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Are Ketones Acidic Basic Or Neutral

The Alkaline Diet Vs Acidic Ketones

The Alkaline Diet Vs Acidic Ketones

Whether you think eating alkaline foods is useful or woo woo junk it appears that metabolic acidosis is a thing. Metabolic acidosis seems to be interrelated with insulin resistance, Type 2 Diabetes, and retention of muscle mass. To prevent metabolic acidosis, it appears prudent to ensure that your body has adequate minerals to enable your kidneys to balance pH over the long term. This can be achieved by eating plenty of veggies and/or supplementing with alkaline minerals (e.g. magnesium, sodium, potassium, zinc etc). If you eat plenty of veggies you’re probably getting enough alkalising minerals, however, you can easily test your urine to see if your dietary acid load is high. If you are targeting a high fat therapeutic ketogenic diet, following a zero-carb dietary approach and/or taking exogenous ketones it seems then it may be even more important to be mindful of your acid load and consider mineral supplementation. Recently I had a fascinating, surprising and exciting experience during a fast. The chart below shows my ketones, glucose and ‘total energy’ (i.e. glucose plus ketones) over the seven days. My ketones increased to above 8.0 mmol/L. They even couldn’t be read on my ketone metre! It was the full keto brochure experience. It was like my body fat was effortlessly feeding my brain with delicious, succulent ketones! I felt great. This chart shows my glucose : ketone index (GKI) dropping to below 0.5 after a few days. The orange dots in this chart shows the relationship between glucose and ketones about 18 months ago when I first started trying this keto thing (after I read ‘Jimmy’s Moore’s Keto Clarity’). The blue dots show the relationship between my glucose and ketones during the recent fast. As you can see from the much flatter line, my blood g Continue reading >>

Is A Ketone An Acid Or A Base?

Is A Ketone An Acid Or A Base?

Ketones are in fact weak acids. This comes from an ability to shift the places of the double bond and one of the hydrogen atoms, resulting in an alcohol compound with a double bond between two of the carbon atoms. This is called an enol, and is less stable than the ketone - the two are in rapid equilibrium. This enol may lose a hydrogen ion to become an enolate. This happens only when a ketone is reacted with a strong base. Continue reading >>

Acid Or Alkaline And Why Should I Care?

Acid Or Alkaline And Why Should I Care?

Do you remember your high school chemistry class? If so, you likely learned a bit about pH, as well as the concept of acid and base (alkalinity). The pH scale ranges from 1 to 14, with 7 considered to be neutral, higher numbers being alkaline (base) and lower numbers being acidic (acid). You can measure any aqueous (containing water) solution and determine its pH (pH actually stands for “power of hydrogen” and is measuring the total hydrogen ion concentration in a solution). Human blood, for example, is aqueous. Its pH is quite stable at about 7.4, on the alkaline side of the scale. The ocean, as another example, has a pH of about 8.1. Your pool? An optimal pH for a pool is 7.4, which mirrors the pH of the human eyes as well as the pH of mucous membrane within humans. Do you see a pattern here? Healthy pH tends to be on the alkaline side. And the pH for most things can be affected by inputs into that particular solution. So, for example, the ocean’s pH has actually become more acidic over time and scientists believe that is due to the input of CO2 related to global warming. Blood pH doesn’t change…it stays stable except in life threatening situations Your body’s urine and salivary pH can change due to different inputs, such as with the different foods you eat. This can tell us a lot about our cellular health. Interestingly, the net effect of different foods acting on your body can increase or reduce your body’s overall alkalinity. I’ll talk more about what foods result in both an acid and alkaline change in your pH in a minute (and how easy it is to measure your own body’s acid-alkaline state!), but first I want to talk a bit more about the specific pH that we are measuring. While we “measure” your body’s acid-alkaline state, please note that we Continue reading >>

