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Are Copd Patients In Respiratory Acidosis?

Respiratory Acidosis: Causes, Symptoms, And Treatment

Respiratory Acidosis: Causes, Symptoms, And Treatment

Respiratory acidosis develops when air exhaled out of the lungs does not adequately exchange the carbon dioxide formed in the body for the inhaled oxygen in air. There are many conditions or situations that may lead to this. One of the conditions that can reduce the ability to adequately exhale carbon dioxide (CO2) is chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or COPD. CO2 that is not exhaled can shift the normal balance of acids and bases in the body toward acidic. The CO2 mixes with water in the body to form carbonic acid. With chronic respiratory acidosis, the body partially makes up for the retained CO2 and maintains acid-base balance near normal. The body's main response is an increase in excretion of carbonic acid and retention of bicarbonate base in the kidneys. Medical treatment for chronic respiratory acidosis is mainly treatment of the underlying illness which has hindered breathing. Treatment may also be applied to improve breathing directly. Respiratory acidosis can also be acute rather than chronic, developing suddenly from respiratory failure. Emergency medical treatment is required for acute respiratory acidosis to: Regain healthful respiration Restore acid-base balance Treat the causes of the respiratory failure Here are some key points about respiratory acidosis. More detail and supporting information is in the main article. Respiratory acidosis develops when decreased breathing fails to get rid of CO2 formed in the body adequately The pH of blood, as a measure of acid-base balance, is maintained near normal in chronic respiratory acidosis by compensating responses in the body mainly in the kidney Acute respiratory acidosis requires emergency treatment Tipping acid-base balance to acidosis When acid levels in the body are in balance with the base levels in t Continue reading >>

Acid Base Status In Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Patients

Acid Base Status In Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Patients

Acid base status in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients 348 patients of chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD) were studied for their acid base profile using ABL-3 blood gas analyser (Radiometer, copenhagan). 185 patients (53.1%) had simple disorders (respiratory acidosis53%, respiratory alkalosis25.4%, metabolic acidosis11.3%, metabolic alkalosis10.2%). Mixed disorders were present in 131 patients (34.9%) (respiratory acidosis and metabolic acidosis75.2%, respiratory acidosis and metabolic acidosis14%, metabolic acidosis and metabolic alkalosis5.7%, metabolic alkalosis and respiratory alkalosis4.9%). Hypoxemia without other acid base abnormalities was observed in early patients of GOPD (42 patients12%). Chronic respiratory acidosis was the most common finding in advanced cases of COPD (98%). An almost equal number of such patients had a mixed disorder of respiratory acidosis with metabolic alkalosis (91%). Salt restriction, prolonged use of steriods and hypokalemia were often related to metabolic alkalosis in such patients. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary DiseaseChronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease PatientMetabolic AcidosisHypokalemiaAcid Base These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves. This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF. Snider GL. Chronic obstructive pulmonay diseases: a definition and implication of structural determinants of airflow obstruction for epidemiology (1989) Am. Rev. Respir. Dis. 140, 5358. Google Scholar Kaehny WO. Respiratory acid base disorders (1983). Med. Clin. North. Am 57, 915928. Google Scholar Nrins RG, Emmett M. Simple and mixed acid base Continue reading >>

