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Are Ketones Acidic Or Alkaline

The Rate Of The Alkaline Chlorination Of Ketones

The Rate Of The Alkaline Chlorination Of Ketones

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Oxidation Of Aldehydes And Ketones

Oxidation Of Aldehydes And Ketones

This page looks at ways of distinguishing between aldehydes and ketones using oxidising agents such as acidified potassium dichromate(VI) solution, Tollens' reagent, Fehling's solution and Benedict's solution. Background Why do aldehydes and ketones behave differently? You will remember that the difference between an aldehyde and a ketone is the presence of a hydrogen atom attached to the carbon-oxygen double bond in the aldehyde. Ketones don't have that hydrogen. The presence of that hydrogen atom makes aldehydes very easy to oxidise. Or, put another way, they are strong reducing agents. Note: If you aren't sure about oxidation and reduction, it would be a good idea to follow this link to another part of the site before you go on. Alternatively, come back to this link if you feel you need help later on in this page. Use the BACK button (or HISTORY file or GO menu if you get seriously waylaid) on your browser to return to this page. Because ketones don't have that particular hydrogen atom, they are resistant to oxidation. Only very strong oxidising agents like potassium manganate(VII) solution (potassium permanganate solution) oxidise ketones - and they do it in a destructive way, breaking carbon-carbon bonds. Provided you avoid using these powerful oxidising agents, you can easily tell the difference between an aldehyde and a ketone. Aldehydes are easily oxidised by all sorts of different oxidising agents: ketones aren't. You will find details of these reactions further down the page. What is formed when aldehydes are oxidised? It depends on whether the reaction is done under acidic or alkaline conditions. Under acidic conditions, the aldehyde is oxidised to a carboxylic acid. Under alkaline conditions, this couldn't form because it would react with the alkali. A salt Continue reading >>

The Alkaline Diet Vs Acidic Ketones

The Alkaline Diet Vs Acidic Ketones

Acidic foods versus Alkaline foods and their effects on weight loss is a bit of a newer topic so nothing entirely conclusive has been established on the subject. There is, however, a large amount of anecdotal evidence to support that the acidity in foods we consume is a critical component to weight loss and overall health. pH is a measure of how alkaline (high pH 7-14) or acidic (low pH 0-7) a substance is. Our body requires us to be in a relatively moderate alkaline for cells to function properly. If we are not in the proper range, disease and even death are the likely result. Our bodies, naturally, do a pretty good job of managing these levels. Research has shown that when we eat primarily acidic foods, the body will create fat cells to carry acids away from vital organs as a way to prevent these acids from literally "choking organs to death." Unfortunately, this protection mechanism will take priority over shedding pounds and is the most likely reason diets can fail or stall at times - even when you cut calories and increase exercise. So what can you do? EAT MORE FOODS THAT ARE ALKALINE! Generally speaking, proteins and grains are highly acidic while fruits and vegetables are primarily alkaline. Eggs, almonds and dairy are the protein sources that are closest to neutral on the pH scale. Below is a food chart that has ratings for every food: (+++) = highly acidic, (++) = moderately acidic, (+) = slightly acidic, (0) = neutral, (-) slightly alkaline, (--) = moderately alkaline, (---) = highly alkaline. To the extent possible, we want a majority portion of the foods we consume in the alkaline category. Gauge this by adding up the numbers of +'s versus the number of -'s. At the end of the day, we want the total sum to be zero or slightly negative. Here is a list of some Continue reading >>

