diabetestalk.net

Are Ketones Acids

5 Reasons To Use Mct Oil For Ketosis

5 Reasons To Use Mct Oil For Ketosis

Medium chain triglycerides (MCT’s) are unique fatty acids that are found naturally in coconut and palm oils. They have a remarkable ability to stabilize blood sugar and enhance ketone body production. This process makes MCT’s a powerful tool to reduce inflammation, improve metabolism and enhance cognitive function. The term “medium” is in reference to the length of the chain of fatty acids. Oils can have short, medium or long chains. Most oils are a combination of short, medium and long chain fatty acids. Medium chain fatty acids by definition are fatty acids that contain between 6 and 12 carbon chains (1). These include: C6 – Caproic Acid C8 – Caprylic Acid C10 – Capric Acid C12 – Lauric Acid MCTs Are Easily Digested: MCTs are easily digested and do not require the production and utilization of bile. Most fatty acids depend upon bile salt emulsification in order to be metabolized and absorbed. The production of bile is an energy dependent process that takes place in the liver. The body stores extra bile in the gallbladder to use for high fat meals. Individuals with a sluggish liver and gallbladder struggle to produce adequate bile. Other individuals who struggle with malnutrition or malabsorption syndromes can easily absorb and utilize these MCTs (2). This includes people with pancreatitis, cystic fibrosis & Crohn’s disease among others. MCTs have a slightly lower caloric effect than typical long-chain fatty acids (LCFA). LCFAs have 9 calories per gram while MCTs have 8.3 calories per gram (3). How MCTs Work: The mitochondria are small organs within your cells that are responsible for producing all the energy needed by your tissues. Fatty acids produce energy in the mitochondria but are dependent upon the L-carnitine compound in order for entry. MCTs Continue reading >>

Is A Ketone An Acid Or A Base?

Is A Ketone An Acid Or A Base?

Ketones are in fact weak acids. This comes from an ability to shift the places of the double bond and one of the hydrogen atoms, resulting in an alcohol compound with a double bond between two of the carbon atoms. This is called an enol, and is less stable than the ketone - the two are in rapid equilibrium. This enol may lose a hydrogen ion to become an enolate. This happens only when a ketone is reacted with a strong base. Continue reading >>

1. Nomenclature Of Aldehydes And Ketones

1. Nomenclature Of Aldehydes And Ketones

Aldehydes and ketones are organic compounds which incorporate a carbonyl functional group, C=O. The carbon atom of this group has two remaining bonds that may be occupied by hydrogen or alkyl or aryl substituents. If at least one of these substituents is hydrogen, the compound is an aldehyde. If neither is hydrogen, the compound is a ketone. The IUPAC system of nomenclature assigns a characteristic suffix to these classes, al to aldehydes and one to ketones. For example, H2C=O is methanal, more commonly called formaldehyde. Since an aldehyde carbonyl group must always lie at the end of a carbon chain, it is by default position #1, and therefore defines the numbering direction. A ketone carbonyl function may be located anywhere within a chain or ring, and its position is given by a locator number. Chain numbering normally starts from the end nearest the carbonyl group. In cyclic ketones the carbonyl group is assigned position #1, and this number is not cited in the name, unless more than one carbonyl group is present. If you are uncertain about the IUPAC rules for nomenclature you should review them now. Examples of IUPAC names are provided (in blue) in the following diagram. Common names are in red, and derived names in black. In common names carbon atoms near the carbonyl group are often designated by Greek letters. The atom adjacent to the function is alpha, the next removed is beta and so on. Since ketones have two sets of neighboring atoms, one set is labeled α, β etc., and the other α', β' etc. Very simple ketones, such as propanone and phenylethanone (first two examples in the right column), do not require a locator number, since there is only one possible site for a ketone carbonyl function. Likewise, locator numbers are omitted for the simple dialdehyde at t Continue reading >>

