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Can Alcohol Cause Lactic Acidosis?

Lactic Acidosis: What You Need To Know

Lactic Acidosis: What You Need To Know

Lactic acidosis is a form of metabolic acidosis that begins in the kidneys. People with lactic acidosis have kidneys that are unable to remove excess acid from their body. If lactic acid builds up in the body more quickly than it can be removed, acidity levels in bodily fluids — such as blood — spike. This buildup of acid causes an imbalance in the body’s pH level, which should always be slightly alkaline instead of acidic. There are a few different types of acidosis. Lactic acid buildup occurs when there’s not enough oxygen in the muscles to break down glucose and glycogen. This is called anaerobic metabolism. There are two types of lactic acid: L-lactate and D-lactate. Most forms of lactic acidosis are caused by too much L-lactate. Lactic acidosis has many causes and can often be treated. But if left untreated, it may be life-threatening. The symptoms of lactic acidosis are typical of many health issues. If you experience any of these symptoms, you should contact your doctor immediately. Your doctor can help determine the root cause. Several symptoms of lactic acidosis represent a medical emergency: fruity-smelling breath (a possible indication of a serious complication of diabetes, called ketoacidosis) confusion jaundice (yellowing of the skin or the whites of the eyes) trouble breathing or shallow, rapid breathing If you know or suspect that you have lactic acidosis and have any of these symptoms, call 911 or go to an emergency room right away. Other lactic acidosis symptoms include: exhaustion or extreme fatigue muscle cramps or pain body weakness overall feelings of physical discomfort abdominal pain or discomfort diarrhea decrease in appetite headache rapid heart rate Lactic acidosis has a wide range of underlying causes, including carbon monoxide poisoni Continue reading >>

Alcohol Metabolism

Alcohol Metabolism

The metabolic pathways for the disposal of excess NADH and the consequent blocking of other normal metabolic pathways is shown in the graphic on the left. The conversion of pyruvic acid to lactic acid requires NADH: Pyruvic Acid + NADH + H+ ---> Lactic Acid + NAD+ This pyruvic acid normally made by transamination of amino acids, is intended for conversion into glucose by gluconeogenesis. This pathway is inhibited by low concentrations of pyruvic acid, since it has been converted to lactic acid. The final result may be acidosis from lactic acid build-up and hypoglycemia from lack of glucose synthesis. Excess NADH may be used as a reducing agent in two pathways--one to synthesize glycerol (from a glycolysis intermediate) and the other to synthesis fatty acids. As a result, heavy drinkers may initially be overweight. The NADH may be used directly in the electron transport chain to synthesize ATP as a source of energy. This reaction has the direct effect of inhibiting the normal oxidation of fats in the fatty acid spiral and citric acid cycle. Fats may accumulate or acetyl CoA may accumulate with the resulting production of ketone bodies. Accumulation of fat in the liver can be alleviated by secreting lipids into the blood stream. The higher lipid levels in the blood may be responsible for heart attacks. A central role in the toxicity of alcohol may be played by acetaldehyde itself. Although the liver converts acetaldehyde into acetic acid, it reaches a saturation point where some of it escapes into the blood stream. The accumulated acetaldehyde exerts its toxic effects by inhibiting the mitochondria reactions and functions. The alcoholic is a victim of a vicious circle; a high acetaldehyde level impairs mitochondria function, metabolism of acetaldehyde to acetic acid decr Continue reading >>

Metabolic Abnormalities In Alcoholic Patients: Focus On Acid Base Andelectrolyte Disorders

Metabolic Abnormalities In Alcoholic Patients: Focus On Acid Base Andelectrolyte Disorders

