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Hyperglycemic Crises In Diabetes

Hyperglycemic Crises In Diabetes

Ketoacidosis and hyperosmolar hyperglycemia are the two most serious acute metabolic complications of diabetes, even if managed properly. These disorders can occur in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. The mortality rate in patients with diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is <5% in experienced centers, whereas the mortality rate of patients with hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state (HHS) still remains high at ∼15%. The prognosis of both conditions is substantially worsened at the extremes of age and in the presence of coma and hypotension (1–10). This position statement will outline precipitating factors and recommendations for the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of DKA and HHS. It is based on a previous technical review (11), which should be consulted for further information. PATHOGENESIS Although the pathogenesis of DKA is better understood than that of HHS, the basic underlying mechanism for both disorders is a reduction in the net effective action of circulating insulin coupled with a concomitant elevation of counterregulatory hormones, such as glucagon, catecholamines, cortisol, and growth hormone. These hormonal alterations in DKA and HHS lead to increased hepatic and renal glucose production and impaired glucose utilization in peripheral tissues, which result in hyperglycemia and parallel changes in osmolality of the extracellular space (12,13). The combination of insulin deficiency and increased counterregulatory hormones in DKA also leads to the release of free fatty acids into the circulation from adipose tissue (lipolysis) and to unrestrained hepatic fatty acid oxidation to ketone bodies (β-hydroxybutyrate [β-OHB] and acetoacetate), with resulting ketonemia and metabolic acidosis. On the other hand, HHS may be caused by plasma insulin concentrations that are in Continue reading >>

Dka Case Study

Dka Case Study

Jerry Thomas is a 26-year-old Type I Diabetic. He was originally diagnosed at the age of 14, and currently manages his disease with an intensive regimen of insulin injections. Jerry is employed as a schoolteacher and soccer coach. He presents today with a 2-day history of vomiting and diarrhea. He has been closely monitoring his blood glucoses, and is using regular insulin for high blood glucose levels. He has only been able to tolerate liquids such as Gatorade, but today he is unable to even tolerate that, and comes to the clinic for evaluation of possible Diabetic Ketoacidosis (DKA). Describe the pathophysiology of DKA and why it occurs in patients with Type I Diabetes Mellitus. (5 points) Patients with Type 1 diabetes do not produce insulin in their body, so instead of using glucose to burn in their metabolism, their body starts burning proteins. The metabolism of proteins produces ketones as a by product and as this accumulates, causes diabetes ketoacidosis, an acidification of the blood. Based upon the diagnosis of DKA, what assessment findings does the nurse correlate to this disorder? (5 points) Polydipsia, polyuria, fruity breath, weakness, nausea and vomiting, abdominal pain, hyperglycemia, high levels of ketones in urine The physician orders a complete metabolic panel, and Jerry’s blood glucose is 425. Other lab values include a serum sodium of 152, serum potassium of 3.0, and BUN of 64. What is your assessment of these results? (10 points) High blood glucose (random glucose over 200), high sodium (>145, dehydration due to polyuria), low potassium (>3.5, hyperglycemia), high BUN (>21, kidneys not functioning due to high protein metabolism) Explain why it is important for Jerry to continue to take his insulin even though his oral intake is decreased. (2 point Continue reading >>

Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a serious metabolic disorder that can occur in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM).1,2 Veterinary technicians play an integral role in managing and treating patients with this life-threatening condition. In addition to recognizing the clinical signs of this disorder and evaluating the patient’s response to therapy, technicians should understand how this disorder occurs. Technicians must also educate owners about the long-term care of diabetic pets. DM is caused by a relative or absolute lack of insulin production by the pancreatic β cells or by inactivity or loss of insulin receptors, which are usually found on membranes of skeletal muscle, fat, and liver cells.1,3 In dogs and cats, DM is classified as either type I (insulin dependent; the body is unable to produce sufficient insulin) or type II (non–insulin dependent; the body produces insulin, but the body’s tissues are resistant to insulin).4 Most dogs that develop DM have insulin deficiency, while cats that develop DM tend to have insulin resistance.5 DKA occurs when the body cannot use glucose for energy because of a lack of, or resistance to, insulin. When this happens, the body uses alternative energy sources, resulting in ketone production and subsequent acidosis.1 Insulin has many functions, including the enhancement of glucose uptake by the cells for energy.1 Without insulin, cells cannot use glucose, causing them to starve.2 The unused glucose remains in the circulation, resulting in hyperglycemia. To provide cells with an alternative energy source, the body breaks down adipocytes, releasing free fatty acids (FFAs) into the bloodstream. The liver subsequently converts FFAs to triglycerides and ketone bodies. These ketone bodies (i.e., acetone, acetoacetic acid, β-hydrox Continue reading >>