Ketones On Acid

Ketones On Acid

Acids are like an aphrodisiac for carbonyl compounds: it makes them more likely to react with nucleophiles. Let me explain. I said the last two days that carbonyl carbons are important electrophiles: they bear a partial positive charge. Now, I’m going to show how you can make them even more electrophilic – more reactive. This means that reactions that normally wouldn’t happen, will now happen. First, a question: How do we make electrophiles more electrophilic? Simple: we take electrons away from them! How can we take electrons away? With carbonyls, the answer might be a bit counterintuitive. We’re going to add acid to the oxygen, and this will make the carbon more electron-poor. Sounds weird, but it actually makes sense when you think about it. Think about the resonance forms of the carbonyl: its most stable resonance form has a carbon-oxygen double bond (neutral) and the less stable resonance form has a positive charge on carbon and a negative charge on oxygen. So the “resonance hybrid” has a small partial positive charge on carbon, because of that resonance form on the right. Now let’s add acid – say, H+ . The oxygen will go from “owning” a pair of electrons, to “sharing” it with the hydrogen. So it formally “loses” an electron to give a positively charged oxygen. (Watch out though: remember that “formal charge” doesn’t tell us about electron densities: electronegativity does. So even though there’s a “formal charge” of +1 on the oxygen, it’s still electron-rich compared to hydrogen and carbon) With me so far? If this isn’t clear, write me! If everything is OK, let’s keep going. Think about what this does to the resonance forms. Now, both resonance forms have a charge of +1 . This means that the right-hand resonance form ( Continue reading >>

Aldehydes, Ketones, Carboxylic Acids, And Esters

Aldehydes, Ketones, Carboxylic Acids, And Esters

Learning Objectives By the end of this section, you will be able to: Describe the structure and properties of aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids and esters Another class of organic molecules contains a carbon atom connected to an oxygen atom by a double bond, commonly called a carbonyl group. The trigonal planar carbon in the carbonyl group can attach to two other substituents leading to several subfamilies (aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids and esters) described in this section. Aldehydes and Ketones Both aldehydes and ketones contain a carbonyl group, a functional group with a carbon-oxygen double bond. The names for aldehyde and ketone compounds are derived using similar nomenclature rules as for alkanes and alcohols, and include the class-identifying suffixes –al and –one, respectively: In an aldehyde, the carbonyl group is bonded to at least one hydrogen atom. In a ketone, the carbonyl group is bonded to two carbon atoms: In both aldehydes and ketones, the geometry around the carbon atom in the carbonyl group is trigonal planar; the carbon atom exhibits sp2 hybridization. Two of the sp2 orbitals on the carbon atom in the carbonyl group are used to form σ bonds to the other carbon or hydrogen atoms in a molecule. The remaining sp2 hybrid orbital forms a σ bond to the oxygen atom. The unhybridized p orbital on the carbon atom in the carbonyl group overlaps a p orbital on the oxygen atom to form the π bond in the double bond. Like the C=O bond in carbon dioxide, the C=O bond of a carbonyl group is polar (recall that oxygen is significantly more electronegative than carbon, and the shared electrons are pulled toward the oxygen atom and away from the carbon atom). Many of the reactions of aldehydes and ketones start with the reaction between a Lewis base and Continue reading >>

Long Term Exposure To Fatty Acids And Ketones Inhibits B-cell Functions In Human Pancreatic Islets Of Langerhans.

Long Term Exposure To Fatty Acids And Ketones Inhibits B-cell Functions In Human Pancreatic Islets Of Langerhans.

Abstract We previously demonstrated in the rat that long term exposure to fatty acids inhibits B-cell function in vivo and in vitro. To further assess the clinical significance of these findings, we tested in human islets the effects of fatty acids on glucose-induced insulin release and biosynthesis and on pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) activity. Human islets were obtained from the beta-Cell Transplant Unit (Brussels, Belgium). Exposure to 0.125 mmol/L palmitate or oleate for 48 h during tissue culture (RPMI-1640 and 5.5 mmol/L glucose) inhibited the postculture insulin response to 27 mmol/L glucose by 40% and 42% (P < 0.01 for difference). Inhibition was partly prevented by coculture with 1 mumol/L etomoxir, a carnitine-palmitoyl-transferase-I inhibitor (P < 0.05 for effect of etomoxir). Inhibitory effects on glucose-induced insulin secretion by previous palmitate were additive to the inhibitory effects exerted by previous high glucose (11 and 27 mmol/L). Palmitate-induced inhibition of insulin secretion was evident after exposure to 25 mumol/L added fatty acid. The insulin content of islets exposed to fatty acids was significantly reduced, and glucose-induced proinsulin biosynthesis was inhibited by 59% after palmitate addition and by 51% after oleate exposure (P < 0.01). These effects were partly prevented by etomoxir (P < 0.05). The activity of PDH in mitochondrial extracts of islets preexposed for 48 h to palmitate was decreased by 35% (P < 0.05) vs. that in control islets, whereas the activity of PDH kinase (which inactivates PDH) was significantly increased in the same preparations (P < 0.05). The effects of ketones were tested by 48-h exposure to beta-hydroxybutyrate (beta-D-OHB). Ten millimoles of D-beta-OHB per L inhibited the subsequently tested insulin respons Continue reading >>