E-mail: [emailprotected] , [emailprotected] Received Date: December 20, 2014; Accepted Date: January 24, 2015; Published Date: January 27, 2015 Citation: Moses Elisaf MD, Rigas Kalaitzidis MD (2015) Metabolic Abnormalities in Alcoholic Patients: Focus on Acid Base and Electrolyte Disorders. J Alcohol Drug Depend 3:185. doi:10.4172/2329-6488.1000185 Copyright: 2015 Moses Elisaf MD, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. Alcoholic patients commonly develop a variety of acid-base and electrolyte disturbances. The aim of this review is to describe the most commonly encountered abnormalities and their significant role in the patients morbidity and mortality. Physicians should be aware of these clinically important disturbances caused by alcohol abuse and their underlying pathophysiological mechanisms involved for their appropriate management. Alcoholic Keto Acidosis (AKA) is a medical emergency is more common than previously thought and is characterized by an increased anion gap metabolic acidosis . However, in AKA mixed acid-base disorders are commonly observed. Alcoholic patients also exhibit severe electrolyte derangements. Multifactorial origin hypomagnesaemia is the most common electrolyte abnormality observed. Hypocalcaemia is also a frequent electrolyte disturbance and is commonly associated with hypomagnesaemia. Hypokalemia is occasionally encountered in these patients, while multifactorial origin hypophosphatemia is the second common electrolyte abnormality found. Hyponatremia is also a common electrolyte derangement and may occur subsequent to several mechanisms m Continue reading >>

Muscle Soreness The Day After Drinking Liquor

Muscle Soreness The Day After Drinking Liquor

Muscle Soreness the Day After Drinking Liquor Jerry Shaw writes for Spice Marketing and LinkBlaze Marketing. His articles have appeared in Gannett and American Media Inc. publications. He is the author of "The Complete Guide to Trust and Estate Management" from Atlantic Publishing. Muscle soreness may occur after drinking liquor. Drinking liquor can lead to the loss of balance and coordination, causing you to overwork your muscles whether you drink moderate or high amounts. This may result in muscle soreness the day after or even beyond. Your brain and body can suffer the effects of drinking five or more alcoholic beverages for up to three days, according to the Office of Alcohol and Drug Education at the University of Notre Dame. In fact, two consecutive nights of heavy drinking can produce negative effects for up to five days. Alcohol can interfere with the breakdown of lactic acid and increase muscle soreness after physical activity, according to the University of California-San Diego. Your body stores alcohol much like it does fat. The alcohol damages amino acids, which are needed for energy. The amino acids convert to fat, interfering with energy pathways and producing large amounts of lactic acid, causing a decrease in energy and muscle recovery, while increasing muscle soreness. Alcohol also adds calories and contributes to body fat. Drinking too much liquor can cause severe dehydration and cell imbalances that can lead to muscle cramps, muscle pulls and muscle strains for athletes. You can lose muscle mass from alcohol, resulting in decreased strength and performance. Fatigue can set in during athletic training and competition, increasing the risk of injury. Delayed reaction time and mental capabilities can be affected for several days after alcohol consumption Continue reading >>

Lactic Acidosis And Acute Ethanol Intoxication.

Lactic Acidosis And Acute Ethanol Intoxication.

Lactic acidosis and acute ethanol intoxication. MacDonald L(1), Kruse JA, Levy DB, Marulendra S, Sweeny PJ. (1)Division of Critical Care Medicine, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI. Ethanol intoxication has been widely reported as a cause of lactic acidosis. Todetermine the frequency and severity of ethanol-induced lactic acidosis, patientswho presented to an emergency department with a clinical diagnosis of acuteethanol intoxication and a serum ethanol concentration of at least 100 mg/dL werestudied. Arterial blood was sampled for lactate and blood gas determinations. Atotal of 60 patients (mean age, 41 years) were studied. Twenty-two patientssustained minor trauma. Ethanol concentrations ranged from 100 to 667 mg/dL(mean, 287 mg/dL). Lactate concentrations were abnormal (> 2.4 mmol/L) in sevenpatients (11.7%). In all cases, blood lactate was less than 5 mmol/L. Of thepatients with elevated lactate, other potential causes for lactic acidosis,including hypoxia, seizures, and hypoperfusion, were also present. Only one case with elevated blood lactate concentration had associated acidemia. Significantelevations of blood lactate are uncommon in acute ethanol intoxication. Inpatients with ethanol intoxication who are found to have lactic acidosis, otheretiologies for the elevated lactate level should be considered. Continue reading >>