Organic Chemistry/ketones And Aldehydes

Organic Chemistry/ketones And Aldehydes

Aldehydes () and ketones () are both carbonyl compounds. They are organic compounds in which the carbonyl carbon is connected to C or H atoms on either side. An aldehyde has one or both vacancies of the carbonyl carbon satisfied by a H atom, while a ketone has both its vacancies satisfied by carbon. 3 Preparing Aldehydes and Ketones Ketones are named by replacing the -e in the alkane name with -one. The carbon chain is numbered so that the ketone carbon, called the carbonyl group, gets the lowest number. For example, would be named 2-butanone because the root structure is butane and the ketone group is on the number two carbon. Alternatively, functional class nomenclature of ketones is also recognized by IUPAC, which is done by naming the substituents attached to the carbonyl group in alphabetical order, ending with the word ketone. The above example of 2-butanone can also be named ethyl methyl ketone using this method. If two ketone groups are on the same structure, the ending -dione would be added to the alkane name, such as heptane-2,5-dione. Aldehydes replace the -e ending of an alkane with -al for an aldehyde. Since an aldehyde is always at the carbon that is numbered one, a number designation is not needed. For example, the aldehyde of pentane would simply be pentanal. The -CH=O group of aldehydes is known as a formyl group. When a formyl group is attached to a ring, the ring name is followed by the suffix "carbaldehyde". For example, a hexane ring with a formyl group is named cyclohexanecarbaldehyde. Aldehyde and ketone polarity is characterized by the high dipole moments of their carbonyl group, which makes them rather polar molecules. They are more polar than alkenes and ethers, though because they lack hydrogen, they cannot participate in hydrogen bonding like Continue reading >>

25+ Ph Balancing Foods For The Keto Diet

25+ Ph Balancing Foods For The Keto Diet

There are lots of pH balancing foods on the keto diet, despite it being full of meat which can naturally lower your pH – not a good thing! A keto diet is full of meat and can naturally lower your pH, which can do a whole host of bad things to your body. When your body is acidic, you can actually breed cancer rather than scaring it away, (and one of my main reasons for going keto is to scare cancer away!). Thankfully, there are lots of pH balancing foods on the keto diet. Three years ago I went to a natural health clinic where they tested my pH. This was about a month after being in ketosis for the first time. One major red flag that came up was that my pH was around 6 when it’s supposed to be between 6.4 and 7.4, ideally closer to the 7.4. In fact, they say Cancer dies at a pH of 8. A pH of 6 might not look far off, but it is. A reading of 5.5 is acidosis. Anything below 7 is acidic. To confirm whether you have low pH, all you have to do is buy some pH strips at your local medical supplies store (or online, or perhaps at your local pharmacist, but CVS doesn’t have them.) I keep them in my bathroom. I also run a business, so my stress levels are high all day, every day, which can contribute to a low pH (aka being highly acidic). What also contributes is a diet full o’ meat, amongst other things. When your pH is low, you also absorb 20% less oxygen too; It’s not healthy. Adding pH balancing foods to your diet can help, and is pretty much necessary for a balanced keto diet. It can’t be bacon and eggs all the time! Adding pH balancing foods to your day Something I was told when I got this diagnosis was that when you follow a ketogenic diet, it’s really important to drink lemon water every day. You might think lemons would make a person more acidic, but one web Continue reading >>

The Alkaline Diet: Balancing Acid And Base

The Alkaline Diet: Balancing Acid And Base

If you thought fashion was subject to trends, you should take a look at diets. A couple of weeks ago I wrote about the raw food diet. This week, I’ll focus on what’s called the “alkaline diet,” which is sometimes called the “alkaline acid diet.” Getting Your “pH-acts” Straight My guess is that most of you took chemistry at some point in your school career. Unless you completely tuned out, you may remember a discussion of acid-base balance, which is measured by something called “pH.” The human body has a particular range of pH that it needs to be at for good health. The pH is simply a measure of acid-base balance in the body. A pH of 0 is very acidic, 7 is neutral, and a 14 is very alkaline. In normal situations, the body likes to be at a pH of 7.35 to 7.45. The stomach, however, which is very acidic (thanks to hydrochloric acid), has a much lower pH of 1.35 to 3.50. In a condition known as diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA), ketones, which are acids, build up in the blood and urine. If DKA isn’t treated promptly, the condition may be life-threatening. Why an Alkaline Diet? The premise behind the alkaline diet dates back, not surprisingly, to our hunter-gatherer ancestors. Way back then, the diet consisted largely of fresh fruit, roots, vegetables, and tubers. Things apparently went awry when grains, meats, sugars, and dairy foods were introduced, and the diet became more “acidic.” Promoters of the alkaline diet believe that the typical Western diet (which definitely has its flaws) makes the blood more acidic and upsets the acid-base balance in the body. In addition, an acidic diet is believed (by proponents of the alkaline diet) to lead to a loss of potassium, magnesium, calcium, and sodium from the body. Hence, the alkaline diet should be followed to Continue reading >>