Reactions Of Aldehydes And Ketones

Reactions Of Aldehydes And Ketones

Aldehydes and ketones undergo a variety of reactions that lead to many different products. The most common reactions are nucleophilic addition reactions, which lead to the formation of alcohols, alkenes, diols, cyanohydrins (RCH(OH)C&tbond;N), and imines R 2C&dbond;NR), to mention a few representative examples. The main reactions of the carbonyl group are nucleophilic additions to the carbon‐oxygen double bond. As shown below, this addition consists of adding a nucleophile and a hydrogen across the carbon‐oxygen double bond. Due to differences in electronegativities, the carbonyl group is polarized. The carbon atom has a partial positive charge, and the oxygen atom has a partially negative charge. Aldehydes are usually more reactive toward nucleophilic substitutions than ketones because of both steric and electronic effects. In aldehydes, the relatively small hydrogen atom is attached to one side of the carbonyl group, while a larger R group is affixed to the other side. In ketones, however, R groups are attached to both sides of the carbonyl group. Thus, steric hindrance is less in aldehydes than in ketones. Electronically, aldehydes have only one R group to supply electrons toward the partially positive carbonyl carbon, while ketones have two electron‐supplying groups attached to the carbonyl carbon. The greater amount of electrons being supplied to the carbonyl carbon, the less the partial positive charge on this atom and the weaker it will become as a nucleus. The addition of water to an aldehyde results in the formation of a hydrate. The formation of a hydrate proceeds via a nucleophilic addition mechanism. 1. Water, acting as a nucleophile, is attracted to the partially positive carbon of the carbonyl group, generating an oxonium ion. Acetal formation reacti Continue reading >>

Direct Conversion Of Carboxylic Acids To Alkyl Ketones

Direct Conversion Of Carboxylic Acids To Alkyl Ketones

Abstract An efficient and mild method for acyl–Csp3 bond formation based on the direct conversion of carboxylic acids has been established. This protocol is enabled by the synergistic, Ir-photoredox/nickel catalytic cross-coupling of in situ activated carboxylic acids and alkyltrifluoroborates. This versatile method is amenable to the cross-coupling of structurally diverse carboxylic acids with various potassium alkyltrifluoroborates, affording the corresponding ketones with high yields. In this operationally simple cross-coupling protocol, aliphatic ketones are obtained in one step from bench stable, readily available carboxylic acids. Continue reading >>

Oxidation Of Aldehydes And Ketones

Oxidation Of Aldehydes And Ketones

This page looks at ways of distinguishing between aldehydes and ketones using oxidising agents such as acidified potassium dichromate(VI) solution, Tollens' reagent, Fehling's solution and Benedict's solution. Background Why do aldehydes and ketones behave differently? You will remember that the difference between an aldehyde and a ketone is the presence of a hydrogen atom attached to the carbon-oxygen double bond in the aldehyde. Ketones don't have that hydrogen. The presence of that hydrogen atom makes aldehydes very easy to oxidise. Or, put another way, they are strong reducing agents. Note: If you aren't sure about oxidation and reduction, it would be a good idea to follow this link to another part of the site before you go on. Alternatively, come back to this link if you feel you need help later on in this page. Use the BACK button (or HISTORY file or GO menu if you get seriously waylaid) on your browser to return to this page. Because ketones don't have that particular hydrogen atom, they are resistant to oxidation. Only very strong oxidising agents like potassium manganate(VII) solution (potassium permanganate solution) oxidise ketones - and they do it in a destructive way, breaking carbon-carbon bonds. Provided you avoid using these powerful oxidising agents, you can easily tell the difference between an aldehyde and a ketone. Aldehydes are easily oxidised by all sorts of different oxidising agents: ketones aren't. You will find details of these reactions further down the page. What is formed when aldehydes are oxidised? It depends on whether the reaction is done under acidic or alkaline conditions. Under acidic conditions, the aldehyde is oxidised to a carboxylic acid. Under alkaline conditions, this couldn't form because it would react with the alkali. A salt Continue reading >>