Alkalinity, Ph Balance & Designing The Optimal Keto-alkaline Diet

Alkalinity, Ph Balance & Designing The Optimal Keto-alkaline Diet

“Your blood becomes more acidic when you eat all that meat!” the interviewee said, and I almost pulled off the road in consternation. I was driving recently, listening to a well-known nutrition expert talk about an alkaline diet’s many benefits. I found myself nodding in agreement until she delved into murky – OK, completely inaccurate – science about an overly acidic diet wrecking your blood pH. Often well intended, confusion and outright misinformation surround pH-balanced diets. As a medical doctor who often prescribes keto-alkaline diets to patients, I want to dispel that confusion. Clearing up the confusion: What’s an alkaline state all about? To do that, we’ll need to flash back to high school biochemistry, where you’ll probably remember studying pH and acid versus base (alkalinity). If you can’t recall, or would rather not go back mentally, let me provide a brief refresher course. (I promise to be painless and brief.) An acronym for “power of hydrogen,” researchers measure the total hydrogen ion concentration in a solution using pH. You can measure any aqueous (water-containing) solution to determine its pH. The pH scale ranges from one to 14. Seven is neutral. Anything higher than seven becomes alkaline (base); anything lower than seven is acidic (acid). Using that scale, human blood is quite stable at about 7.4, making it alkaline. The ocean has a pH of about 8.1. The optimal pH for a pool is 7.4, about the same pH as human eyes and your mucous membrane. Growing research show an alkaline state is healthier for your body, and most tissues and cells maintain an alkaline pH balance. Your blood pH doesn’t change, and even slight deviations above or below that 7.4 ideal become extremely life threatening. On the other hand, things like food ca Continue reading >>

Ketone

Ketone

Not to be confused with ketone bodies. Ketone group Acetone In chemistry, a ketone (alkanone) /ˈkiːtoʊn/ is an organic compound with the structure RC(=O)R', where R and R' can be a variety of carbon-containing substituents. Ketones and aldehydes are simple compounds that contain a carbonyl group (a carbon-oxygen double bond). They are considered "simple" because they do not have reactive groups like −OH or −Cl attached directly to the carbon atom in the carbonyl group, as in carboxylic acids containing −COOH.[1] Many ketones are known and many are of great importance in industry and in biology. Examples include many sugars (ketoses) and the industrial solvent acetone, which is the smallest ketone. Nomenclature and etymology[edit] The word ketone is derived from Aketon, an old German word for acetone.[2][3] According to the rules of IUPAC nomenclature, ketones are named by changing the suffix -ane of the parent alkane to -anone. The position of the carbonyl group is usually denoted by a number. For the most important ketones, however, traditional nonsystematic names are still generally used, for example acetone and benzophenone. These nonsystematic names are considered retained IUPAC names,[4] although some introductory chemistry textbooks use systematic names such as "2-propanone" or "propan-2-one" for the simplest ketone (CH3−CO−CH3) instead of "acetone". The common names of ketones are obtained by writing separately the names of the two alkyl groups attached to the carbonyl group, followed by "ketone" as a separate word. The names of the alkyl groups are written alphabetically. When the two alkyl groups are the same, the prefix di- is added before the name of alkyl group. The positions of other groups are indicated by Greek letters, the α-carbon being th Continue reading >>

Chapter 16: Aldehydes And Ketones (carbonyl Compounds)

Chapter 16: Aldehydes And Ketones (carbonyl Compounds)