Jaime Moo-young, Md

Jaime Moo-young, Md

Diabetic Ketoacidosis (DKA) Pathogenesis · Insufficient insulin for a given carbohydrate load decreased cellular metabolism of glucose · Increased gluconeogenesis, glycogenolysisHyperglycemia · Increased breakdown of free fatty acids as alternative energy source ketone and ketoacid accumulation · Hyperglycemiaserum hyperosmolality osmotic diuresis dehydration and electrolyte derangements (dehydration is most lethal!) · Seen almost exclusively in Type I diabetes; rarely in Type II Definition: Triad of 1. Hyperglycemia (usually between 500 – 800 mg/dL or 27.8-44.4 mmol/L) 2. Anion Gap Metabolic Acidosis (pH usually <7.30) 3. Ketonemia: -hydroxybutyrate, acetoacetate most significant ** Urine ketones do not make the diagnosis, but they can support it** Triggers (the “I’sâ€): Don’t forget to ask about these! · Insulin deficiency: insulin non-compliance, insufficient insulin dosing, new-onset Type I diabetes · Iatrognic: glucocorticoids, atypical antipsychotics, high-dose thiazide diuretics · Infection: UTI, pneumonia, TB · Inflammation: pancreatitis, cholecystitis · Ischemia/infarction: MI, stroke, gut ischemia · Intoxication: Alcohol, cocaine, other drugs Presentation · Symptoms · Polyuria, polydipsia, weight loss · Nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain · Fatigue, malaise · Associated trigger sx (fever/chills, chest pain, etc) · Signs · Volume depletion: skin turgor, dry axillae, dry mucus membranes, HR, BP · Altered mental status: stupor, coma · Kussmaul respirations: rapid, shallow breathing = hyperventilation to counteract metabolic acidosis · Fruity, acetone odor on breath Lab workup and findings · Hyperglycemia: > 250 mg/dL in serum, + glucose on urinalysis · Acidemia (pH <7. Continue reading >>

Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Abbas E. Kitabchi, PhD., MD., FACP, FACE Professor of Medicine & Molecular Sciences and Maston K. Callison Professor in the Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes & Metabolism UT Health Science Center, 920 Madison Ave., 300A, Memphis, TN 38163 Aidar R. Gosmanov, M.D., Ph.D., D.M.Sc. Assistant Professor of Medicine, Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes & Metabolism, The University of Tennessee Health Science Center, 920 Madison Avenue, Suite 300A, Memphis, TN 38163 Clinical Recognition Omission of insulin and infection are the two most common precipitants of DKA. Non-compliance may account for up to 44% of DKA presentations; while infection is less frequently observed in DKA patients. Acute medical illnesses involving the cardiovascular system (myocardial infarction, stroke, acute thrombosis) and gastrointestinal tract (bleeding, pancreatitis), diseases of endocrine axis (acromegaly, Cushing`s syndrome, hyperthyroidism) and impaired thermo-regulation or recent surgical procedures can contribute to the development of DKA by causing dehydration, increase in insulin counter-regulatory hormones, and worsening of peripheral insulin resistance. Medications such as diuretics, beta-blockers, corticosteroids, second-generation anti-psychotics, and/or anti-convulsants may affect carbohydrate metabolism and volume status and, therefore, could precipitateDKA. Other factors: psychological problems, eating disorders, insulin pump malfunction, and drug abuse. It is now recognized that new onset T2DM can manifest with DKA. These patients are obese, mostly African Americans or Hispanics and have undiagnosed hyperglycemia, impaired insulin secretion, and insulin action. A recent report suggests that cocaine abuse is an independent risk factor associated with DKA recurrence. Pathophysiology In Continue reading >>

