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Are Cats In Ketosis

L-carnitine Dietary Supplementation In Obese Cats Decreases Ketosis During Fasting And Induced Feline Hepatic Lipidosis

L-carnitine Dietary Supplementation In Obese Cats Decreases Ketosis During Fasting And Induced Feline Hepatic Lipidosis

Géraldine Blanchard*, B.-M Paragon*, F. Milliat**, C. Lutton** The objective of this study was to estimate the effects of a L-carnitine dietary supplementation in obese cats undergoing a protocol of hepatic lipidosis induction (Biourge et al., 1994). Eleven queens of same age and origin, were spayed and randomly assigned to 2 groups. They are fed ad libitum a commercial diet for adult cats containing 40 ppm of L-carnitine (CL group, n=4) or 1000 ppm of L-carnitine (CH group, n=7). When obese, the queens are split to a semi-purified diet, until clinical hepatic lipidosis (HL). Plasma fatty acids and beta-hydroxybutyrate concentrations are measured at each step and once a week during fasting. Differences between CH and CL groups were analyzed by an unbalanced analysis of variance followed when necessary by a pairwise analysis of variance. Ketosis is significantly lower in CH group, after 4 and 5 weeks of fasting (respectively F4 and F5) and during HL, with the following concentrations (in mmol/L, mean±SEM) in CH group and CL group respectively: 0.74±0.22 versus 2.47±0.73 at F4, 0.75±0.28 versus 3.83±0.64 at F5 and 1.42±0.48 versus 3.13±0.96 at HL. This study demonstrates a lowering effect of L-carnitine supplementation during obesity induction on fasting ketosis in cats. Biourge VC, Groff JM, Munn RJ, Kirk CA, Nyland TG, Madeiros VA., Morris J.G., Rogers Q.R. (1994) Experimental induction of hepatic lipidosis in cats. Am. J. Vet. Res. 55:1291-1302 Continue reading >>

Diabetic Ketosis And Ketoacidosis In Cats

Diabetic Ketosis And Ketoacidosis In Cats

To determine clinical signs, clinicopathologic abnormalities, prevalence of concurrent disease, treatment, complications of treatment, and outcome in cats with diabetic ketosis (DK) or diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA). Retrospective study. 42 cats with DK or DKA. Medical records of diabetic cats with ketonuria were reviewed. In 26 cats, diabetes was newly diagnosed; in 16, diabetes had been diagnosed previously and cats had been treated with insulin (n = 14) or sulfonylurea drugs (2). Common clinical findings were lethargy, anorexia, polyuria, polydipsia, and weight loss. Common laboratory findings were hyperglycemia, hyponatremia, hypochloremia, hypokalemia, hypocalcemia, hypophosphatemia, low total CO2 content, hyperosmolality, high serum alanine transaminase activity, azotemia, glycosuria, and ketonuria. Concurrent disorders were identified in 39 cats and included hepatic lipidosis, cholangiohepatitis, pancreatitis, chronic renal failure, urinary tract infection, and neoplasia. Treatment of DK and DKA included administration of regular crystalline (34 cats), NPH (6), or ultralente (2) insulin, intravenous (38) or subcutaneous (4) administration of fluids, and enterall parenteral or administration of antibiotics (42). Complications during treatment included abnormalities in serum electrolyte concentrations (27 cats), hemolytic anemia (4), hypoglycemia (3), and neurologic abnormalities unrelated to hypoglycemia (2). Eleven cats died or were euthanatized during the initial hospitalization period for treatment of DK or DKA. Azotemia, metabolic acidosis, and hyperosmolality were more severe in cats that died than in cats that survived. Differences in regard to treatment or complications were not apparent between cats that died and cats that survived. The 31 cats that survived Continue reading >>

