diabetestalk.net

Baking Soda For Respiratory Acidosis

Sodium Bicarbonate Therapy In Patients With Metabolic Acidosis

Sodium Bicarbonate Therapy In Patients With Metabolic Acidosis

The Scientific World Journal Volume 2014 (2014), Article ID 627673, 13 pages Nephrology Division, Hospital General Juan Cardona, Avenida Pardo Bazán, s/n, Ferrol, 15406 A Coruña, Spain Academic Editor: Biagio R. Di Iorio Copyright © 2014 María M. Adeva-Andany et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Abstract Metabolic acidosis occurs when a relative accumulation of plasma anions in excess of cations reduces plasma pH. Replacement of sodium bicarbonate to patients with sodium bicarbonate loss due to diarrhea or renal proximal tubular acidosis is useful, but there is no definite evidence that sodium bicarbonate administration to patients with acute metabolic acidosis, including diabetic ketoacidosis, lactic acidosis, septic shock, intraoperative metabolic acidosis, or cardiac arrest, is beneficial regarding clinical outcomes or mortality rate. Patients with advanced chronic kidney disease usually show metabolic acidosis due to increased unmeasured anions and hyperchloremia. It has been suggested that metabolic acidosis might have a negative impact on progression of kidney dysfunction and that sodium bicarbonate administration might attenuate this effect, but further evaluation is required to validate such a renoprotective strategy. Sodium bicarbonate is the predominant buffer used in dialysis fluids and patients on maintenance dialysis are subjected to a load of sodium bicarbonate during the sessions, suffering a transient metabolic alkalosis of variable severity. Side effects associated with sodium bicarbonate therapy include hypercapnia, hypokalemia, ionized hypocalcemia, and QTc inter Continue reading >>

Acidosis: Causes, Symptoms, & Treatments

Acidosis: Causes, Symptoms, & Treatments

Acidosis is a health condition that occurs when your blood or body tissues become too acidic. This situation usually happens when your body produces too much acid or doesnt eliminate acid quickly. You can also develop acidosis when your body doesnt have enough bases to counter the amount of acid in your body. Your doctor can detect the condition by measuring your bloods pH. If the pH is too low, then there is a good chance that you have acidosis. Acidosis occurs when your bloods pH level falls below 7.35. Your bloods pH should stay between 7.35 and 7.45. Thats a pretty narrow window, so even slight disruptions can cause health problems. You may remember from your high school chemistry class that the lower a substances pH is, the more acidic it is. If a substance has a pH level lower than 7, then it's considered an acid. A substance with a pH level higher than 7 is called basic. Typically, you dont have to do anything to keep your pH in the normal range. For some people, though, acidity becomes a problem. People can get two types of acidosis: respiratory and metabolic. You can get respiratory acidosis when too much CO2 accumulates in your body. Typically, your lungs can eliminate excess CO2. Some health conditions, however, can stop the CO2 elimination process. Common health problems that lead to respiratory acidosis include: Intoxication from alcohol, sedatives, and other drugs Metabolic acidosis happens when your liver cant remove enough acid from your body. There are three types of metabolic acidosis: Diabetic acidosis, which occurs when the bodies of people with poorly controlled diabetes accumulateketones(an acidic organic compound commonly found in people with type 1 diabetes) that increase the bloods acidity. Diabetic acidosis is a temporary condition. Hyperchlor Continue reading >>