Severe Metabolic Acidosis In The Alcoholic: Differential Diagnosis And Management

Severe Metabolic Acidosis In The Alcoholic: Differential Diagnosis And Management

1 A chronic alcoholic with severe metabolic acidosis presents a difficult diagnostic problem. The most common cause is alcoholic ketoacidosis, a syndrome with a typical history but often misleading laboratory findings. This paper will focus on this important and probably underdiagnosed syndrome. 2 The disorder occurs in alcoholics who have had a heavy drinking-bout culminating in severe vomiting, with resulting dehydration, starvation, and then a β- hydroxybutyrate dominated ketoacidosis. 3 Awareness of this syndrome, thorough history-taking, physical examination and routine laboratory analyses will usually lead to a correct diagnosis. 4 The treatment is simply replacement of fluid, glucose, electrolytes and thiamine. Insulin or alkali should be avoided. 5 The most important differential diagnoses are diabetic ketoacidosis, lactic acidosis and salicylate, methanol or ethylene glycol poisoning, conditions which require quite different treatment. 6 The diagnostic management of unclear cases should always include toxicological tests, urine microscopy for calcium oxalate crystals and calculation of the serum anion and osmolal gaps. 7 It is suggested here, however, that the value of the osmolal gap should be considered against a higher reference limit than has previously been recom mended. An osmolal gap above 25 mosm/kg, in a patient with an increased anion gap acidosis, is a strong indicator of methanol or ethylene glycol intoxication. Continue reading >>

Alcoholic Ketoacidosis

Alcoholic Ketoacidosis

Background In 1940, Dillon and colleagues first described alcoholic ketoacidosis (AKA) as a distinct syndrome. AKA is characterized by metabolic acidosis with an elevated anion gap, elevated serum ketone levels, and a normal or low glucose concentration. [1, 2] Although AKA most commonly occurs in adults with alcoholism, it has been reported in less-experienced drinkers of all ages. Patients typically have a recent history of binge drinking, little or no food intake, and persistent vomiting. [3, 4, 5] A concomitant metabolic alkalosis is common, secondary to vomiting and volume depletion (see Workup). [6] Treatment of AKA is directed toward reversing the 3 major pathophysiologic causes of the syndrome, which are: This goal can usually be achieved through the administration of dextrose and saline solutions (see Treatment). Continue reading >>

Lactic Acidosis: Symptoms, Causes, And Treatment

Lactic Acidosis: Symptoms, Causes, And Treatment

Lactic acidosis occurs when the body produces too much lactic acid and cannot metabolize it quickly enough. The condition can be a medical emergency. The onset of lactic acidosis might be rapid and occur within minutes or hours, or gradual, happening over a period of days. The best way to treat lactic acidosis is to find out what has caused it. Untreated lactic acidosis can result in severe and life-threatening complications. In some instances, these can escalate rapidly. It is not necessarily a medical emergency when caused by over-exercising. The prognosis for lactic acidosis will depend on its underlying cause. A blood test is used to diagnose the condition. Lactic acidosis symptoms that may indicate a medical emergency include a rapid heart rate and disorientaiton. Typically, symptoms of lactic acidosis do not stand out as distinct on their own but can be indicative of a variety of health issues. However, some symptoms known to occur in lactic acidosis indicate a medical emergency. Lactic acidosis can occur in people whose kidneys are unable to get rid of excess acid. Even when not related to just a kidney condition, some people's bodies make too much lactic acid and are unable to balance it out. Diabetes increases the risk of developing lactic acidosis. Lactic acidosis may develop in people with type 1 and 2 diabetes mellitus , especially if their diabetes is not well controlled. There have been reports of lactic acidosis in people who take metformin, which is a standard non-insulin medication for treating type 2 diabetes mellitus. However, the incidence is low, with equal to or less than 10 cases per 100,000 patient-years of using the drug, according to a 2014 report in the journal Metabolism. The incidence of lactic acidosis is higher in people with diabetes who Continue reading >>