5 Tweaks To Make The Ketogenic Diet Even More Effective: A Doctor Explains

5 Tweaks To Make The Ketogenic Diet Even More Effective: A Doctor Explains

"Fitting into a size-8 dress again feels great, I sleep better, I'm not snappy with my kids as often, but here's the real deal breaker," my 43-year-old patient Michelle told me on her fourth visit. Excitedly, she continued, "I feel comfortable enough in my own body that my husband and I are having sex again. I'm actually initiating it!" As an obstetrician-gynecologist who has struggled with her weight in the past, I am surprised by none of Michelle's success. She had arrived at my office about six weeks before, wanting to lose around 40 pounds. Michelle frequently felt tired yet struggled to fall asleep, had a familial history of type 2 diabetes, and her bedroom life had (as she described it) "hit zero." Yet on that fourth visit—after following a ketogenic diet—Michelle glowed with newfound energy and vigor. Her blood work confirmed glowing health: dramatically improved blood pressure, lipids, insulin sensitivity, and inflammatory markers. Studies confirm a ketogenic diet can create those benefits and more. Though the diet was originally designed to help control epilepsy, studies today show ketogenic diets benefit numerous conditions including weight gain, cancer, type 2 diabetes, low energy levels, and aging. Being in ketosis—the metabolic state that the ketogenic activates—simply means you're not eating enough carbohydrates to provide your body glucose, its primary fuel. Fortunately, your body has an alternative fuel called ketones derived from fat breakdown. In other words, on a ketogenic diet your body harnesses fat as an efficient energy source for your brain, heart, and other organs. Please don't confuse nutritional ketosis with diabetic ketoacidosis, a life-threatening complication of type 1 diabetes. Nutritional ketosis involves the regulated, controlled Continue reading >>

Reactions Of Aldehydes And Ketones

Reactions Of Aldehydes And Ketones

Aldehydes and ketones undergo a variety of reactions that lead to many different products. The most common reactions are nucleophilic addition reactions, which lead to the formation of alcohols, alkenes, diols, cyanohydrins (RCH(OH)C&tbond;N), and imines R 2C&dbond;NR), to mention a few representative examples. The main reactions of the carbonyl group are nucleophilic additions to the carbon‐oxygen double bond. As shown below, this addition consists of adding a nucleophile and a hydrogen across the carbon‐oxygen double bond. Due to differences in electronegativities, the carbonyl group is polarized. The carbon atom has a partial positive charge, and the oxygen atom has a partially negative charge. Aldehydes are usually more reactive toward nucleophilic substitutions than ketones because of both steric and electronic effects. In aldehydes, the relatively small hydrogen atom is attached to one side of the carbonyl group, while a larger R group is affixed to the other side. In ketones, however, R groups are attached to both sides of the carbonyl group. Thus, steric hindrance is less in aldehydes than in ketones. Electronically, aldehydes have only one R group to supply electrons toward the partially positive carbonyl carbon, while ketones have two electron‐supplying groups attached to the carbonyl carbon. The greater amount of electrons being supplied to the carbonyl carbon, the less the partial positive charge on this atom and the weaker it will become as a nucleus. The addition of water to an aldehyde results in the formation of a hydrate. The formation of a hydrate proceeds via a nucleophilic addition mechanism. 1. Water, acting as a nucleophile, is attracted to the partially positive carbon of the carbonyl group, generating an oxonium ion. Acetal formation reacti Continue reading >>