Respiratory Acidosis

Respiratory Acidosis

Respiratory acidosis is an acid-base balance disturbance due to alveolar hypoventilation. Production of carbon dioxide occurs rapidly and failure of ventilation promptly increases the partial pressure of arterial carbon dioxide (PaCO2). [ 1 ] The normal reference range for PaCO2 is 35-45 mm Hg. Alveolar hypoventilation leads to an increased PaCO2 (ie, hypercapnia). The increase in PaCO2, in turn, decreases the bicarbonate (HCO3)/PaCO2 ratio, thereby decreasing the pH. Hypercapnia and respiratory acidosis ensue when impairment in ventilation occurs and the removal of carbon dioxide by the respiratory system is less than the production of carbon dioxide in the tissues. Lung diseases that cause abnormalities in alveolar gas exchange do not typically result in alveolar hypoventilation. Often these diseases stimulate ventilation and hypocapnia due to reflex receptors and hypoxia. Hypercapnia typically occurs late in the disease process with severe pulmonary disease or when respiratory muscles fatigue. (See also Pediatric Respiratory Acidosis , Metabolic Acidosis , and Pediatric Metabolic Acidosis .) Respiratory acidosis can be acute or chronic. In acute respiratory acidosis, the PaCO2 is elevated above the upper limit of the reference range (ie, >45 mm Hg) with an accompanying acidemia (ie, pH < 7.35). In chronic respiratory acidosis, the PaCO2 is elevated above the upper limit of the reference range, with a normal or near-normal pH secondary to renal compensation and an elevated serum bicarbonate levels (ie, >30 mEq/L). Acute respiratory acidosis is present when an abrupt failure of ventilation occurs. This failure in ventilation may result from depression of the central respiratory center by one or another of the following: Central nervous system disease or drug-induced r Continue reading >>

Respiratory Acidosis

Respiratory Acidosis

Causes of respiratory acidosis include: Diseases of the lung tissue (such as pulmonary fibrosis, which causes scarring and thickening of the lungs) Diseases of the chest (such as scoliosis) Diseases affecting the nerves and muscles that signal the lungs to inflate or deflate Drugs that suppress breathing (including powerful pain medicines, such as narcotics, and "downers," such as benzodiazepines), often when combined with alcohol Severe obesity, which restricts how much the lungs can expand Obstructive sleep apnea Chronic respiratory acidosis occurs over a long time. This leads to a stable situation, because the kidneys increase body chemicals, such as bicarbonate, that help restore the body's acid-base balance. Acute respiratory acidosis is a condition in which carbon dioxide builds up very quickly, before the kidneys can return the body to a state of balance. Some people with chronic respiratory acidosis get acute respiratory acidosis because an illness makes their condition worse. Continue reading >>

Respiratory Acidosis

Respiratory Acidosis

Respiratory acidosis is an abnormal clinical process that causes the arterial Pco2 to increase to greater than 40 mm Hg. Increased CO2 concentration in the blood may be secondary to increased CO2 production or decreased ventilation. Larry R. Engelking, in Textbook of Veterinary Physiological Chemistry (Third Edition) , 2015 Respiratory acidosis can arise from a break in any one of these links. For example, it can be caused from depression of the respiratory center through drugs or metabolic disease, or from limitations in chest wall expansion due to neuromuscular disorders or trauma (Table 90-1). It can also arise from pulmonary disease, card iog en ic pu lmon a ryedema, a spira tion of a foreign body or vomitus, pneumothorax and pleural space disease, or through mechanical hypoventilation. Unless there is a superimposed or secondary metabolic acidosis, the plasma anion gap will usually be normal in respiratory acidosis. Kamel S. Kamel MD, FRCPC, Mitchell L. Halperin MD, FRCPC, in Fluid, Electrolyte and Acid-Base Physiology (Fifth Edition) , 2017 Respiratory acidosis is characterized by an increased arterial blood PCO2 and H+ ion concentration. The major cause of respiratory acidosis is alveolar hypoventilation. The expected physiologic response is an increased . The increase in concentration of bicarbonate ions (HCO3) in plasma ( ) is tiny in patients with acute respiratory acidosis, but is much larger in patients with chronic respiratory acidosis. Respiratory alkalosis is caused by hyperventilation and is characterized by a low arterial blood PCO2 and H+ ion concentration. The expected physiologic response is a decrease in . As in respiratory acidosis, this response is modest in patients with acute respiratory alkalosis and much larger in patients with chronic respir Continue reading >>

Acidbase Balance, Serum Electrolytes And Need For Non-invasive Ventilation In Patients With Hypercapnic Acute Exacerbation Of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Admitted To An Internal Medicine Ward

Acidbase Balance, Serum Electrolytes And Need For Non-invasive Ventilation In Patients With Hypercapnic Acute Exacerbation Of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Admitted To An Internal Medicine Ward