Alcoholic Ketoacidosis

Alcoholic Ketoacidosis

Alcoholic ketoacidosis is a metabolic complication of alcohol use and starvation characterized by hyperketonemia and anion gap metabolic acidosis without significant hyperglycemia. Alcoholic ketoacidosis causes nausea, vomiting, and abdominal pain. Diagnosis is by history and findings of ketoacidosis without hyperglycemia. Treatment is IV saline solution and dextrose infusion. Alcoholic ketoacidosis is attributed to the combined effects of alcohol and starvation on glucose metabolism. Alcohol diminishes hepatic gluconeogenesis and leads to decreased insulin secretion, increased lipolysis, impaired fatty acid oxidation, and subsequent ketogenesis, causing an elevated anion gap metabolic acidosis. Counter-regulatory hormones are increased and may further inhibit insulin secretion. Plasma glucose levels are usually low or normal, but mild hyperglycemia sometimes occurs. Diagnosis requires a high index of suspicion; similar symptoms in an alcoholic patient may result from acute pancreatitis, methanol or ethylene glycol poisoning, or diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA). In patients suspected of having alcoholic ketoacidosis, serum electrolytes (including magnesium), BUN and creatinine, glucose, ketones, amylase, lipase, and plasma osmolality should be measured. Urine should be tested for ketones. Patients who appear significantly ill and those with positive ketones should have arterial blood gas and serum lactate measurement. The absence of hyperglycemia makes DKA improbable. Those with mild hyperglycemia may have underlying diabetes mellitus, which may be recognized by elevated levels of glycosylated Hb (HbA1c). Typical laboratory findings include a high anion gap metabolic acidosis, ketonemia, and low levels of potassium, magnesium, and phosphorus. Detection of acidosis may be com Continue reading >>

Prognosis Of Alcohol-associated Lactic Acidosis In Critically Ill Patients: An 8-year Study

Prognosis Of Alcohol-associated Lactic Acidosis In Critically Ill Patients: An 8-year Study

Prognosis of alcohol-associated lactic acidosis in critically ill patients: an 8-year study We are experimenting with display styles that make it easier to read articles in PMC. The ePub format uses eBook readers, which have several "ease of reading" features already built in. The ePub format is best viewed in the iBooks reader. You may notice problems with the display of certain parts of an article in other eReaders. Generating an ePub file may take a long time, please be patient. Prognosis of alcohol-associated lactic acidosis in critically ill patients: an 8-year study Chun-Chieh Yang, Khee-Siang Chan, [...], and Shih-Feng Weng Lactic acidosis is common in critical care; by contrast, a subtype called alcohol-associated lactic acidosis (AALA) is rarely encountered. The primary purpose of this study was to determine the prognosis of AALA in critically ill patients and the second aim was to determine whether the survival was associated to the peak blood lactate concentration. An 8-year retrospective analysis of adult patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) with AALA between January 2007 and December 2014 was considered in a tertiary care hospital. In total, 23 patients were analyzed and the median peak blood lactate level was 15.9 mmol/L. Only 2 patients (8.7%) presented peak blood lactate levels <10 mmol/L. In this study, 21 patients survived from ICU and hospital, the mortality rate was 8.7%. The result indicted the survival of AALA was not associated with peak blood lactate concentration although survivors still had a better lactate clearance rate per hour than non-survivors. Moreover, AALA patients with coexisting sepsis presenting higher lactate clearance rate and shorter lactate clearance time than those of AALA patients with solely sepsis-related lact Continue reading >>