Respiratory Acidosis

Respiratory Acidosis

What is respiratory acidosis? Respiratory acidosis is a condition that occurs when the lungs can’t remove enough of the carbon dioxide (CO2) produced by the body. Excess CO2 causes the pH of blood and other bodily fluids to decrease, making them too acidic. Normally, the body is able to balance the ions that control acidity. This balance is measured on a pH scale from 0 to 14. Acidosis occurs when the pH of the blood falls below 7.35 (normal blood pH is between 7.35 and 7.45). Respiratory acidosis is typically caused by an underlying disease or condition. This is also called respiratory failure or ventilatory failure. Normally, the lungs take in oxygen and exhale CO2. Oxygen passes from the lungs into the blood. CO2 passes from the blood into the lungs. However, sometimes the lungs can’t remove enough CO2. This may be due to a decrease in respiratory rate or decrease in air movement due to an underlying condition such as: There are two forms of respiratory acidosis: acute and chronic. Acute respiratory acidosis occurs quickly. It’s a medical emergency. Left untreated, symptoms will get progressively worse. It can become life-threatening. Chronic respiratory acidosis develops over time. It doesn’t cause symptoms. Instead, the body adapts to the increased acidity. For example, the kidneys produce more bicarbonate to help maintain balance. Chronic respiratory acidosis may not cause symptoms. Developing another illness may cause chronic respiratory acidosis to worsen and become acute respiratory acidosis. Initial signs of acute respiratory acidosis include: headache anxiety blurred vision restlessness confusion Without treatment, other symptoms may occur. These include: sleepiness or fatigue lethargy delirium or confusion shortness of breath coma The chronic form of Continue reading >>

Metabolic Acidosis Symptoms And Treatment

Metabolic Acidosis Symptoms And Treatment

Do you often feel tired and out of breath? Find yourself breathing rapidly after light exercise, but still feel like you’re suffocating? These are symptoms of metabolic acidosis, a potentially dangerous condition you should not ignore. Metabolic acidosis is a temporary condition where your blood pH drops to dangerously low levels. A healthy body can compensate, but If you are older, or have health challenges, your body may not be able to compensate for the acidity. If this happens to you frequently, you need to take action. To fight metabolic acidosis, you need to raise the pH of your blood back to a safe level. A recent clinical study reveals that one of the best ways to do this is to drink a glass of alkaline water. Four Types of Metabolic Acidosis Respiratory Acidosis: happens when your blood has high levels of CO2 in it. CO2 acidifies your blood, and your body responds by breathing rapidly and deeply in an effort to expel the CO2 from your lungs. A normally healthy person will experience respiratory acidosis when they exercise. But if you’re health is poor, or you don’t get much exercise, even regular daily activities can leave you feeling out of breath. Hyperchloremic acidosis: happens when your body’s supply of sodium bicarbonate gets too low. It is caused by dehydration and severe diarrhea, which drains your body of electrolytes. Diabetic acidosis: Also called diabetic ketoacidosis or DKA occurs with type 1 diabetes. It happens when substances known as ketones build up in your body. Lactic acidosis: Is caused by a buildup of lactic acid in the body. It is most commonly caused by vigorous exercise, but lactic acidosis can be caused by any of these conditions: Alcohol Tumors Vigorous exercise Liver failure Low blood sugar Salicylates (some medications) Lack Continue reading >>

Acidosis Relief

Acidosis Relief

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z When talking about pH (potential hydrogen) the scale goes from 0-14, with 0 being acidic and 7 being neutral moving to 14 which is alkaline. In human health, we need to consider urine pH, saliva pH and blood pH. Blood pH has a normal range of 7.35-7.45. Anything outside that range is considered dangerous and life threatening. Compared to the overall scale, that is a pretty small window. Urine and saliva ranges are much more forgiving. Acidosis of the blood is the topic here, please refer to Acid Reflux and pH monitoring in the Blog section for more on acidity. People most likely to get acidic blood include those with impaired breathing conditions, or with kidney or liver damage. Essentially the body makes more acid than it can get rid of, resulting in acidosis. In respiratory acidosis, the body is unable to get rid of carbon dioxide in appropriate amounts causing carbon dioxide build-up. Someone with persistent hyperventilation could briefly become acidotic, and various lung diseases or lung impairment may result in the condition. Sometimes being on a respirator in a hospital for long periods of time might result in respiratory or pulmonary versions of this condition, which is why those on respirators have blood gases checked regularly. Other things that may cause acidic blood levels include starving the body and scuba diving. Certain poisons may result in an acidotic state too, opioids (sedative narcotics) and strong sleeping pills can cause acidosis. Some conditions, especially diabetes, are indicators in causing this condition, and when untreated, it may progress to what is called metabolic acidosis. The symptoms of metabolic forms of this condition can include deep, rapid breathing, chest pain, pain in the bones, Continue reading >>

Respiratory Acidosis: Is The Correction With Bicarbonate Worth?