The Carbonyl Double Bond Both the carbon and oxygen atoms are hybridized sp2, so the system is planar. The three oxygen sp2 AO’s are involved as follows: The two unshared electorn pairs of oxygen occupy two of these AO’s, and the third is involved in sigma bond formation to the carbonyl carbon. The three sp2 AO’s on the carbonyl carbon are involved as follows: One of them is involved in sigma bonding to one of the oxygen sp2 AO’s, and the other two are involved in bonding to the R substituents. The 2pz AO’s on oxygen and the carbonyl carbon are involved in pi overlap, forming a pi bond. The pi BMO, formed by positive overlap of the 2p orbitals, has a larger concentration of electron density on oxygen than carbon, because the electrons in this orbital are drawn to the more electronegative atom, where they are more highly stabilized. This result is reversed in the vacant antibonding MO. As a consequence of the distribution in the BMO, the pi bond (as is the case also with the sigma bond) is highly polar, with the negative end of the dipole on oxygen and the positive end on carbon. We will see that this polarity, which is absent in a carbon-carbon pi bond, has the effect of strongly stabilizing the C=O moiety. Resonance Treatment of the Carbonyl Pi Bond 1.Note that the ionic structure (the one on the right side) has one less covalent bond, but this latter is replaced with an ionic bond (electrostatic bond). 2.This structure is a relatively “good” one, therefore, and contributes extensively to the resonance hybrid, making this bond much more thermodynamically stable than the C=C pi bond, for which the corresponding ionic structure is much less favorable (negative charge is less stable on carbon than on oxygen). 3.The carbonyl carbon therefore has extensive car Continue reading >>

14.4 Hydrolysis Of Salt Solutions

14.4 Hydrolysis Of Salt Solutions

Acid-Base Neutralization A solution is neutral when it contains equal concentrations of hydronium and hydroxide ions. When we mix solutions of an acid and a base, an acid-base neutralization reaction occurs. However, even if we mix stoichiometrically equivalent quantities, we may find that the resulting solution is not neutral. It could contain either an excess of hydronium ions or an excess of hydroxide ions because the nature of the salt formed determines whether the solution is acidic, neutral, or basic. The following four situations illustrate how solutions with various pH values can arise following a neutralization reaction using stoichiometrically equivalent quantities: A strong acid and a strong base, such as HCl(aq) and NaOH(aq) will react to form a neutral solution since the conjugate partners produced are of negligible strength (see Chapter 14.3 Relative Strengths of Acids and Bases): A strong acid and a weak base yield a weakly acidic solution, not because of the strong acid involved, but because of the conjugate acid of the weak base. A weak acid and a strong base yield a weakly basic solution. A solution of a weak acid reacts with a solution of a strong base to form the conjugate base of the weak acid and the conjugate acid of the strong base. The conjugate acid of the strong base is a weaker acid than water and has no effect on the acidity of the resulting solution. However, the conjugate base of the weak acid is a weak base and ionizes slightly in water. This increases the amount of hydroxide ion in the solution produced in the reaction and renders it slightly basic. A weak acid plus a weak base can yield either an acidic, basic, or neutral solution. This is the most complex of the four types of reactions. When the conjugate acid and the conjugate base ar Continue reading >>

7. Acid-base Balance

7. Acid-base Balance

Content: 1. Introduction to the acid-base balance 2. Systems responsible for the maintenance of the acid-base balance 3. Laboratory tests of the acid-base balance status 4. Basic disorders of the acid-base balance and means of compensation _ Introduction to the acid-base balance Maintenance of the internal environment is one of the vital functions (it has same importance as circulation or respiration). In Subchapter 7/6 is pointed out that maintenance of stable pH, also called isohydria, is one of the basic components of the internal environment: (1) isohydria, (2) isovolumia (stable volume), (3) isoosmolarity (stable tonicity), and (4) isoionia (stable ion composition). Proton concentration and pH Maintaining of stable anion and cation concentrations in blood plasma is denoted as isoionia. Maintaining of constant proton (H+) concentration is isohydria. pH is used for express concentration of the protons: pH = – log c(H+) Plasma and extracellular space concentrations of the protons are held in very narrow physiologic range. There is 40 nmol/l of protons in the arterial blood physiologically (note that concentrations of other plasma ions, e.g. [Na+] = 140 mmol/l or [HCO3-] = 25 mmol/l, are three orders of magnitude higher). pH could be easily calculated as follows: pH = -log 40 x 10-9 mol/l pH = 7,4 Physiologic range of the pH is 7,36-7,44. Value of pH higher than 7,44 in arteries is denoted as alkalemia, pH lower than 7,36 is acidemia. Extensive deviations of pH value can cause serious consequences. For example change of protein structure (i.e. enzymes), membranes permeability, and electrolyte distribution. Value of pH in arterial blood higher than 7,8, resp. lower than 6,8 are incompatible with life. Values mentioned above apply for arterial blood. Values differ in d Continue reading >>