Causes Of Lactic Acidosis

Causes Of Lactic Acidosis

INTRODUCTION AND DEFINITION Lactate levels greater than 2 mmol/L represent hyperlactatemia, whereas lactic acidosis is generally defined as a serum lactate concentration above 4 mmol/L. Lactic acidosis is the most common cause of metabolic acidosis in hospitalized patients. Although the acidosis is usually associated with an elevated anion gap, moderately increased lactate levels can be observed with a normal anion gap (especially if hypoalbuminemia exists and the anion gap is not appropriately corrected). When lactic acidosis exists as an isolated acid-base disturbance, the arterial pH is reduced. However, other coexisting disorders can raise the pH into the normal range or even generate an elevated pH. (See "Approach to the adult with metabolic acidosis", section on 'Assessment of the serum anion gap' and "Simple and mixed acid-base disorders".) Lactic acidosis occurs when lactic acid production exceeds lactic acid clearance. The increase in lactate production is usually caused by impaired tissue oxygenation, either from decreased oxygen delivery or a defect in mitochondrial oxygen utilization. (See "Approach to the adult with metabolic acidosis".) The pathophysiology and causes of lactic acidosis will be reviewed here. The possible role of bicarbonate therapy in such patients is discussed separately. (See "Bicarbonate therapy in lactic acidosis".) PATHOPHYSIOLOGY A review of the biochemistry of lactate generation and metabolism is important in understanding the pathogenesis of lactic acidosis [1]. Both overproduction and reduced metabolism of lactate appear to be operative in most patients. Cellular lactate generation is influenced by the "redox state" of the cell. The redox state in the cellular cytoplasm is reflected by the ratio of oxidized and reduced nicotine ad Continue reading >>

Alcoholism And Lactic Acidosis

Alcoholism And Lactic Acidosis

Learn more about the SDN Exhibition Forums for exclusive discounts and contests. So the way I understood this is that both alcohol metabolism and latcate to pyrvuate conversion require NAD, and with too much alcohol consumption the body uses up all the NAD for alcohol metabolism right? The part that I'm a bit troubled with this mechanism is that unless we are doing extreme exercise, we don't really generate lactic acid. In most cases, the body uses oxidative phosphorylation, right? So lactic acidosis will most likely occur when you drink alcohol and then do extreme exercise, correct? SDN Members don't see this ad. About the ads. My understanding is that high NADH levels from EtOH metab drives the pyruvate -> lactate conversion. So you don't need to be exercising +drinking, either will do it on their own. I actually enjoy your questions, though some things are really easily looked up. The several different causes of lactic acidosis: I actually enjoy your questions, though some things are really easily looked up. The several different causes of lactic acidosis: But the reasons behind why lactic acidosis occurs for these is significantly different.... For example, in exercise- lactic acidosis- due to depletion of ATP such that the ability to generate ATP via oxidation is overwhelmed. This leads to high levels of ADP> than the O2 intake from respiration. When the ADP/ATP ratio are elevated but O2 is no longer sufficient the body switches to anaerobic metabolism to quickly generate ATP= leading to lactic acidosis. In alcoholism, the NADH levels are elevated. Why does this take place? because degeneration of alcohol to acetic acid (the final state) is via transferring electrons from ETOH to aldehyde DEHYDROGENASE and alcohol DEHYDROGENASE to NAD- the elevation to NADH forces Continue reading >>