Acidbase balance, serum electrolytes and need for non-invasive ventilation in patients with hypercapnic acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease admitted to an internal medicine ward Hypoventilation produces or worsens respiratory acidosis in patients with hypercapnia due to acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD). In these patients acidbase and hydroelectrolite balance are closely related. Aim of the present study was to evaluate acidbase and hydroelectrolite alterations in these subjects and the effect of non-invasive ventilation and pharmacological treatment. We retrospectively analysed 110 patients consecutively admitted to the Internal Medicine ward of Cava de Tirreni Hospital for acute exacerbation of hypercapnic chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. On admission all patients received oxygen with a Venturi mask to maintain arterial oxygen saturation at least >90%, and received appropriate pharmacological treatment. Non-Invasive Ventilation (NIV) was started when, despite optimal therapy, patients had severe dyspnea, increased work of breathing and respiratory acidosis. Based on Arterial Blood Gas (ABG) data, we divided the 110 patients in 3 groups: A = 51 patients with compensated respiratory acidosis; B = 36 patients with respiratory acidosis + metabolic alkalosis; and C = 23 patients with respiratory acidosis + metabolic acidosis. 55 patients received only conventional therapy and 55 had conventional therapy plus NIV. The use of NIV support was lower in the patients belonging to group B than in those belonging to group A and C (25%, vs 47% and 96% respectively; p < 0.01). A statistically significant association was found between pCO2 values and serum chloride concentrations both in the entire cohort and in the t Continue reading >>

Respiratory Acidosis

Respiratory Acidosis

Respiratory acidosis is a medical emergency in which decreased ventilation (hypoventilation) increases the concentration of carbon dioxide in the blood and decreases the blood's pH (a condition generally called acidosis). Carbon dioxide is produced continuously as the body's cells respire, and this CO2 will accumulate rapidly if the lungs do not adequately expel it through alveolar ventilation. Alveolar hypoventilation thus leads to an increased PaCO2 (a condition called hypercapnia). The increase in PaCO2 in turn decreases the HCO3−/PaCO2 ratio and decreases pH. Terminology[edit] Acidosis refers to disorders that lower cell/tissue pH to < 7.35. Acidemia refers to an arterial pH < 7.36.[1] Types of respiratory acidosis[edit] Respiratory acidosis can be acute or chronic. In acute respiratory acidosis, the PaCO2 is elevated above the upper limit of the reference range (over 6.3 kPa or 45 mm Hg) with an accompanying acidemia (pH <7.36). In chronic respiratory acidosis, the PaCO2 is elevated above the upper limit of the reference range, with a normal blood pH (7.35 to 7.45) or near-normal pH secondary to renal compensation and an elevated serum bicarbonate (HCO3− >30 mm Hg). Causes[edit] Acute[edit] Acute respiratory acidosis occurs when an abrupt failure of ventilation occurs. This failure in ventilation may be caused by depression of the central respiratory center by cerebral disease or drugs, inability to ventilate adequately due to neuromuscular disease (e.g., myasthenia gravis, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Guillain–Barré syndrome, muscular dystrophy), or airway obstruction related to asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) exacerbation. Chronic[edit] Chronic respiratory acidosis may be secondary to many disorders, including COPD. Hypoventilation Continue reading >>

A Primer On Arterial Blood Gas Analysis By Andrew M. Luks, Md(cont.)

A Primer On Arterial Blood Gas Analysis By Andrew M. Luks, Md(cont.)

Step 4: Identify the compensatory process (if one is present) In general, the primary process is followed by a compensatory process, as the body attempts to bring the pH back towards the normal range. If the patient has a primary respiratory acidosis (high PCO2 ) leading to acidemia: the compensatory process is a metabolic alkalosis (rise in the serum bicarbonate). If the patient has a primary respiratory alkalosis (low PCO2 ) leading to alkalemia: the compensatory process is a metabolic acidosis (decrease in the serum bicarbonate) If the patient has a primary metabolic acidosis (low bicarbonate) leading acidemia, the compensatory process is a respiratory alkalosis (low PCO2 ). If the patient has a primary metabolic alkalosis (high bicarbonate) leading to alkalemia, the compensatory process is a respiratory acidosis (high PCO2 ) The compensatory processes are summarized in Figure 2. (opens in a new window) Important Points Regarding Compensatory Processes There are several important points to be aware of regarding these compensatory processes: The body never overcompensates for the primary process. For example, if the patient develops acidemia due to a respiratory acidosis and then subsequently develops a compensatory metabolic alkalosis (a good example of this is the COPD patient with chronic carbon dioxide retention), the pH will move back towards the normal value of 7.4 but will not go to the alkalemic side of normal This might result in a pH of 7.36, for example but should not result in a pH such as 7.44 or another value on the alkalemic side of normal. If the pH appears to "over-compensate" then an additional process is at work and you will have to try and identify it. This can happen with mixed acid-base disorders, which are described further below. The pace of co Continue reading >>