Respiratory Acidosis: Is The Correction With Bicarbonate Worth?

Respiratory acidosis: is the correction with bicarbonate worth? Gattinoni L, et al. Minerva Anestesiol. 2006. Institute of Anesthesia and Intensive Care, University of Milan, Milan, Italy. [email protected] Minerva Anestesiol. 2006 Jun;72(6):551-7. Bicarbonate infusion is traditionally used to increase pH during metabolic acidosis, but it has been also suggested to increase the pH during permissive hypercapnia. In this paper we will discuss the physicochemical effect of adding (Na+ HCO3-), first in a closed system (venous blood) and then in an open system (the blood after the lung). According to Stewart model, in the closed system two independent variables are changed (CO2 and strong ion difference). As a first result changes in pH are negligible. If the CO2 is cleared by the lung and the PCO2 is maintained as before the infusion, the rise in pH is due to the SID increase caused by the (Na+) rise. The effect is independent on (HCO3-) infusion and equivalent to adding (Na+ OH-) instead of (Na+ HCO3-). Continue reading >>

The Use Of Sodium Bicarbonate In The Treatment Of Acidosis In Sepsis: A Literature Update On A Long Term Debate

The Use Of Sodium Bicarbonate In The Treatment Of Acidosis In Sepsis: A Literature Update On A Long Term Debate

Volume2015(2015), Article ID605830, 7 pages The Use of Sodium Bicarbonate in the Treatment of Acidosis in Sepsis: A Literature Update on a Long Term Debate 1Internal Medicine Department, University Hospital of Patras, 26500 Rion, Greece 2University of Patras School of Medicine, 26500 Rion, Greece 3Intensive Care Department, Brugmann University Hospital, 1030 Brussels, Belgium 4Department of Anesthesiology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO 63110, USA Received 22 March 2015; Revised 29 June 2015; Accepted 1 July 2015 Copyright 2015 Dimitrios Velissaris et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Introduction. Sepsis and its consequences such as metabolic acidosis are resulting in increased mortality. Although correction of metabolic acidosis with sodium bicarbonate seems a reasonable approach, there is ongoing debate regarding the role of bicarbonates as a therapeutic option. Methods. We conducted a PubMed literature search in order to identify published literature related to the effects of sodium bicarbonate treatment on metabolic acidosis due to sepsis. The search included all articles published in English in the last 35 years. Results. There is ongoing debate regarding the use of bicarbonates for the treatment of acidosis in sepsis, but there is a trend towards not using bicarbonate in sepsis patients with arterial blood gas . Conclusions. Routine use of bicarbonate for treatment of severe acidemia and lactic acidosis due to sepsis is subject of controversy, and current opinion does not favor routine use of bicarbonates. However, available evidence is inconclusive, and Continue reading >>

Baking Soda Taken Orally Can Cause Alkalosis (the Opposite Of Acidosis)

Baking Soda Taken Orally Can Cause Alkalosis (the Opposite Of Acidosis)

