Are Copd Patients In Respiratory Acidosis?

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A Primer On Arterial Blood Gas Analysis By Andrew M. Luks, Md(cont.)

Step 4: Identify the compensatory process (if one is present) In general, the primary process is followed by a compensatory process, as the body attempts to bring the pH back towards the normal range. If the patient has a primary respiratory acidosis (high PCO2 ) leading to acidemia: the compensatory process is a metabolic alkalosis (rise in the serum bicarbonate). If the patient has a primary respiratory alkalosis (low PCO2 ) leading to alkalemia: the compensatory process is a metabolic acidosis (decrease in the serum bicarbonate) If the patient has a primary metabolic acidosis (low bicarbonate) leading acidemia, the compensatory process is a respiratory alkalosis (low PCO2 ). If the patient has a primary metabolic alkalosis (high bicarbonate) leading to alkalemia, the compensatory process is a respiratory acidosis (high PCO2 ) The compensatory processes are summarized in Figure 2. (opens in a new window) Important Points Regarding Compensatory Processes There are several important points to be aware of regarding these compensatory processes: The body never overcompensates for the primary process. For example, if the patient develops acidemia due to a respiratory acidosis and then Continue reading >>

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  1. outta_my_element

    Last week I had laser lithotripsy to remove my first kidney stone (6.5mm). The urologist was semi-concerned that keto may have caused it - she gave me a list of food items that should be used in moderation to avoid kindey stones. On that list was animal protein, mayo, greens, and almonds. She finished by saying that as long as I'm drinking enough water and also using some real lemon in my water it shouldn't be a huge problem.
    I've been keto for 4 years now and have lost 120lbs. But I really dont think I got a kidney stone from Keto. Up until two months ago, I used to drink a whole pot of coffee, drink diet soda, and drink carb free rockstars everyday on top of drinking half my body weight in fl oz of water. I've now changed to only drinking water everyday.
    I just want to know if anyone else has maybe had this issue? I love keto and it has changed my life- Maybe I should up my fat and lower my protein?

  2. JuneStrawberries

    Since October of 2016, I've known 2 people who suffered with kidney stones. Neither one was keto.
    Some people who eat keto will get stones. Some people who don't eat keto will get stones.
    Kidney stones and keto are not related.

  3. Emerrson

    You said you used to drink coffee, sodas, rockstars and tons of water everyday but now only drink water. I bet you arent drinking enough water compared to before when you also drank the other things. Maybe thats whats causing the issue. Try to drink more water. Lots more.

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Respiratory acidosis #sign and symptoms of Respiratory acidosis Respiratory acidosis ABGs Analyse https://youtu.be/L5MWy1iHacI Plz share n subscribe my chanel is a condition that occurs when the lungs cant remove enough of the Suctioning https://youtu.be/hMJGkxvXTW0 carbon dioxide (CO2) produced by the body. Excess CO2 causes the pH of blood and other bodily fluids to decrease, making them too acidic. Normally, the body is able to balance the ions that control acidity. This balance is measured on a pH scale from 0 to 14. Acidosis occurs when the pH of the blood falls below 7.35 (normal blood pH is between 7.35 and 7.45).Rinku Chaudhary NSG officer AMU ALIGARH https://www.facebook.com/rinkutch/ Respiratory acidosis is typically caused by an underlying disease or condition. This is also called respiratory failure or ventilatory failure. Suctioning https://youtu.be/hMJGkxvXTW0 Normally, the lungs take in oxygen and exhale CO2. Oxygen passes from the lungs into the blood. CO2 passes from the blood into the lungs. However, sometimes the lungs cant remove enough CO2. This may be due to a decrease in respiratory rate or decrease in air movement due to an underlying condition such as: asthma COPD pneumonia sleep apnea TYPES Forms of respiratory acidosis There are two forms of respiratory acidosis: acute and chronic. Acute respiratory acidosis occurs quickly. Its a medical emergency. Left untreated, symptoms will get progressively worse. It can become life-threatening. Chronic respiratory acidosis develops over time. It doesnt cause symptoms. Instead, the body adapts to the increased acidity. For example, the kidneys produce more bicarbonate to help maintain balance. Chronic respiratory acidosis may not cause symptoms. Developing another illness may cause chronic respiratory acidosis to worsen and become acute respiratory acidosis. SYMPTOMS Symptoms of respiratory acidosis Initial signs of acute respiratory acidosis include: headache anxiety blurred vision restlessness confusion Without treatment, other symptoms may occur. These include: https://www.healthline.com/health/res... sleepiness or fatigue lethargy delirium or confusion shortness of breath coma The chronic form of respiratory acidosis doesnt typically cause any noticeable symptoms. Signs are subtle and nonspecific and may include: memory loss sleep disturbances personality changes CAUSES Common causes of respiratory acidosis The lungs and the kidneys are the major organs that help regulate your bloods pH. The lungs remove acid by exhaling CO2, and the kidneys excrete acids through the urine. The kidneys also regulate your bloods concentration of bicarbonate (a base). Respiratory acidosis is usually caused by a lung disease or condition that affects normal breathing or impairs the lungs ability to remove CO2. Some common causes of the chronic form are: asthma chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) acute pulmonary edema severe obesity (which can interfere with expansion of the lungs) neuromuscular disorders (such as multiple sclerosis or muscular dystrophy) scoliosis Some common causes of the acute form are: lung disorders (COPD, emphysema, asthma, pneumonia) conditions that affect the rate of breathing muscle weakness that affects breathing or taking a deep breath obstructed airways (due to choking or other causes) sedative overdose cardiac arrest DIAGNOSIS How is respiratory acidosis diagnosed? The goal of diagnostic tests for respiratory acidosis is to look for any pH imbalance, to determine the severity of the imbalance, and to determine the condition causing the imbalance. Several tools can help doctors diagnose respiratory acidosis. Blood gas measurement Blood gas is a series of tests used to measure oxygen and CO2 in the blood. A healthcare provider will take a sample of blood from your artery. High levels of CO2 can indicate acidosis.