Reactions Of Rli Or Rmgx With Nitriles

Reactions Of Rli Or Rmgx With Nitriles

Step 1: The nucleophilic C in the organometallic reagent adds to theelectrophilic C in the polar nitrile group. Electrons from the C≡N move to the electronegative N creating an intermediate imine salt complex. Step 2: An acid/base reaction. On addition of aqueous acid, the intermediate salt protonates giving the imine. Step 3: An acid/base reaction. Imines undergo nucleophilic addition, but require activation by protonation (i.e. acid catalysis). Step 4: Now the nucleophilic O of a water molecule attacks the electrophilicCwith the π bond breaking to neutralise the change on the N. Step 5: An acid/base reaction. Deprotonate the O from the water molecule to neutralise the positive charge. Step 6: An acid/base reaction. Before the N system leaves, it needs to be made into a better leaving group by protonation. Step 7: Use the electrons on the O in order to push out the N leaving group, a neutral molecule of ammonia. Step 8: An acid/base reaction. Deprotonation reveals the carbonyl group ofthe ketone product. IR - presence of high frequency C=O, C-Cl too low to be useful 1H NMR - only the protons adjacent to the C=O are particularly characteristic. 13C NMR C=O typically 160-180 ppm (deshielding due to O) minimal intensity, characteristic of C's with no attached H's UV-VIS two absorption maxima π→ π* (<200 nm) n→ π* (~235 nm) πelectron from π of C=O n electron from O lone pair π* antibonding C=O Mass Spectrometry Prominent peak corresponds to formation of acyl cations (acylium ions) IR - presence of two, high frequency C=O Absorbance (cm-1) Interpretation 1820 C=O stretch 1750 C=O stretch 1H NMR - only the protons adjacent to the C=O are particularly characteristic. 13C NMR C=O typically 160-180 ppm (deshielding due to O) minimal intensity, characteristic of C's Continue reading >>

Acid-base Balance And Blood Ph

Acid-base Balance And Blood Ph

Acid-base Balance and pH Blood pH The term pH means potentials of Hydrogen. Acidity and alkalinity are expressed on the pH scale, which ranges from 0 (strongly acidic) to 14 (strongly basic, or alkaline). A pH of 7.0, in the middle of this scale, is neutral. Blood is normally slightly basic, alkaline, with a pH range of 7.35 to 7.45. To function properly, the body maintains the pH of blood close to 7.40. An important property of blood is its degree of acidity and alkalinity, and this is referred to as acid-base balance. The acidity or alkalinity of the blood is indicated on the pH scale. - The acidity level increases when the level of acidic compounds in the blood rises or when the level of alkaline compounds in the blood falls. Alkalinity levels increases with the reverse process. - The level of acidic or alkaline compounds in the body rises through increased intake, production, or decreased elimination and falls through decreased intake, production, or increased elimination. The Importance of Blood pH Blood pH and Cell Health; we live and die at a cellular level. The blood pH has a serious effect on all of the body’s systems and the body uses different mechanisms to control the blood’s acid-base balance. The blood’s acid-base balance is controlled by the body because even minor deviations from the normal range can severely affect the brain, arteries, the heart, muscles, and many organs. It can contribute to overwhelming the body leading to serious disease such as cancer. “Inflammatory disorders often increase the risk of cancer” - Merck: Risk Factors for Cancer “If the pH deviates too far in either direction, cells become poisoned by their own toxic waste and die. An imbalance pH can cause serious health problems and can lead to the progression of most deg Continue reading >>