Baking soda taken orally can cause Alkalosis (the opposite of acidosis) The baking soda treatment of ingesting it orally is one of the alternative treatments that I am quite reluctant to support. Taking antacids or baking soda, if you are clearly getting too much stomach acids is good. But taking too much of it can back fire. I know most cancer patients who lean towards alternative treatments, get too excited about baking soda as it gives immediate relief and it is cheap. Make sure you only take a small amount of baking soda solution at any given time, since alkaline substances can neutralize most if not all acids in the stomach, causing the stomach to create more acid. This can, in turn, lead to more heartburn, which will cause you to ingest more baking soda solution and start a dangerous cycle. Metabolic alkalosis is the most common acid-base disturbance observed in hospitalized patients, accounting for approximately 50% of all acid-base disorders. Severe alkalosis causes diffuse arteriolar constriction with reduction in tissue perfusion. By decreasing cerebral blood flow, alkalosis may lead to tetany, seizures, and decreased mental status. Metabolic alkalosis also decreases coronary blood flow and predisposes persons to refractory arrhythmias. Metabolic alkalosis causes hypoventilation, which may cause hypoxemia, especially in patients with poor respiratory reserve, and it may impair weaning from mechanical ventilation. Alkalosis decreases the serum concentration of ionized calcium by increasing calcium ion binding to albumin. In addition, metabolic alkalosis is almost always associated with hypokalemia (low potassium levels), which can cause neuromuscular weakness and arrhythmias, and, by increasing ammonia production, it can precipitate hepatic encephalopathy in s Continue reading >>

Metabolic Vs. Respiratory Acidosis

Metabolic Vs. Respiratory Acidosis

Watch short & fun videos Start Your Free Trial Today Log in or sign up to add this lesson to a Custom Course. Custom Courses are courses that you create from Study.com lessons. Use them just like other courses to track progress, access quizzes and exams, and share content. Organize and share selected lessons with your class. Make planning easier by creating your own custom course. Create a new course from any lesson page or your dashboard. Click "Add to" located below the video player and follow the prompts to name your course and save your lesson. Click on the "Custom Courses" tab, then click "Create course". Next, go to any lesson page and begin adding lessons. Edit your Custom Course directly from your dashboard. Name your Custom Course and add an optional description or learning objective. Create chapters to group lesson within your course. Remove and reorder chapters and lessons at any time. Share your Custom Course or assign lessons and chapters. Share or assign lessons and chapters by clicking the "Teacher" tab on the lesson or chapter page you want to assign. Students' quiz scores and video views will be trackable in your "Teacher" tab. You can share your Custom Course by copying and pasting the course URL. Only Study.com members will be able to access the entire course. We are going to learn about the two different types of acidosis and how they develop. This lesson will explain the differences and similarities that exist between the symptoms and treatments. What comes to mind when you think about acid? You might think about foods that contain acid, such as citrus fruit, or you may think about the battery in your car that contains acid. What probably didn't come to mind is your blood. Our blood is nowhere near as acidic as battery acid or citrus fruit, but the Continue reading >>

Intravenous Sodium Bicarbonate

Intravenous Sodium Bicarbonate

Robin Gross, William Peruzzi, in Critical Care Medicine (Third Edition) , 2008 Intravenous sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) solution is an appropriate intervention for reversing metabolic acidemia, provided that lung and cardiac function are adequate. NaHCO3 solution adds HCO3 to the blood only after the CO2 load inherent in the NaHCO3 solution is eliminated by the lungs. When NaHCO3 solution is administered to a patient with acute ventilatory failure (respiratory acidosis), the Paco2 usually increases, and pH decreases because the CO2 load cannot be eliminated. As illustrated in Figure 14-8, low cardiac output may be a limiting factor in CO2 excretion. When NaHCO3 solution is administered to a patient with very poor cardiac output, the venous blood shows a paradoxical respiratory acidosis. When NaHCO3 is administered intravenously to correct severe metabolic acidemia, it is essential to quantify the abnormality as a guide to therapy. A simple way to calculate the amount of bicarbonate to administer is: mmol HCO3 = base deficit (mmol/L) ideal weight (kg) 0.25 (L/kg) where 0.25 represents the volume of distribution of the bicarbonate. It is generally prudent to administer one half to one third of the calculated deficit, obtain another ABG sample in 5 minutes, and re-evaluate. In Pocket Companion to Brenner and Rector's The Kidney (Eighth Edition) , 2011 In cases of intractable shock, metabolic acidosis may persist despite volume expansion and improved oxygen delivery. Intravenous bicarbonate is often used in this setting in an attempt to improve cardiac function. However, decreased cardiac contractility in the setting of lactic acidosis may be partially due to hypoxemia, hypoperfusion, or sepsis, and establishing the direct effects of the low pH is difficult. Many patients t Continue reading >>