Alkalinity, Ph Balance & Designing The Optimal Keto-alkaline Diet

Alkalinity, Ph Balance & Designing The Optimal Keto-alkaline Diet

“Your blood becomes more acidic when you eat all that meat!” the interviewee said, and I almost pulled off the road in consternation. I was driving recently, listening to a well-known nutrition expert talk about an alkaline diet’s many benefits. I found myself nodding in agreement until she delved into murky – OK, completely inaccurate – science about an overly acidic diet wrecking your blood pH. Often well intended, confusion and outright misinformation surround pH-balanced diets. As a medical doctor who often prescribes keto-alkaline diets to patients, I want to dispel that confusion. Clearing up the confusion: What’s an alkaline state all about? To do that, we’ll need to flash back to high school biochemistry, where you’ll probably remember studying pH and acid versus base (alkalinity). If you can’t recall, or would rather not go back mentally, let me provide a brief refresher course. (I promise to be painless and brief.) An acronym for “power of hydrogen,” researchers measure the total hydrogen ion concentration in a solution using pH. You can measure any aqueous (water-containing) solution to determine its pH. The pH scale ranges from one to 14. Seven is neutral. Anything higher than seven becomes alkaline (base); anything lower than seven is acidic (acid). Using that scale, human blood is quite stable at about 7.4, making it alkaline. The ocean has a pH of about 8.1. The optimal pH for a pool is 7.4, about the same pH as human eyes and your mucous membrane. Growing research show an alkaline state is healthier for your body, and most tissues and cells maintain an alkaline pH balance. Your blood pH doesn’t change, and even slight deviations above or below that 7.4 ideal become extremely life threatening. On the other hand, things like food ca Continue reading >>

10 Things Your Pee Can Tell You About Your Body: Taking A Deep Dive Into Urinalysis, Dehydration, Ketosis, Ph & More!

10 Things Your Pee Can Tell You About Your Body: Taking A Deep Dive Into Urinalysis, Dehydration, Ketosis, Ph & More!

See, for the past several days, I’ve been randomly grabbing drinking glasses from the shelf in the kitchen… …and peeing into them. And yes, I realize that now you will likely never want to join me at my home for a dinner party. So why the heck am I urinating into our family’s kitchenware? It’s all about better living through science and figuring out ways to live longer and feel better (at least that’s what I tell my wife to appease her). It’s also about my sheer curiosity and desire to delve into an N=1 experiment in self-quantification with urinalysis. It’s also because I’ve been too lazy to order one of those special urinalysis specimen cups with the cute plastic lid. And let’s face it: with my relatively frequent use of a three day gut testing panel, my wife is already somewhat accustomed to giant Fed-Ex bags full of poop tubes sitting in the fridge, so urine can’t be all that bad, right? Anyways, in this article, you’re going to learn exactly why I think it’s a good idea to occasionally study one’s own urine, and you’ll also discover 10 very interesting things your pee can tell you about your body. Enjoy, and as usual, leave your questions, thoughts, feedback, and stories of your own adventures in urinalysis below this post. ———————– The History Of My Interest In Urinalysis Two years ago, I first became interested in urinalysis when I discovered a new start-up called “uChek”. The premise of uChek was quite simple. People with diabetes who want to check the amount of glucose in their urine would simply be able to download uChek to their iPhone or iPad. Then, after a “mid-stream collection,” (yes, that’s exactly what it sounds like and, in my experience, despite my Private Gym training, can be quite difficult to Continue reading >>