Acid-base Properties Of Salts

Acid-base Properties Of Salts

- Let's say we have some hydrochloric acid, and a solution of sodium hydroxide. We know that hydrochloric acid is a strong acid so we can think about it as consisting of H+ and Cl-. Sodium hydroxide is a strong base, so in solution we're going to have sodium ions and hydroxide anions. Let's think about the products for this reaction. One product would be H+, and OH-. If you put H+ and OH- together, you form H20. So water is one of our products, and the other product would be what's leftover. We have Na+ and Cl-, so that gives us NaCl which is sodium chloride. This is an example of an acid base neutralization reaction where an acid reacts with the base to give you water and a salt. In this case, our salt is sodium chloride. Let's think about an aqueous solution of sodium chloride. You take some water, and you take some salt, and you dissolve your sodium chloride in water to make your solution. In solution, you're gonna have sodium cations and chloride anions. Let's think about what those would do with water. We know that the pH of water is seven. The pH of water is equal to seven. Sodium ions don't react with water so they're not going to affect the pH of our solution. You might think that the chloride anion could function as a weak base, and take a proton from water. However, that's not really gonna happen very well because the chloride anion, Cl-, this is the conjugate base to HCl. We know that HCl is a strong acid, and the stronger the acid, the weaker the conjugate base. With a very strong acid, we're gonna get a very weak conjugate base so the chloride anion can't really take protons from water very well so the pH is unaffected. The pH of our solution of sodium chloride is equal to seven. When you have a salt that was formed from a strong acid and a strong base, so Continue reading >>

Functional Group Names, Properties, And Reactions

Functional Group Names, Properties, And Reactions

Functional Groups Functional groups refer to specific atoms bonded in a certain arrangement that give a compound certain physical and chemical properties. Learning Objectives Define the term “functional group” as it applies to organic molecules Key Takeaways Functional groups are often used to “functionalize” a compound, affording it different physical and chemical properties than it would have in its original form. Functional groups will undergo the same type of reactions regardless of the compound of which they are a part; however, the presence of certain functional groups within close proximity can limit reactivity. Functional groups can be used to distinguish similar compounds from each other. functional group: A specific grouping of elements that is characteristic of a class of compounds, and determines some properties and reactions of that class. functionalization: Addition of specific functional groups to afford the compound new, desirable properties. The Role of Functional Groups In organic chemistry, a functional group is a specific group of atoms or bonds within a compound that is responsible for the characteristic chemical reactions of that compound. The same functional group will behave in a similar fashion, by undergoing similar reactions, regardless of the compound of which it is a part. Functional groups also play an important part in organic compound nomenclature; combining the names of the functional groups with the names of the parent alkanes provides a way to distinguish compounds. The atoms of a functional group are linked together and to the rest of the compound by covalent bonds. The first carbon atom that attaches to the functional group is referred to as the alpha carbon; the second, the beta carbon; the third, the gamma carbon, etc. Simi Continue reading >>

Acid–base Catalysis

Acid–base Catalysis

Acid–base catalysis, acceleration of a chemical reaction by the addition of an acid or a base, the acid or base itself not being consumed in the reaction. The catalytic reaction may be acid-specific (acid catalysis), as in the case of decomposition of the sugar sucrose into glucose and fructose in sulfuric acid; or base-specific (base catalysis), as in the addition of hydrogen cyanide to aldehydes and ketones in the presence of sodium hydroxide. Many reactions are catalyzed by both acids and bases. The mechanism of acid- and base-catalyzed reactions is explained in terms of the Brønsted–Lowry concept of acids and bases as one in which there is an initial transfer of protons from an acidic catalyst to the reactant or from the reactant to a basic catalyst. In terms of the Lewis theory of acids and bases, the reaction entails sharing of an electron pair donated by a base catalyst or accepted by an acid catalyst. Acid catalysis is employed in a large number of industrial reactions, among them the conversion of petroleum hydrocarbons to gasoline and related products. Such reactions include decomposition of high-molecular-weight hydrocarbons (cracking) using alumina–silica catalysts (Brønsted–Lowry acids), polymerization of unsaturated hydrocarbons using sulfuric acid or hydrogen fluoride (Brønsted–Lowry acids), and isomerization of aliphatic hydrocarbons using aluminum chloride (a Lewis acid). Among industrial applications of base-catalyzed reactions is the reaction of diisocyanates with polyfunctional alcohols in the presence of amines, used in the manufacture of polyurethane foams. Continue reading >>