Carboxylic Acid Derivative Answers

Carboxylic Acid Derivative Answers

Qu1: Hydrolysis is a nucleophilic acyl substitution reaction, typical of carboxylic acid derivatives. First task should be to identify the functional groups in each molecule then use the reactivity order. It can be rationalised based on (i) the interaction of the substituent and the carbonyl group, and, (ii) the ability of the substituent to function as a leaving group. Qu2: All the carboxylic acids in Qu 1 are derivatives of ethanoic acid, so they all give the same carboxylic acid... Qu3: LiAlH4 is a source of H- (a nucleophile) which functions as a reducing agent. First task should be to identify the functional groups : carboxylic acid, ketone, aldehyde, ester. The aldehyde and ketone will undergo nucleophilic addition, the acid and the ester nucleophilic acyl substitution. Consider the electrophilicity of the carbonyl group in each compound in each pair. Aldehydes are more reactive than ketones (chapter 17) as they are less hindered and the alkyl group in the ketone is a weak electron donor. Under the reaction condition s the carboxylic acid will deprotonate to give the carboxylate which is a very poor electrophile (after all, it has a negative charge !) so the ester is more reactive than the acid. Now combine the two pairs. Since the -OR group is a stronger electron donor (resonance) than the alkyl group of the ketone, the ester is less reactive than the ketone... so we get : (b) The aldehyde, carboxylic acid and ester will be reduced to the same product, benzyl alcohol. The ketone will be reduced to 1-phenylethanol, C6H5CH(OH)CH3 Qu4: The answers the these questions involve materials from this chapter and review from chapters 10 and 19 Continue reading >>

Getting To Know Ketones

Getting To Know Ketones

People with diabetes, particularly those with Type 1 diabetes, have been at least vaguely aware of the word ketones for a long time. With the recent resurgence of popular interest in low-carbohydrate diets, however, just about everyone seems to be talking about ketones these days. But does anyone really know what ketones are? Are they a danger to your health (as in diabetic ketoacidosis), or a sign that you have lowered your carbohydrate intake enough to cause weight loss (as some people who follow low-carbohydrate diets believe)? What are ketones? Ketones are end-products of fat metabolism in the body. That is, they are formed when fat is burned for energy by the muscles. Chemically, they are acids known as ketone bodies, and there are three types: beta-hydroxybutyric acid, aceto-acetic acid, and acetone. But you don’t have to be a chemist to understand what role they play in the body. To get to know ketones, it’s helpful to understand how your body burns fuel. A simple analogy is that of an automobile. For a car engine to run, the engine must burn fuel (gasoline), and when the fuel is burned, exhaust (carbon monoxide) is created. The carbon monoxide is the end-product of gasoline combustion. Your body also has an engine that must burn fuel to operate. The engine is muscle, and the fuel is fat, carbohydrate (glucose), and, in certain conditions, protein. When fat is burned, the “exhaust” is ketones, and when glucose is burned, the “exhaust” is lactic acid. Fat is more desirable as a fuel than glucose because there are more calories in a gram of fat (9 calories per gram) than there are in a gram of glucose (4 calories per gram), so you get more energy per gram of fat burned. In a sense, you could call fat a high-test fuel. But there is one catch to burning f Continue reading >>

Ketone Body Metabolism

Ketone Body Metabolism

Ketone body metabolism includes ketone body synthesis (ketogenesis) and breakdown (ketolysis). When the body goes from the fed to the fasted state the liver switches from an organ of carbohydrate utilization and fatty acid synthesis to one of fatty acid oxidation and ketone body production. This metabolic switch is amplified in uncontrolled diabetes. In these states the fat-derived energy (ketone bodies) generated in the liver enter the blood stream and are used by other organs, such as the brain, heart, kidney cortex and skeletal muscle. Ketone bodies are particularly important for the brain which has no other substantial non-glucose-derived energy source. The two main ketone bodies are acetoacetate (AcAc) and 3-hydroxybutyrate (3HB) also referred to as β-hydroxybutyrate, with acetone the third, and least abundant. Ketone bodies are always present in the blood and their levels increase during fasting and prolonged exercise. After an over-night fast, ketone bodies supply 2–6% of the body's energy requirements, while they supply 30–40% of the energy needs after a 3-day fast. When they build up in the blood they spill over into the urine. The presence of elevated ketone bodies in the blood is termed ketosis and the presence of ketone bodies in the urine is called ketonuria. The body can also rid itself of acetone through the lungs which gives the breath a fruity odour. Diabetes is the most common pathological cause of elevated blood ketones. In diabetic ketoacidosis, high levels of ketone bodies are produced in response to low insulin levels and high levels of counter-regulatory hormones. Ketone bodies The term ‘ketone bodies’ refers to three molecules, acetoacetate (AcAc), 3-hydroxybutyrate (3HB) and acetone (Figure 1). 3HB is formed from the reduction of AcAc i Continue reading >>