Respiratory Acidosis

Respiratory Acidosis

(Video) Overview of Acid-Base Maps and Compensatory Mechanisms By James L. Lewis, III, MD, Attending Physician, Brookwood Baptist Health and Saint Vincents Ascension Health, Birmingham Respiratory acidosis is primary increase in carbon dioxide partial pressure (Pco2) with or without compensatory increase in bicarbonate (HCO3); pH is usually low but may be near normal. Cause is a decrease in respiratory rate and/or volume (hypoventilation), typically due to CNS, pulmonary, or iatrogenic conditions. Respiratory acidosis can be acute or chronic; the chronic form is asymptomatic, but the acute, or worsening, form causes headache, confusion, and drowsiness. Signs include tremor, myoclonic jerks, and asterixis. Diagnosis is clinical and with ABG and serum electrolyte measurements. The cause is treated; oxygen (O2) and mechanical ventilation are often required. Respiratory acidosis is carbon dioxide (CO2) accumulation (hypercapnia) due to a decrease in respiratory rate and/or respiratory volume (hypoventilation). Causes of hypoventilation (discussed under Ventilatory Failure ) include Conditions that impair CNS respiratory drive Conditions that impair neuromuscular transmission and other conditions that cause muscular weakness Obstructive, restrictive, and parenchymal pulmonary disorders Hypoxia typically accompanies hypoventilation. Distinction is based on the degree of metabolic compensation; carbon dioxide is initially buffered inefficiently, but over 3 to 5 days the kidneys increase bicarbonate reabsorption significantly. Symptoms and signs depend on the rate and degree of Pco2 increase. CO2 rapidly diffuses across the blood-brain barrier. Symptoms and signs are a result of high CO2 concentrations and low pH in the CNS and any accompanying hypoxemia. Acute (or acutely wor Continue reading >>

Respiratory Acidosis

Respiratory Acidosis

What is respiratory acidosis? Respiratory acidosis is a condition that occurs when the lungs can’t remove enough of the carbon dioxide (CO2) produced by the body. Excess CO2 causes the pH of blood and other bodily fluids to decrease, making them too acidic. Normally, the body is able to balance the ions that control acidity. This balance is measured on a pH scale from 0 to 14. Acidosis occurs when the pH of the blood falls below 7.35 (normal blood pH is between 7.35 and 7.45). Respiratory acidosis is typically caused by an underlying disease or condition. This is also called respiratory failure or ventilatory failure. Normally, the lungs take in oxygen and exhale CO2. Oxygen passes from the lungs into the blood. CO2 passes from the blood into the lungs. However, sometimes the lungs can’t remove enough CO2. This may be due to a decrease in respiratory rate or decrease in air movement due to an underlying condition such as: There are two forms of respiratory acidosis: acute and chronic. Acute respiratory acidosis occurs quickly. It’s a medical emergency. Left untreated, symptoms will get progressively worse. It can become life-threatening. Chronic respiratory acidosis develops over time. It doesn’t cause symptoms. Instead, the body adapts to the increased acidity. For example, the kidneys produce more bicarbonate to help maintain balance. Chronic respiratory acidosis may not cause symptoms. Developing another illness may cause chronic respiratory acidosis to worsen and become acute respiratory acidosis. Initial signs of acute respiratory acidosis include: headache anxiety blurred vision restlessness confusion Without treatment, other symptoms may occur. These include: sleepiness or fatigue lethargy delirium or confusion shortness of breath coma The chronic form of Continue reading >>