1. Nomenclature Of Aldehydes And Ketones

1. Nomenclature Of Aldehydes And Ketones

Aldehydes and ketones are organic compounds which incorporate a carbonyl functional group, C=O. The carbon atom of this group has two remaining bonds that may be occupied by hydrogen or alkyl or aryl substituents. If at least one of these substituents is hydrogen, the compound is an aldehyde. If neither is hydrogen, the compound is a ketone. The IUPAC system of nomenclature assigns a characteristic suffix to these classes, al to aldehydes and one to ketones. For example, H2C=O is methanal, more commonly called formaldehyde. Since an aldehyde carbonyl group must always lie at the end of a carbon chain, it is by default position #1, and therefore defines the numbering direction. A ketone carbonyl function may be located anywhere within a chain or ring, and its position is given by a locator number. Chain numbering normally starts from the end nearest the carbonyl group. In cyclic ketones the carbonyl group is assigned position #1, and this number is not cited in the name, unless more than one carbonyl group is present. If you are uncertain about the IUPAC rules for nomenclature you should review them now. Examples of IUPAC names are provided (in blue) in the following diagram. Common names are in red, and derived names in black. In common names carbon atoms near the carbonyl group are often designated by Greek letters. The atom adjacent to the function is alpha, the next removed is beta and so on. Since ketones have two sets of neighboring atoms, one set is labeled α, β etc., and the other α', β' etc. Very simple ketones, such as propanone and phenylethanone (first two examples in the right column), do not require a locator number, since there is only one possible site for a ketone carbonyl function. Likewise, locator numbers are omitted for the simple dialdehyde at t Continue reading >>

Is Sulfhydryl Acidic Or Basic

Is Sulfhydryl Acidic Or Basic

Ulcerative colitis is an inflammatory chronic disease that affects the mucosa and submucosa of the colon and rectum. How do you identify whether a functional group is acidic or basic? Please explain. From this list, which functional groups are acidic, and which are basic? Start studying Functional Groups. Learn with flashcards, games, and more for free. Identification of the Cystines Which Link the Acidic and Basic ... iodoacetamide sufficient to react with all remaining free sulfhydryl For example, which of these functional groups are acidic and which are basic? Department of Anesthesiology, Montefiore Medical Center, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York 10467-2490 Promoted by Amazon. polar? From this list, which functional groups are acidic, and which are basic? Effect of Anolyte & Catholyte on Biofilms: Adhesion to surfaces is a common and well known behaviour of microorganisms in oligotrophic habitats Amino acid: Amino acid, any of a group of organic molecules that consist of a basic amino group, an acidic carboxyl group, and a unique organic side chain. Acidic or Basic or Neither: Hydroxyl. All life on the planet is made up of four basic chemicals; carbohydrates, ... Non-acidic Functional Groups. Thanks! Find answers now! Which functional groups are acidic? Discussion in 'Pre-Dental' started by doitfortheppl, ... its because metals and non metals tend to form basic They could be part of a compound that is acidic or basic. Update Cancel. It has a more important property. Best Answer: both are functional groups, not a compound themselves. [Chemical Groups] Acidic, basic, or neutral? No. From this list, which functional groups are acidic, and which are basic? Answer to Is functional group (hydroxyl, amino, sulfhydryl, phosphate, carboxyl) acidic or bas Continue reading >>

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