of changes in the regulation of metabolic signaling pathways...
    This means that when the balance of concentrations shifts toward the ketone bodies, they will have precedence over glucose in order to conserve the latter. The mechanism is probably upregulation of ketone bodies receptors and transporters that increase its transport into the brain, as stated above.
    Therefore, when the brain is given both ketone bodies and glucose (which actually happens in the fasted state - ketone bodies transport and metabolism in the brain begins when blood glucose is low, not zero), there will be "preference" for the ketone bodies, but this depends on the glucose concentration. If it shifts back, above a certain glucose concentration glucose metabolism is supposed to be renewed.

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The Brain

This is a summary/extract from The Ketogenic Diet by Lyle McDonald. The fact that the brain is incapable of using FFA for fuel has led to one of the biggest misconceptions about human physiology: that the brain can only use glucose for fuel. While it is true that the brain normally runs on glucose, the brain will readily use ketones for fuel if they are available. In a non-ketotic state, the brain utilizes roughly 100 grams of glucose per day. This means that any diet which contains less than 100 grams of carbohydrate per day will induce ketosis, the depth of which will depend on how many carbohydrates are consumed (i.e. less carbohydrates will mean deeper ketosis). During the initial stages of ketosis, any carbohydrate intake below 100 grams will induce ketosis. As the brain adapts to using ketones for fuel and the body’s glucose requirements decrease, less carbohydrate must be consumed if ketosis is to be maintained. […] the brain which can derive up to 75% of its total energy requirements from ketones after adaptation. In all likelihood, ketones exist primarily to provide a fat-derived fuel for the brain during periods when carbohydrates are unavailable. Continue reading >>

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Popular Questions

  1. LuRsT

    As with all cells in our body, I know that the brain can get fed from both glucose and ketones, so my question is, given both of them, which one would the brain prefer to utilize first?

  2. Don_S

    First of all, for those readers with less knowledge of the general principles of biology, I want to state an important, even if obvious, point: The brain doesn't "prefer" anything. Despite being the smartest organ in the body, it is subjected (like any other biological system) to changes in the concentrations of the substances in question, that is, glucose and ketone bodies.
    According to a study in rats from 2010, it seems that ketone bodies suppress glucose metabolism in order to conserve glucose when its concentration is too low for the body to be used regularly. Therefore, the ketone bodies are regarded as neuroprotective, since their metabolism prevents the brain cells from starving.
    Another study in rats from 2013 emphasizes this point further. Please note the following excerpt from the discussion section:
    The brain's ability to switch from glucose oxidation towards ketone bodies requires a type of ‘cerebral metabolic adaptation'. This process is not well understood but is thought to be highly associated with the duration and level of ketosis. Ketones are considered to supply up to 70% of the total energy demands once maximal metabolic adaptation occurs. Blood ketones become elevated during prolonged fasting or with a ketogenic diet reaching a state [of] ketosis and glucose sparing. During this process, monoca[r]boxylic transporters upregulate at the blood–brain barrier with increasing demand for ketone utilization by brain. Recently, investigators have recognized additional therapeutic properties of ketosis, such as neuroprotection after stroke or injury. What remains unclear is whether the neuroprotective or therapeutic properties of ketosis is as a result of changes in the regulation of metabolic signaling pathways...
    This means that when the balance of concentrations shifts toward the ketone bodies, they will have precedence over glucose in order to conserve the latter. The mechanism is probably upregulation of ketone bodies receptors and transporters that increase its transport into the brain, as stated above.
    Therefore, when the brain is given both ketone bodies and glucose (which actually happens in the fasted state - ketone bodies transport and metabolism in the brain begins when blood glucose is low, not zero), there will be "preference" for the ketone bodies, but this depends on the glucose concentration. If it shifts back, above a certain glucose concentration glucose metabolism is supposed to be renewed.

  3. -> Continue reading
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