Evaluation Of Respiratory Acidosis

Evaluation Of Respiratory Acidosis

Diagnostic Approach Once respiratory acidosis has been identified by ABG analysis, the approach to narrowing the differential diagnosis and determining the severity of the patient's condition is aided by the identification of its acuity (acute or chronic). This is done through the synthesis of information from the ABG itself, history, and physical exam. [8] Historical findings may immediately point to the underlying cause, such as head trauma and drug ingestion, or provide only limited information, as with the obtunded patient. The physical exam should focus on assessment of the neurologic and respiratory systems with careful examination of the lung fields, which can yield useful information regarding the presence of underlying parenchymal disease. Further laboratory studies are warranted when metabolic abnormalities or specific systemic diseases are suspected etiologies. Radiographic imaging is key to the evaluation of respiratory acidosis, as it can provide rapid screening for head, cervical, or chest pathology. ABG analysis Step 1: Is there acidosis? Acidosis is indicated by an arterial blood gas pH below the normal range (i.e., <7.35) Step 2: Respiratory or metabolic? Respiratory acidosis is indicated by an increase in the arterial carbon dioxide levels above the normal range of 35 to 45 mmHg (4.7-6.0 kPa). It is important to note that the degree of acidosis and the potential concerns are different depending on whether the problem is respiratory or metabolic. An equivalent pH in metabolic acidosis (e.g., 7.0) is a much worse clinical sign, as the body has dual buffering and compensatory mechanisms for metabolic acid (the carbamate-bicarbonate system: bicarbonate buffer, and carbon dioxide elimination). Elevated carbon dioxide, on the other hand, causes a dramatic fa Continue reading >>

Respiratory Acidosis

Respiratory Acidosis

Respiratory Acidosis Definition Respiratory acidosis is a condition in which a build-up of carbon dioxide in the blood produces a shift in the body's pH balance and causes the body's system to become more acidic. This condition is brought about by a problem either involving the lungs and respiratory system or signals from the brain that control breathing. Description Respiratory acidosis is an acid imbalance in the body caused by a problem related to breathing. In the lungs, oxygen from inhaled air is exchanged for carbon dioxide from the blood. This process takes place between the alveoli (tiny air pockets in the lungs) and the blood vessels that connect to them. When this exchange of oxygen for carbon dioxide is impaired, the excess carbon dioxide forms an acid in the blood. The condition can be acute with a sudden onset, or it can develop gradually as lung function deteriorates. Causes and symptoms Respiratory acidosis can be caused by diseases or conditions that affect the lungs themselves, such as emphysema, chronic bronchitis, asthma, or severe pneumonia. Blockage of the airway due to swelling, a foreign object, or vomit can induce respiratory acidosis. Drugs like anesthetics, sedatives, and narcotics can interfere with breathing by depressing the respiratory center in the brain. Head injuries or brain tumors can also interfere with signals sent by the brain to the lungs. Such neuromuscular diseases as Guillain-Barré syndrome or myasthenia gravis can impair the muscles around the lungs making it more difficult to breathe. Conditions that cause chronic metabolic alkalosis can also trigger respiratory acidosis. The most notable symptom will be slowed or difficult breathing. Headache, drowsiness, restlessness, tremor, and confusion may also occur. A rapid heart rate Continue reading >>

Mixed Acid-base Disorders, Hydroelectrolyte Imbalance And Lactate Production In Hypercapnic Respiratory Failure: The Role Of Noninvasive Ventilation

Mixed Acid-base Disorders, Hydroelectrolyte Imbalance And Lactate Production In Hypercapnic Respiratory Failure: The Role Of Noninvasive Ventilation