Conditions That Suggest Acidosis:

Conditions That Suggest Acidosis:

Acidosis: Overview Alternative names: Metabolic acidosis, Respiratory acidosis, Acidemia Acidosis is defined as a state of increased acidity in the blood and body tissues. Under normal circumstances the kidneys and lungs automatically compensate for pH imbalances; acidosis occurs when, for some reason, this no longer happens. Acidosis is defined as an arterial pH below 7.35. It can lead to numerous health issues, and even death. There are two types of acidosis, Metabolic Acidosis (caused by overproduction of acid in the blood, or excessive loss of bicarbonate from the blood) and Respiratory Acidosis (a buildup of carbon dioxide in the blood due to impaired lung function or reduced breathing ability). Causes and Development; Contributing Risk Factors The naturopathic theory behind a proper dietary acid/alkaline balance is that because our body's blood pH is slightly alkaline, with a normal range of 7.36-7.44, our diet should reflect this preference and tend more towards alkaline foods. An imbalanced, acidic diet high in animal protein, sugar, caffeine and processed foods tends to disrupt this pH balance. This deprives the body of alkaline minerals such as sodium, potassium, magnesium and calcium and leaves us prone to chronic and degenerative diseases. Metabolic acidosis is associated with the kidneys and can be caused by increased production of metabolic acids, reduced ability of the kidneys to excrete acids, or by the kidneys removing too much base. Many of the body's metabolic processes produce acid. One type of metabolic acidosis is lactic acidosis, which occurs when there is too much lactic acid in the body. This can be caused by long-term alcohol abuse, heart failure, cancer, seizures, liver failure, a prolonged lack of oxygen, starvation, or low blood sugar. Diabe Continue reading >>

Acidosis

Acidosis

The kidneys and lungs maintain the balance (proper pH level) of chemicals called acids and bases in the body. Acidosis occurs when acid builds up or when bicarbonate (a base) is lost. Acidosis is classified as either respiratory or metabolic acidosis. Respiratory acidosis develops when there is too much carbon dioxide (an acid) in the body. This type of acidosis is usually caused when the body is unable to remove enough carbon dioxide through breathing. Other names for respiratory acidosis are hypercapnic acidosis and carbon dioxide acidosis. Causes of respiratory acidosis include: Chest deformities, such as kyphosis Chest injuries Chest muscle weakness Chronic lung disease Overuse of sedative drugs Metabolic acidosis develops when too much acid is produced in the body. It can also occur when the kidneys cannot remove enough acid from the body. There are several types of metabolic acidosis: Diabetic acidosis (also called diabetic ketoacidosis and DKA) develops when substances called ketone bodies (which are acidic) build up during uncontrolled diabetes. Hyperchloremic acidosis is caused by the loss of too much sodium bicarbonate from the body, which can happen with severe diarrhea. Poisoning by aspirin, ethylene glycol (found in antifreeze), or methanol Lactic acidosis is a buildup of lactic acid. Lactic acid is mainly produced in muscle cells and red blood cells. It forms when the body breaks down carbohydrates to use for energy when oxygen levels are low. This can be caused by: Cancer Drinking too much alcohol Exercising vigorously for a very long time Liver failure Low blood sugar (hypoglycemia) Medications, such as salicylates MELAS (a very rare genetic mitochondrial disorder that affects energy production) Prolonged lack of oxygen from shock, heart failure, or seve Continue reading >>