Cerebral Edema And Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Cerebral Edema And Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Cerebral edema is the most feared emergent complication of pediatric diabetic ketoacidosis. Fortunately, it is relatively rare, but the rarity can lead to some confusion when it comes to its management. We recently discussed the use of mannitol and hypertonic saline for pediatric traumatic brain injury, but when should we consider these medications for the patient presenting with DKA? Cerebral Edema is a relatively rare. Incidence <1% of patients with DKA. Overall tends to occur in the newly diagnosed diabetic patient (4.3% vs 1.2%). While rare, it is a devastating complication. 1990 study showed case fatality rate was 64%. Those treated BEFORE respiratory failure had lower rate of mortality (30%). Lesson = treat early! The exact mechanism is not known… and may be varied between individual patients. Signs and Symptoms develop in: 66% within the first 7 hours of treatment (these tend to be younger). 33% within 10-24 hours of treatment. The diagnosis is clinical! ~40% of initial brain imaging of kids with cerebral edema are NORMAL! This is the area that often leads to finger pointing… most often those fingers being pointed toward the Emergency Physician who was initially caring for the kid. Much of the literature focused on interventions, but: Administration of Bicarb Sodium Bicarb was shown to be associated with Cerebral Edema in one study… Unfortunately, this study did not adjust for illness severity. Type of IV Fluids Generally, there is an absence of evidence that associates volume, tonicity, or rate change in serum glucose with Cerebral Edema development. There are cases presenting with cerebral edema prior to any therapies. Risk Factors that seem to stay consistent: Kids < 5 years of age More likely to have delayed diagnosis More severely ill at presentation S Continue reading >>

Lab Test

Lab Test

Measurement of serum or plasma blood urea nitrogen (BUN) for the evaluation and management of volume status and renal disorders. It is performed on patients undergoing routine laboratory testing and is usually performed as part of a multiphasic automated testing process. Adults: 10-20 mg/dL (3.6-7.1 mmol/L) Elderly: may be slightly higher than adult Children: 5-18 mg/dL (1.8-6.4 mmol/L) Infant: 5-18 mg/dL Newborn: 3-12 mg/dL Cord: 21-40 mg/dL Critical Values: >100 mg/dL (indicates serious impairment of renal function) Adrenal insufficiency - moderate elevations in BUN levels are consistent with both acute and chronic adrenal insufficiency. The increased Bun is largely due to dehydration secondary to aldosterone deficiency, which leads to excretion of sodium in excess of intake and results in azotemia. Patients with secondary adrenal insufficiency are less affected because of intact aldosterone secretion. Elevation is usually reversible with restoration of normal renal hemodynamics and circulating blood volume. Community-acquired pneumonia - In one study, an elevated BUN, along with increased respiratory rate and decreased diastolic blood pressure, was predictive of mortality in patients with community-acquired pneumonia. Hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) - BUN level is consistently increased with the elevation usually occurring very rapidly. The combination of renal insufficiency, a catabolic state, and reabsorption of blood from the GI tract can cause BUN levels to increase as much as 50 mg/dL/day. In children with uncomplicated dehydration and diarrhea, the BUN level should fall to one half the admission level within 24 hours; if this does not occur, renal disease should be suspected. Hemorrhagic shock - Acute tubular necrosis (ATN) from prolonged hypotension results in Continue reading >>

Factors Associated With Adverse Outcomes In Children With Diabetic Ketoacidosis-related Cerebral Edema

Factors Associated With Adverse Outcomes In Children With Diabetic Ketoacidosis-related Cerebral Edema

Abstract Objective: To investigate the relation between outcomes of children with diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA)-related cerebral edema and baseline clinical features and therapeutic interventions for treatment of cerebral edema. Study design: All children ≤18 years old with DKA and cerebral edema (n = 61) were retrospectively identified from 10 pediatric centers between 1982 and 1997. Demographic, biochemical, and therapeutic data were collected. Ordinal logistic regression analysis was used to identify factors associated with the clinical outcome (death or persistent vegetative state; mild to moderate neurological disability; or normal) after adjusting for known risk factors for the development of cerebral edema as well as the degree of neurologic depression at the time of diagnosis of cerebral edema. Results: Seventeen (28%) children died or survived in a vegetative state; 8 (13%) survived with mild to moderate neurologic disabilities; and 36 (59%) survived without sequelae. Factors associated with poor outcomes included greater neurologic depression at the time of diagnosis of cerebral edema, a high initial serum urea nitrogen concentration, and intubation with hyperventilation to a PCO2 <22 mm Hg. Conclusions: After adjusting for potential confounding variables and the degree of neurologic compromise at the initiation of therapy, intubation with hyperventilation is associated with adverse outcomes of DKA-related cerebral edema. Greater neurologic depression at the time of diagnosis of cerebral edema and a higher initial serum urea nitrogen concentration are also associated with poor outcome. (J Pediatr 2002;141:793-97) Continue reading >>

Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Diabetic Ketoacidosis (DKA) A state of absolute or relative insulin deficiency aggravated by ensuing hyperglycemia, dehydration, and acidosis-producing derangements in intermediary metabolism, including production of serum acetone. Can occur in both Type I Diabetes and Type II Diabetes In type II diabetics with insulin deficiency/dependence The presenting symptom for ~ 25% of Type I Diabetics. Hyperosmolar Hyperglycemic State (HHS) An acute metabolic complication of diabetes mellitus characterized by impaired mental status and elevated plasma osmolality in a patient with hyperglycemia. Occurs predominately in Type II Diabetics A few reports of cases in type I diabetics. The presenting symptom for 30-40% of Type II diabetics. Diagnostic Criteria for DKA and HHS Mild DKA Moderate DKA Severe DKA HHS Plasma glucose (mg/dL) > 250 > 250 > 250 > 600 Arterial pH 7.25-7.30 7.00-7.24 < 7.00 > 7.30 Sodium Bicarbonate (mEq/L) 15 – 18 10 - <15 < 10 > 15 Urine Ketones Positive Positive Positive Small Serum Ketones Positive Positive Positive Small Serum Osmolality (mOsm/kg) Variable Variable Variable > 320 Anion Gap > 10 > 12 > 12 variable Mental Status Alert Alert/Drowsy Stupor/Coma Stupor/Coma Causes of DKA/HHS Stressful precipitating event that results in increased catecholamines, cortisol, glucagon. Infection (pneumonia, UTI) Alcohol, drugs Stroke Myocardial Infarction Pancreatitis Trauma Medications (steroids, thiazide diuretics) Non-compliance with insulin Diagnostic Studies in DKA/HHS Chemistry ï‚ Glucose  Bicarbonate Anion gap = (Na+) – (Cl- + HCO3-) Frequently seen: ï‚ BUN/creatinine (dehydration) ï‚ potassium  sodium Pseudohyponatremia: to correct, add 1.6 mEq of sodium to every 100mg/dL of glucose above normal Serum acetones Positive in Continue reading >>

Small Animal - Diabetic Ketoacidosis (dka)

Small Animal - Diabetic Ketoacidosis (dka)

Normal healthy animal in starvation pathophysiology Pancreatic alpha cells secrete progressively more glucagon -> promotes hepatic gluconeogenesis and triggers release of stored energy from fat (lipolysis) -> free fatty acids and glycerol released from stored triglycerides -> glycerol to glucose and fatty acids are converted to ketones by the liver Ketones can be used for energy in the Kreb's cycle Basal insulin secretion ensures that energy is released at an appropriate rate by limiting glucagon secretion and limiting lipolysis what is the simplest and effective way to give and regulate a DKA pt's insulin administration? IV regular insulin Dogs: 0.1 U/kg/hr Cats: 0.05-0.1 U/kg/hr -draw up total daily dose, add to 250-ml bag 0.9% NaCl -start every single pt at 10 mls/hr and adjust based on 2 hr glucose measurements -switch fluids to one w/ dextrose when BG <250 mg/dl Continue reading >>

Diabetic Ketoacidosis Workup

Diabetic Ketoacidosis Workup

Approach Considerations Diabetic ketoacidosis is typically characterized by hyperglycemia over 250 mg/dL, a bicarbonate level less than 18 mEq/L, and a pH less than 7.30, with ketonemia and ketonuria. While definitions vary, mild DKA can be categorized by a pH level of 7.25-7.3 and a serum bicarbonate level between 15-18 mEq/L; moderate DKA can be categorized by a pH between 7.0-7.24 and a serum bicarbonate level of 10 to less than 15 mEq/L; and severe DKA has a pH less than 7.0 and bicarbonate less than 10 mEq/L. [17] In mild DKA, anion gap is greater than 10 and in moderate or severe DKA the anion gap is greater than 12. These figures differentiate DKA from HHS where blood glucose is greater than 600 mg/dL but pH is greater than 7.3 and serum bicarbonate greater than 15 mEq/L. Laboratory studies for diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) should be scheduled as follows: Repeat laboratory tests are critical, including potassium, glucose, electrolytes, and, if necessary, phosphorus. Initial workup should include aggressive volume, glucose, and electrolyte management. It is important to be aware that high serum glucose levels may lead to dilutional hyponatremia; high triglyceride levels may lead to factitious low glucose levels; and high levels of ketone bodies may lead to factitious elevation of creatinine levels. Continue reading >>

Changes In Serum Amylase, Lipase And Leukocyte Elastase During Diabetic Ketoacidosis And Poorly Controlled Diabetes.