Mixed Acid-Base Disorders, Hydroelectrolyte Imbalance and Lactate Production in Hypercapnic Respiratory Failure: The Role of Noninvasive Ventilation Affiliation: Fondazione Eleonora Lorillard Spencer Cenci, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, Italy Affiliation: Fondazione Eleonora Lorillard Spencer Cenci, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, Italy Affiliation: Fondazione Eleonora Lorillard Spencer Cenci, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, Italy Affiliation: Laboratory of Biostatistics, Department of Biomedical Science, University G. d'Annunzio of Chieti-Pescara, Chieti, Italy Affiliation: Fondazione Eleonora Lorillard Spencer Cenci, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, Italy Affiliation: Fondazione Eleonora Lorillard Spencer Cenci, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, Italy Affiliation: Fondazione Eleonora Lorillard Spencer Cenci, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, Italy Hypercapnic Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) exacerbation in patients with comorbidities and multidrug therapy is complicated by mixed acid-base, hydro-electrolyte and lactate disorders. Aim of this study was to determine the relationships of these disorders with the requirement for and duration of noninvasive ventilation (NIV) when treating hypercapnic respiratory failure. Sixty-seven consecutive patients who were hospitalized for hypercapnic COPD exacerbation had their clinical condition, respiratory function, blood chemistry, arterial blood gases, blood lactate and volemic state assessed. Heart and respiratory rates, pH, PaO2 and PaCO2 and blood lactate were checked at the 1st, 2nd, 6th and 24th hours after starting NIV. Nine patients were transferred to the intensive care unit. NIV was performed in 11/17 (64.7%) mixed respiratory acidosismetabolic alkalosis, 10/36 (27.8%) respiratory acidosis Continue reading >>

Acid-base Disturbance In Copd

Acid-base Disturbance In Copd

Summarized from Bruno M, Valenti M. Acid-base disorders in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: A pathophysiological review. J Bomedicine and Biotechnology (2012) Article ID 915150 8 pages ( available at :) Arterial blood gases are frequently useful in the clinical management of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) to assess both oxygenation and acid-base status. A recent review article focuses on disturbance of acid-base in these patients, which occurs in advanced disease when pulmonary gas exchange is so compromised that the rate of carbon dioxide production in the tissues exceeds the rate of carbon dioxide elimination by the lungs. The article begins with an explanation of how the resulting carbon dioxide accumulation in blood leads to respiratory acidosis, the acid-base disturbance that commonly occurs in advanced COPD. An important distinction is made between acute and chronic respiratory acidosis; compensation is less effective in the former. Then follows a detailed description of the several renal mechanisms involved in the compensatory response to chronic respiratory acidosis. Although this mitigates the acidosis to a considerable extent, it often does not result in normalisation of pH. The deleterious effects of acidosis are enumerated and the authors also briefly review the epidemiological study that links severity of acidosis to poorer outcome among COPD patients. The significance of renal compensatory mechanisms is highlighted again in the discussion of the co-existence of renal failure in patients with COPD who to a greater or lesser extent lack these mechanisms and thereby have worse acidosis and poorer outcome. Many COPD patients with respiratory acidosis are suffering other conditions or prescribed drugs that affect Continue reading >>

Acid-base Disorders In Patients With Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: A Pathophysiological Review

Acid-base Disorders In Patients With Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: A Pathophysiological Review

Acid-Base Disorders in Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: A Pathophysiological Review Department of Internal Medicine and Systemic Diseases, University of Catania, 95100 Catania, Italy Received 29 September 2011; Accepted 26 October 2011 Copyright 2012 Cosimo Marcello Bruno and Maria Valenti. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. The authors describe the pathophysiological mechanisms leading to development of acidosis in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and its deleterious effects on outcome and mortality rate. Renal compensatory adjustments consequent to acidosis are also described in detail with emphasis on differences between acute and chronic respiratory acidosis. Mixed acid-base disturbances due to comorbidity and side effects of some drugs in these patients are also examined, and practical considerations for a correct diagnosis are provided. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a major public health problem. Its prevalence varies according to country, age, and sex. On the basis of epidemiologic data, the projection for 2020 indicates that COPD will be the third leading cause of death worldwide and the fifth leading cause of disability [ 1 ]. About 15% of COPD patients need admission to general hospital or intensive respiratory care unit for acute exacerbation, leading to greater use of medical resources and increased costs [ 2 5 ]. Even though the overall prognosis of COPD patients is lately improved, the mortality rate remains high, and, among others, acid-base disorders occurring in these subjects can affect the outcome. The aim of this pa Continue reading >>

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