Chapter 17 Questions

Chapter 17 Questions

Increasing respiratory rate and depth when CO2 levels in the blood are high, reducing acid load A patient has the following arterial blood gas results: PH 7.52, paCO2 30, HCO3 24, The nurse determines that these results indicate? You are admitting a patient with complaints of abdominal pain nausea and vomiting. A bowel obstruction is suspected. You assess this patient for which anticipated primary acid-base imbalance if the obstruction is high in the intestine? (because gastric secretions are rich and hydrochloric acid, The patient who is vomiting will lose a significant amount of gastric acid) You are caring for a patient admitted with an exacerbation of asthma. After several treatments the ABG results are: PH 7.40, paCO2 40, HCO3 24, paO2 92, and O2 saturation of 99%. You interpret these results as? You are caring for a patient admitted with a diagnosis of COPD Who has the following ABG results: PH 7.33, paO2 47, paCO2 60, HCO3 32, and O2 saturation of 92%. What is the correct interpretation of these results? Partially compensated respiratory acidosis Continue reading >>

Acidosis And Alkalosis

Acidosis And Alkalosis

A list of those foods which are acidic in nature and those which are alkaline in nature can be found on the following web sites. As a general rule, vegan food, especially vegetables and greens, tend to be alkaline in nature, whereas meat and dairy products, and also oils/fats (of both plant and animal origin) tend to be acidic in nature (when digested). Most fruit is alkaline producing, although a small minority is acid producing (e.g. cranberries, blueberries, plums etc. All dried fruits are classified as acid producing, and also sweet for food combining. If you eat a snack of dried fruit instead of fresh fruit, you will be amazed at how much lower your urine pH is for the rest of the day. Grains and beans are also in general acid producing, although Millet is considered Alkaline producing. Foods containing protein are broken down into amino acids, which are of course acidic, so the more protein sources one ingests, the more acidic one's diet will be. Sprouted grains and beans are less acid producing than their unsprouted forms. Oils are of course acids by their chemical nature, be they essentil fatty acids or saturated fats. Fermented foods (e.g. raw Tempeh, Miso or fermented vegetables) are also considered alkaline producing, even though they are actually acidic (lactic acid produced during probiotic fermentation). Eating more algae/green superfoods, vegetable juicing and eating more vegetables and raw foods may indeed help to raise the body's pH, but one must also take into consideration what types of food one can tolerate and in what quantities, and also the fact that alkaline foods, especially when raw, have a large 'cold energy' component and may be more difficult to digest and may imbalance the body and contribute to ill health in some individuals, as strange a Continue reading >>

A Glucocorticoids B Adh C Parathormone D Atrial Natriuretic Peptides E

A Glucocorticoids B Adh C Parathormone D Atrial Natriuretic Peptides E

31) ______ sweating. the feces. the kidneys. buffers. the liver. 32) The primary role of the carbonic-acid-bicarbonate buffer system is to 32) ______ increase ventilation. buffer stomach acid. buffer carbonic acid formed by carbon dioxide. limit pH changes caused by organic and fixed acids. buffer the urine. 33) Hypoventilation leads to 33) ______ A) metabolic acidosis. B) respiratory acidosis. C) respiratory alkalosis. D) metabolic alkalosis. 34) In response to respiratory alkalosis, the 34) ______ respiratory rate increases. kidneys conserve bicarbonate. tidal volume increases. kidneys retain more hydrogen ions. kidneys secrete more hydrogen ions. 35) Prolonged vomiting can result in 35) ______ respiratory acidosis. metabolic alkalosis. respiratory alkalosis. metabolic acidosis. 36) A person with emphysema will exhibit signs of 36) ______ chronic metabolic acidosis. acute respiratory acidosis. chronic respiratory acidosis. chronic respiratory alkalosis. 37) A person with poorly controlled diabetes mellitus will develop 37) ______ A) respiratory alkalosis. B) metabolic alkalosis. C) metabolic acidosis. D) This preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version. Continue reading >>

More in ketosis