Emedicinehealth Medical Reference From Healthwise

Emedicinehealth Medical Reference From Healthwise

A A A Urine Test Test Overview A urine test checks different components of urine, a waste product made by the kidneys. A regular urine test may be done to help find the cause of symptoms. The test can give information about your health and problems you may have. The kidneys take out waste material, minerals, fluids, and other substances from the blood to be passed in the urine. Urine has hundreds of different body wastes. What you eat and drink, how much you exercise, and how well your kidneys work can affect what is in your urine. More than 100 different tests can be done on urine. A regular urinalysis often includes the following tests: Color. Many things affect urine color, including fluid balance, diet, medicines, and diseases. How dark or light the color is tells you how much water is in it. Vitamin B supplements can turn urine bright yellow. Some medicines, blackberries, beets, rhubarb, or blood in the urine can turn urine red-brown. Clarity. Urine is normally clear. Bacteria, blood, sperm, crystals, or mucus can make urine look cloudy. Odor. Urine does not smell very strong, but it has a slightly "nutty" odor. Some diseases cause a change in the odor of urine. For example, an infection with E. coli bacteria can cause a bad odor, while diabetes or starvation can cause a sweet, fruity odor. Specific gravity. This checks the amount of substances in the urine. It also shows how well the kidneys balance the amount of water in urine. The higher the specific gravity, the more solid material is in the urine. When you drink a lot of fluid, your kidneys make urine with a high amount of water in it, which has a low specific gravity. When you do not drink fluids, your kidneys make urine with a small amount of water in it, which has a high specific gravity. pH. The pH is Continue reading >>

Do You Know The Difference Between Ketogenic And Alkaline Diets?

Do You Know The Difference Between Ketogenic And Alkaline Diets?

At UPG, we get a lot of questions about diets and how they could benefit people living with serious ailments. Today, we look at two popular disease-fighting diets: the ketogenic diet and the alkaline diet. We have known for a long, long time that what you put in your body will affect what you get out of your body. As Hippocrates himself, the father of modern medicine, has said, “Let food be thy medicine and medicine be thy food.” Here at United Patients Group, we always strongly recommend eating better to feel better. For most people, this simply means more vegetables and less processed foods. But in certain cases, a strict diet may be needed to fight the illness. Let’s take a deeper look at a couple of these strict diets, which people they’re supposed to help, and whether and how they work. Ketogenic Diet Before anti-convulsants were created, one of the main ways epilepsy was treated was through the ketonic diet, an extremely high-fat, low-carb regimen. When the patient ingests very few carbohydrates, his or her body can’t create energy the usual way (by converting carbs into glucose) and has to run on substances called ketone bodies, created by the liver and sent to the brain. Elevated levels of these ketone bodies (the molecules acetone, acetoacetic acid, and beta-hydroxybutyric acid) lead to a metabolic state called ketosis, which through unknown mechanisms helps reduce or even eliminate epileptic seizures. The ketonic diet became the sustainable long-term. As anti-convulsants became available, the ketonic diet’s popularity faded away, but it was resurrected in the late 1990s as an alternative treatment for intractable epilepsy. The diet imposes a strict ratio of 4:1 or 3:1 fat to proteins and carbs and is usually used for children (adults have a harder Continue reading >>

The Acid-alkaline Myth: Part 2

The Acid-alkaline Myth: Part 2

I don’t buy it. Where is the evidence? It does not exit. Interestingly, Mercola keeps harping on how there is no evidence that root canals are safe, yet he provides no real evidence to back his claim. I am not a big fan of Mercola anyway. In my opinion he has become too sensationalistic in his writings hyping stuff up and presenting just flat out false information. I have written rebuttals to many of his bogus claims a number of times. You can find many of these on my MedCapsules.com site by searching for “Mercola” on the site. Mercola is on the board of the Weston Price Foundation, which in my opinion is just as much of a joke. For example, Mercola and the Western Price Foundation keep posting completely bogus information on soy since its biggest competition is the beef and dairy industries that help support the Western Price Foundation. The one I find most ridiculous and funny is their claim that consuming soy is the equivalent of taking 5 birth control pills due to soy’s high phytoestrogen content. Not only is this an outrageous lie, but it is also funny because Mercola claims flax seed a “health food”. Apparently Mercola does not realize that flax seed is nearly 4 times higher in phytoestrogens than raw soy!!! In addition, Mercola sells resveratrol, which is a concentrated phytoestrogen. And he makes no mention of the naturally occurring estrogen in beef and dairy that is thousands of times more powerful than the phytoestrogens found in ALL plants. This is just one of many claims made by Mercola I have debunked so I don’t put any real faith in anything he claims anymore. In fact, the article by Mercola you linked gives a great example how Mercola really sensationalizes his articles. He is discussing how Price was able to cause heart attacks and disease Continue reading >>