Respiratory Acidosis

Respiratory acidosis is an abnormal clinical process that causes the arterial Pco2 to increase to greater than 40 mm Hg. Increased CO2 concentration in the blood may be secondary to increased CO2 production or decreased ventilation. Larry R. Engelking, in Textbook of Veterinary Physiological Chemistry (Third Edition) , 2015 Respiratory acidosis can arise from a break in any one of these links. For example, it can be caused from depression of the respiratory center through drugs or metabolic disease, or from limitations in chest wall expansion due to neuromuscular disorders or trauma (Table 90-1). It can also arise from pulmonary disease, card iog en ic pu lmon a ryedema, a spira tion of a foreign body or vomitus, pneumothorax and pleural space disease, or through mechanical hypoventilation. Unless there is a superimposed or secondary metabolic acidosis, the plasma anion gap will usually be normal in respiratory acidosis. Kamel S. Kamel MD, FRCPC, Mitchell L. Halperin MD, FRCPC, in Fluid, Electrolyte and Acid-Base Physiology (Fifth Edition) , 2017 Respiratory acidosis is characterized by an increased arterial blood PCO2 and H+ ion concentration. The major cause of respiratory acido Continue reading >>

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  1. Rcroix

    Hello everyone.
    I have been on the 2:5 for about 6 months and lost about 10kg (over 20lbs) So thank you Dr Mosley!
    A lot of the reviews of the fasting lifesyle seem to suggest that it is just a way to reduce average weekly calories, but I’m sure most of you think there is more going on than simple calorie reduction.
    During the last 10 days I didn’t fast as I was on holiday traveling and found it difficult. Amazingly I did not gain any weight. This has happend on two occasions during the last 6 months.
    I think the fasting days are forcing the body to relearn how to burn fat. I’m a bit confused about the correct scientific terms for this ‘lypolysis’ is I believe the breackdown of fats (into amino acids) and ketosis the burning of
    fat as fuel.
    What ever the terminology it seems like the fasting days teach the body a long forgotten trick of switching from available glucose derived from what we just ate, to reserves stored as fat.
    I suggest that this trait applies to non fast days too, hence the lack of weigh gain during holidays.
    I used to do a bit of distance running and am quite familiar with the concept of ‘hitting the wall’. This is when a runner runs out of glucose and has to switch to fat burning (around the 18mile mark). Often that process is difficult, I have had to sit on the ground for about 3 minutes until my legs felt like they would work again.
    I’m not running now so I can’t try a quick marathon to see if the diet has helped with the switch.
    I welcome your thoughts.
    Good luck
    Perhaps Dr Mosely could weigh in on this with some scientific evidence.

  2. zec4peach

    I love science and this is why I love the 5.2 as it makes so much sense.
    Your body will go into ketosis when fasting for a short time, this is probably why some people get headaches. It will also make you very thirsty and wee a lot as your body tries to flush out the by products from fat metabolism. This is a common symptom of type 1 diabetes but obviously they go into a severe more ketoacidosis due to prolonged lack of insulin and metabolism of glucose and start burning muscle for fuel.
    It’s quite complicated stuff but if you google fasting ketosis there’s loads of interesting info online. Michaels book was lacking in any science stuff which is a shame as I think people are interested.
    I know that athletes or very fit people are more efficient at burning fat as they are used to it so yes I think the 5.2 does reset the metabolism in a similar way.
    I have managed to this this after years of cycling and find I can ride for a few hours on an empty stomach. Always need coffee though !!!