Changes In Serum Amylase, Lipase And Leukocyte Elastase During Diabetic Ketoacidosis And Poorly Controlled Diabetes.

Abstract Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is frequently associated with pancreatic enzyme abnormalities. In order to determine the main factors that lead to this increase, serum total amylase (TA), pancreatic amylase (PA), lipase (L) and leukocyte elastase (LE), an early predictor of acute pancreatitis, were measured in four groups of patients on admission. Group 1 consisted of 52 patients with DKA (age: 41.9 +/- 19.2 years; blood glucose (Glc): 27.4 +/- 11.5 mmol/L; pH: 7.20 +/- 0.16; plasma bicarbonate: 10.5 +/- 6.2 mmol/L; blood urea nitrogen (BUN): 0.60 +/- 0.44 g/L; HbA(1C): 12.5% +/- 2.8%). Group 2 consisted of 90 patients with poorly controlled non-ketotic diabetes (age: 53.4 +/- 16.0; Glc: 14.3 +/- 0.6; HCO(3)(-): 26.6 +/- 3.2; BUN: 0.38 +/- 0.20; HbA(1C): 11.3 +/- 2.1). Group 3 consisted of 22 patients with well-controlled diabetes (age: 53.7 +/- 12.8; Glc: 10. 1 +/- 5.2; HCO(3)(-): 27.4 +/- 3.8; BUN: 0.36 +/- 0.19; HbA(1C): 6.8 +/- 0.8). Group 4 (controls) comprised 27 non-diabetic patients (age: 46.0 +/- 15.0; Glc: 4.9 +/- 0.5; HCO(3)(-): 28.4 +/- 2.5; BUN: 0.30 +/- 0.16; HbA(1C): 5.2 +/- 0.7) (means +/- SD). Increased enzyme activities were more frequent in group 1 (TA: 30.7; PA: 27.0; L: 36.5; LE: 73%) than in groups 2 (TA: 8.9; PA: 7.1; L: 8.9; LE: 45. 5%), 3 (TA: 13.6; PA: 9.0; L: 18.1; LE: 31.8%) and 4 (TA: 7.0; PA: 3. 0; L: 0.0; LE: 29.6%). Mean serum enzyme activities were significantly different in the 4 groups (ANOVA, P < 0.01) and were higher in group 1 than in groups 2, 3 and 4 (Student's t-test; group 1 vs 2 or 3 or 4: P < 0.001). In groups 1 + 2 + 3 + 4 (all patients), the four enzymes correlated with one another and also with Glc, BUN and HCO(3)(-) (P < 0.001). In group 1, TA correlated negatively with HCO(3)(-) (P < 0.001) and pH (P < 0.05); PA and Continue reading >>

Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Patient professional reference Professional Reference articles are written by UK doctors and are based on research evidence, UK and European Guidelines. They are designed for health professionals to use. You may find the Pre-diabetes (Impaired Glucose Tolerance) article more useful, or one of our other health articles. See also the separate Childhood Ketoacidosis article. Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a medical emergency with a significant morbidity and mortality. It should be diagnosed promptly and managed intensively. DKA is characterised by hyperglycaemia, acidosis and ketonaemia:[1] Ketonaemia (3 mmol/L and over), or significant ketonuria (more than 2+ on standard urine sticks). Blood glucose over 11 mmol/L or known diabetes mellitus (the degree of hyperglycaemia is not a reliable indicator of DKA and the blood glucose may rarely be normal or only slightly elevated in DKA). Bicarbonate below 15 mmol/L and/or venous pH less than 7.3. However, hyperglycaemia may not always be present and low blood ketone levels (<3 mmol/L) do not always exclude DKA.[2] Epidemiology DKA is normally seen in people with type 1 diabetes. Data from the UK National Diabetes Audit show a crude one-year incidence of 3.6% among people with type 1 diabetes. In the UK nearly 4% of people with type 1 diabetes experience DKA each year. About 6% of cases of DKA occur in adults newly presenting with type 1 diabetes. About 8% of episodes occur in hospital patients who did not primarily present with DKA.[2] However, DKA may also occur in people with type 2 diabetes, although people with type 2 diabetes are much more likely to have a hyperosmolar hyperglycaemic state. Ketosis-prone type 2 diabetes tends to be more common in older, overweight, non-white people with type 2 diabetes, and DKA may be their Continue reading >>