Ketoacidosis Versus Ketosis

Ketoacidosis Versus Ketosis

Some medical professionals confuse ketoacidosis, an extremely abnormal form of ketosis, with the normal benign ketosis associated with ketogenic diets and fasting states in the body. They will then tell you that ketosis is dangerous. Testing Laboratory Microbiology - Air Quality - Mold Asbestos - Environmental - Lead emsl.com Ketosis is NOT Ketoacidosis The difference between the two conditions is a matter of volume and flow rate*: Benign nutritional ketosis is a controlled, insulin regulated process which results in a mild release of fatty acids and ketone body production in response to either a fast from food, or a reduction in carbohydrate intake. Ketoacidosis is driven by a lack of insulin in the body. Without insulin, blood sugar rises to high levels and stored fat streams from fat cells. This excess amount of fat metabolism results in the production of abnormal quantities of ketones. The combination of high blood sugar and high ketone levels can upset the normal acid/base balance in the blood and become dangerous. In order to reach a state of ketoacidosis, insulin levels must be so low that the regulation of blood sugar and fatty acid flow is impaired. *See this reference paper. Here's a table of the actual numbers to show the differences in magnitude: Body Condition Quantity of Ketones Being Produced After a meal: 0.1 mmol/L Overnight Fast: 0.3 mmol/L Ketogenic Diet (Nutritional ketosis): 1-8 mmol/L >20 Days Fasting: 10 mmol/L Uncontrolled Diabetes (Ketoacidosis): >20 mmol/L Here's a more detailed explanation: Fact 1: Every human body maintains the blood and cellular fluids within a very narrow range between being too acidic (low pH) and too basic (high pH). If the blood pH gets out of the normal range, either too low or too high, big problems happen. Fact 2: The Continue reading >>

Urine Test Types: Ph, Ketones, Proteins, And Cells

Urine Test Types: Ph, Ketones, Proteins, And Cells

Urine as a Diagnostic Tool A long time ago, disgusting as it may be, people used to actually taste and drink urine in order to try and diagnose a patient's disease! I'm not even kidding you. Thankfully, modern-day doctors do not have to resort to such disgusting and even dangerous methods. One of the reasons the doctor barbers of yesteryear used to drink their patient's urine was to see if it had a sweet taste, often indicative of diabetes mellitus. Finding the sweet-tasting glucose in the urine was covered in detail in another lesson, so we'll focus on other important measurements here instead. Interpreting Urine pH One value that can be measured in the urine is known as urine pH. pH is a measure of the acidity or alkalinity of a substance. If the pH is low, then it is acidic. If the pH is high, then it is basic, or alkaline. To remember which is which, I'll give you a little trick that has worked for me. If you grew up watching cartoons, you probably saw some comical ones where cartoonish robbers poured acid on the roof of a bank vault and waited while the acid ate its way downward into the vault, so the robbers could get down there to steal all the cash. If you can recall that acid likes to eat its way downward into things, then you'll remember that acidic substances go down the pH scale. That is to say, their pH numbers are lower than basic substances. Normal urine pH is roughly 4.6-8, with an average of 6. Urine pH can increase, meaning it will become more basic, or alkaline, due to: A urinary tract infection Kidney failure The administration of certain drugs such as sodium bicarbonate Vegetarian diets On the flip side, causes for a decreased, or acidic, urine pH, include: Metabolic or respiratory acidosis Diabetic ketoacidosis, a complication of diabetes mellitus Continue reading >>

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