  3. Nika

    Hey Martin!
    I’m also very interested in ketosis. I tried it out a few weeks ago and didn’t eat any carbs for 1,5 week. I lost quite some weight, but felt like I couldn’t sustain it – I started feeling really weak, dizzy, couldn’t walk straight some days and all in all didn’t get the energy boosts some people boast about.
    So now I just cut carbs on my fast days and allow myself fruit and yoghurt on normal days – still prefer not to eat rice, noodles, bread and potatoes though. Sometimes a baked good or chocolate pudding as a treat, but not regularly. I do think this really contributes to my quicker than average weightloss (7kg in 3 weeks, of which most during that first 1,5 week).
    I’ve also started working out fasted. I do this after work before my only meal of the day, so after fasting for over 20 hours. I do HIIT (Insanity), which combines cardio and strength through bodyweight exercises. So far my results have been worse than when I did the program before when eating regularly, but I’m waiting to see how it goes in two weeks when I do my second fit test. My body is most likely also learning how to switch to burning fat efficiently.
    What you said about going on a holiday, this reminded me of the “carb loaders” I know. They basically cut carbs during the week, then they “carbload” on Saturday – eating everything from pizza to ribs to whatever they want. They say that it doesn’t cause them to gain weight, because the body is still in fat burning mode and the glucose from the carbs goes straight to the muscles, giving the muscles the strength to keep working out through the next week. Hence carb ‘loading’. These people are basically in ketosis 3 days a week (it usually takes the body about 3 days to go into full ketosis).
    These are all bodybuilder types though, who do mostly strength training so it doesn’t really sound like a great idea for me. I wanna be lean, not buff.
    Anyway, long post – gonna head over to the next one

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CPAP and non-invasive ventilation: a basic introduction to what it is in 5 minutes

Acidbase Balance, Serum Electrolytes And Need For Non-invasive Ventilation In Patients With Hypercapnic Acute Exacerbation Of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Admitted To An Internal Medicine Ward

Acidbase balance, serum electrolytes and need for non-invasive ventilation in patients with hypercapnic acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease admitted to an internal medicine ward Hypoventilation produces or worsens respiratory acidosis in patients with hypercapnia due to acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD). In these patients acidbase and hydroelectrolite balance are closely related. Aim of the present study was to evaluate acidbase and hydroelectrolite alterations in these subjects and the effect of non-invasive ventilation and pharmacological treatment. We retrospectively analysed 110 patients consecutively admitted to the Internal Medicine ward of Cava de Tirreni Hospital for acute exacerbation of hypercapnic chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. On admission all patients received oxygen with a Venturi mask to maintain arterial oxygen saturation at least >90%, and received appropriate pharmacological treatment. Non-Invasive Ventilation (NIV) was started when, despite optimal therapy, patients had severe dyspnea, increased work of breathing and respiratory acidosis. Based on Arterial Blood Gas (ABG) data, we divided the 11 Continue reading >>

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  1. iderpthereforeiherp

    Hi Keto-ers, i'm in ketosis, have been back in it for 3 weeks after a break for a vacation, and quite frankly i effing love this diet :)
    however today i slept in for work, and didn't have breakfast or make a lunch, yet i have had no hunger pains, been drinking my 500ml water per hour and just had a pepperami and a babybel.
    one of my friends is telling me how my metabolism must be overly slow for me not to have a hunger pang... and that this means if i have a kebab or anything like that it will show pretty quickly.
    how can i defend this diet of the gods??

  2. Casao

    General public perception of "slowing your metabolism" or "going into starvation mode" is bullshit, that is the #1 thing to keep in mind.
    In most people, the metabolism does not substantially change until around 1 week of fasting. You can skip meals, load up on meals, whatever you want - your metabolism will not slow down.
    What's happening here is you're solidly in ketosis. The current trend is to get your energy from carbohydrates, becoming glucose in the blood (blood sugar) and powering things that way. Glucose is short lived in a working body, which means that you'll get a burst of energy, and then it will go away. This is why you feel a sugar crash sometimes, and why people recommend eating 5 small meals instead of 3 big ones. As a result of this, your body will release horomones triggering hunger as your blood sugar drops.
    In a state of ketosis, your body is burning fat and releasing ketones. Once you've adapted to using ketones as your primary form of energy (I believe I've seen 2-3 weeks quoted for this), your body has a constant supply of ready energy, as it can burn fat as long as you have some. In this case, your body does not need to eat as much, and will release the hunger horomone less often. As long as you're getting the nutrients you need (which come from meats and vegetables much more easily than grains), you don't need to worry about forcing yourself to eat if you're not hungry.
    tl;dr: Your body is currently an efficient fat-burning machine, and that's why you're not hungry.

  3. iderpthereforeiherp

    thanks for the replies! my next question... the little amount i eat, is this dangerous in terms of slowing down weightloss? i always thought i should always have a breakfast? but i find myself forcing myself to eat it.

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