Ati: Chapter 84 Complications Of Diabetes Mellitus

Ati: Chapter 84 Complications Of Diabetes Mellitus

Sort What are clinical manifestations of DKA polyuria polydipsia polyphagia weightloss GI effects blurred vision, headach eweakness orthostatic hypotension fruity odor of breath Kussmaul respirations metabolic acidosis mental status changes A nurse is reviewing th ehealth record fo a client who has hyperglycemic-hyperosmolar state (HHS) which of the following data confirms this diagnosis? (select all that apply) A. Evidence of recent MI B> BUn 35 mg/dL C. Takes a calcium channel blocker D. Age 77 E. No insulin production A. Evidence of recent MI B Bun 35 mg/dL C. takes calcium channel blocker D. Age 77 A nurse is assessing client who has DKA and ketones in the urine. Which of the following are expected findings (select all that apply) A. Weight gain B. fruity odor of breath C. abdominal pain D. Kussmaul respirations E. Meatabolic acidosis B. fruity odor of breath C. abdominal pain D. Kussmaul respirations E. meatabolic acidosis A nurse is preparing to administer IV fluids to a client who has DKA. Which of the following` is an appropriate nursing action? A. administer an IV infusion of regular insulin at 0.3units/kg/hr B. Administer an IV infusion of 0.45% sodium chloride C. Rapidly administer an IV infusion of 0.9% sodium chloride D. Add glucose to the IV when serum glucose is at 350mg/dL C. Rapidly administer an IV infusion of 0.9% sodium choloride A nurse is providing discharge teaching to a client who experienced diabetic ketoacidosis. Which of the following should the nurse include in the teaching? (select all that apply) A. Drink 3 L of fluid daily B. monitor blood glucose every 4 hours when ill C> Admin insulin as prescribed when ill. D. Notify the provider when blood glucose is 200mg/dL E. Report ketones in the urine after 24 hours of illness A. drink 3 L of flui Continue reading >>

Diagnosis And Treatment Of Diabetic Ketoacidosis And The Hyperglycemic Hyperosmolar State

Diagnosis And Treatment Of Diabetic Ketoacidosis And The Hyperglycemic Hyperosmolar State

Go to: Pathogenesis In both DKA and HHS, the underlying metabolic abnormality results from the combination of absolute or relative insulin deficiency and increased amounts of counterregulatory hormones. Glucose and lipid metabolism When insulin is deficient, the elevated levels of glucagon, catecholamines and cortisol will stimulate hepatic glucose production through increased glycogenolysis and enhanced gluconeogenesis4 (Fig. 1). Hypercortisolemia will result in increased proteolysis, thus providing amino acid precursors for gluconeogenesis. Low insulin and high catecholamine concentrations will reduce glucose uptake by peripheral tissues. The combination of elevated hepatic glucose production and decreased peripheral glucose use is the main pathogenic disturbance responsible for hyperglycemia in DKA and HHS. The hyperglycemia will lead to glycosuria, osmotic diuresis and dehydration. This will be associated with decreased kidney perfusion, particularly in HHS, that will result in decreased glucose clearance by the kidney and thus further exacerbation of the hyperglycemia. In DKA, the low insulin levels combined with increased levels of catecholamines, cortisol and growth hormone will activate hormone-sensitive lipase, which will cause the breakdown of triglycerides and release of free fatty acids. The free fatty acids are taken up by the liver and converted to ketone bodies that are released into the circulation. The process of ketogenesis is stimulated by the increase in glucagon levels.5 This hormone will activate carnitine palmitoyltransferase I, an enzyme that allows free fatty acids in the form of coenzyme A to cross mitochondrial membranes after their esterification into carnitine. On the other side, esterification is reversed by carnitine palmitoyltransferase I Continue reading >>

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