Lactic Acidosis

Lactic Acidosis

Lactic acidosis is a medical condition characterized by the buildup of lactate (especially L-lactate) in the body, which results in an excessively low pH in the bloodstream. It is a form of metabolic acidosis, in which excessive acid accumulates due to a problem with the body's metabolism of lactic acid. Lactic acidosis is typically the result of an underlying acute or chronic medical condition, medication, or poisoning. The symptoms are generally attributable to these underlying causes, but may include nausea, vomiting, rapid deep breathing, and generalised weakness. The diagnosis is made on biochemical analysis of blood (often initially on arterial blood gas samples), and once confirmed, generally prompts an investigation to establish the underlying cause to treat the acidosis. In some situations, hemofiltration (purification of the blood) is temporarily required. In rare chronic forms of lactic acidosis caused by mitochondrial disease, a specific diet or dichloroacetate may be used. The prognosis of lactic acidosis depends largely on the underlying cause; in some situations (such as severe infections), it indicates an increased risk of death. Classification[edit] The Cohen-Woods classification categorizes causes of lactic acidosis as:[1] Type A: Decreased tissue oxygenation (e.g., from decreased blood flow) Type B B1: Underlying diseases (sometimes causing type A) B2: Medication or intoxication B3: Inborn error of metabolism Signs and symptoms[edit] Lactic acidosis is commonly found in people who are unwell, such as those with severe heart and/or lung disease, a severe infection with sepsis, the systemic inflammatory response syndrome due to another cause, severe physical trauma, or severe depletion of body fluids.[2] Symptoms in humans include all those of typical m Continue reading >>

Glyburide And Metformin (oral Route)

Glyburide And Metformin (oral Route)

Precautions Drug information provided by: Micromedex It is very important that your doctor check your progress at regular visits to make sure this medicine is working properly. Blood tests may be needed to check for unwanted effects. Under certain conditions, too much metformin can cause lactic acidosis. The symptoms of lactic acidosis are severe and quick to appear. They usually occur when other health problems not related to the medicine are present and very severe, such as a heart attack or kidney failure. The symptoms of lactic acidosis include abdominal or stomach discomfort; decreased appetite; diarrhea; fast, shallow breathing; a general feeling of discomfort; muscle pain or cramping; and unusual sleepiness, tiredness, or weakness. If you have any symptoms of lactic acidosis, get emergency medical help right away. It is very important to carefully follow any instructions from your health care team about: Alcohol—Drinking alcohol may cause severe low blood sugar. Discuss this with your health care team. Other medicines—Do not take other medicines unless they have been discussed with your doctor. This especially includes nonprescription medicines such as aspirin, and medicines for appetite control, asthma, colds, cough, hay fever, or sinus problems. Counseling—Other family members need to learn how to prevent side effects or help with side effects if they occur. Also, patients with diabetes may need special counseling about diabetes medicine dosing changes that might occur because of lifestyle changes, such as changes in exercise and diet. Furthermore, counseling on contraception and pregnancy may be needed because of the problems that can occur in patients with diabetes during pregnancy. Travel—Keep your recent prescription and your medical history with yo Continue reading >>

Lactic Acidosis And Acute Ethanol Intoxication - Sciencedirect

Lactic Acidosis And Acute Ethanol Intoxication - Sciencedirect

Volume 12, Issue 1 , January 1994, Pages 32-35 Get rights and content Ethanol intoxication has been widely reported as a cause of lactic acidosis. To determine the frequency and severity of ethanol-induced lactic acidosis, patients who presented to an emergency department with a clinical diagnosis of acute ethanol intoxication and a serum ethanol concentration of at least 100 mg/dL were studied. Arterial blood was sampled for lactate and blood gas determinations. A total of 60 patients (mean age, 41 years) were studied. Twenty-two patients sustained minor trauma. Ethanol concentrations ranged from 100 to 667 mg/dL (mean, 287 mg/dL). Lactate concentrations were abnormal (>2.4 mmol/L) in seven patients (11.7%). In all cases, blood lactate was less than 5 mmol/L. Of the patients with elevated lactate, other potential causes for lactic acidosis, including hypoxia, seizures, and hypoperfusion, were also present. Only one case with elevated blood lactate concentration had associated acidemia. Significant elevations of blood lactate are uncommon in acute ethanol intoxication. In patients with ethanol intoxication who are found to have lactic acidosis, other etiologies for the elevated lactate level should be considered. Continue reading >>

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