Urine Tests For Diabetes: Glucose Levels And Ketones

Urine Tests For Diabetes: Glucose Levels And Ketones

The human body primarily runs on glucose. When your body is low on glucose, or if you have diabetes and don’t have enough insulin to help your cells absorb the glucose, your body starts breaking down fats for energy. Ketones (chemically known as ketone bodies) are byproducts of the breakdown of fatty acids. The breakdown of fat for fuel and the creation of ketones is a normal process for everyone. In a person without diabetes, insulin, glucagon, and other hormones prevent ketone levels in the blood from getting too high. However, people with diabetes are at risk for ketone buildup in their blood. If left untreated, people with type 1 diabetes are at risk for developing a condition called diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA). While rare, it’s possible for people with type 2 diabetes to experience DKA in certain circumstances as well. If you have diabetes, you need to be especially aware of the symptoms that having too many ketones in your body can cause. These include: If you don’t get treatment, the symptoms can progress to: a fruity breath odor stomach pain trouble breathing You should always seek immediate medical attention if your ketone levels are high. Testing your blood or urine to measure your ketone levels can all be done at home. At-home testing kits are available for both types of tests, although urine testing continues to be more common. Urine tests are available without a prescription at most drugstores, or you can buy them online. You should test your urine or blood for ketones when any of the following occurs: Your blood sugar is higher than 240 mg/dL. You feel sick or nauseated, regardless of your blood sugar reading. To perform a urine test, you urinate into a clean container and dip the test strip into the urine. For a child who isn’t potty-trained, a pa Continue reading >>

Why Are Aldehydes And Ketones Neutral And Not Acidic/basic?

Why Are Aldehydes And Ketones Neutral And Not Acidic/basic?

This question is quite general, and as other answers have pointed out, depends on what you mean by acidic/basic. The other answers have already covered the Lewis bit, so I will focus a bit more on the Bronsted-Lowry and Arrhenius definitions. In water, almost all aldehydes and ketones do not dissociate to give the H+ or OH- ion, which is the Arrhenius definition. However, the alpha position of acetylacetone is considered acidic by the Bronsted-Lowry definition, and can be deprotonated by strong bases to give the conjugated enone after tautomerism. This is due to the stability of the conjugate base. Continue reading >>

Ketone

Ketone

Not to be confused with ketone bodies. Ketone group Acetone In chemistry, a ketone (alkanone) /ˈkiːtoʊn/ is an organic compound with the structure RC(=O)R', where R and R' can be a variety of carbon-containing substituents. Ketones and aldehydes are simple compounds that contain a carbonyl group (a carbon-oxygen double bond). They are considered "simple" because they do not have reactive groups like −OH or −Cl attached directly to the carbon atom in the carbonyl group, as in carboxylic acids containing −COOH.[1] Many ketones are known and many are of great importance in industry and in biology. Examples include many sugars (ketoses) and the industrial solvent acetone, which is the smallest ketone. Nomenclature and etymology[edit] The word ketone is derived from Aketon, an old German word for acetone.[2][3] According to the rules of IUPAC nomenclature, ketones are named by changing the suffix -ane of the parent alkane to -anone. The position of the carbonyl group is usually denoted by a number. For the most important ketones, however, traditional nonsystematic names are still generally used, for example acetone and benzophenone. These nonsystematic names are considered retained IUPAC names,[4] although some introductory chemistry textbooks use systematic names such as "2-propanone" or "propan-2-one" for the simplest ketone (CH3−CO−CH3) instead of "acetone". The common names of ketones are obtained by writing separately the names of the two alkyl groups attached to the carbonyl group, followed by "ketone" as a separate word. The names of the alkyl groups are written alphabetically. When the two alkyl groups are the same, the prefix di- is added before the name of alkyl group. The positions of other groups are indicated by Greek letters, the α-carbon being th Continue reading >>

More in ketosis