Understanding And Treating Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Understanding And Treating Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a serious metabolic disorder that can occur in animals with diabetes mellitus (DM).1,2 Veterinary technicians play an integral role in managing and treating patients with this life-threatening condition. In addition to recognizing the clinical signs of this disorder and evaluating the patient's response to therapy, technicians should understand how this disorder occurs. DM is caused by a relative or absolute lack of insulin production by the pancreatic b-cells or by inactivity or loss of insulin receptors, which are usually found on membranes of skeletal muscle, fat, and liver cells.1,3 In dogs and cats, DM is classified as either insulin-dependent (the body is unable to produce sufficient insulin) or non-insulin-dependent (the body produces insulin, but the tissues in the body are resistant to the insulin).4 Most dogs and cats that develop DKA have an insulin deficiency. Insulin has many functions, including the enhancement of glucose uptake by the cells for energy.1 Without insulin, the cells cannot access glucose, thereby causing them to undergo starvation.2 The unused glucose remains in the circulation, resulting in hyperglycemia. To provide cells with an alternative energy source, the body breaks down adipocytes, releasing free fatty acids (FFAs) into the bloodstream. The liver subsequently converts FFAs to triglycerides and ketone bodies. These ketone bodies (i.e., acetone, acetoacetic acid, b-hydroxybutyric acid) can be used as energy by the tissues when there is a lack of glucose or nutritional intake.1,2 The breakdown of fat, combined with the body's inability to use glucose, causes many pets with diabetes to present with weight loss, despite having a ravenous appetite. If diabetes is undiagnosed or uncontrolled, a series of metab Continue reading >>

Diabetes With Ketone Bodies In Cats

Diabetes With Ketone Bodies In Cats

Diabetic ketoacidosis is an extreme medical emergency that requires immediate veterinary attention. The condition can result in an accumulation of fluid in the brain and lungs, renal failure or heart failure. Affected animals that are not treated are likely to die. With timely intervention and proper treatment, it is likely that an affected cat can recover with little to no side effects. Diabetes mellitus occurs when the pancreas fails to produce sufficient insulin, creating an inability to efficiently process the sugars, fats, and proteins needed for energy. The resulting build-up of sugar causes extreme thirst and frequent urination. Since sugar levels help to control appetite, affected animals may experience a spike in hunger and lose weight at the same time due to the inability to properly process nutrients. In extreme cases, diabetes may be accompanied by a condition known as ketoacidosis. This is a serious ailment that causes energy crisis and abnormal blood-acid levels in affected pets. Cats affected with diabetic ketoacidosis are likely to present with one or more of the following symptoms: Vomiting Weakness Lethargy Depression Excessive Thirst Refusal to drink water Refusal to eat Sudden weight loss Loss of muscle tone Increased urination Dehydration Rough coat Dandruff Rapid breathing Sweet-smelling breath Jaundice The exact cause of diabetes in cats is unknown, but it is often accompanied by obesity, chronic pancreatitis, hormonal disease, or the use of corticosteroids like Prednisone. Ketoacidosis, the buildup of ketone waste products in the blood that occurs when the body burns fat and protein for energy instead of using glucose, is caused by insulin-dependent diabetes. Diabetic ketoacidosis is commonly preceded by other conditions including: Stress Surgery Continue reading >>

Tpns 58-61: Ketosis Is Natural. Natural Is Good.

Tpns 58-61: Ketosis Is Natural. Natural Is Good.

Primitive Nutrition 58: Ketosis Is Natural. Natural Is Good. Part I So far in my examination of low-carb diets I've shown you that they are nutritionally deficient, metabolically damaging, and unlikely to produce weight loss, if only because fats are so calorically dense. For the low-carbers, the solution to this last problem is ketosis. For them, this special metabolic state is the ultimate goal of their diets. They imagine it will effortlessly melt away all the fat they've accumulated from their prior unhealthy eating behavior. Low carbers' zeal for ketosis has lead some to make a questionable claim which I'd like to ponder in this section. Michael Eades presents it here in his blog explaining ketosis. Of course, like many other primitive fad diet promoters, he wants you to start from the assumption that the activity pictured to the left somehow represents man's true nature and the way he has historically obtained food. I don't see any women in that photo, which should give you a clue that this isn't the whole story. According to The Economist, among the hunter gatherers who provide the Paleo model, "men usually bring fewer calories than women, and have a tiresome tendency to prefer catching big and infrequent prey so they can show off." Eades is tapping into the same old macho vanity that has worked so well in marketing Paleo. If you'd like to see what a group spear hunt really looks like in live action, watch this video. Somehow the artist who created Dr Eades picture forgot to include all the blood. Having read a bit about how intelligent and social elephants are, I find this unappealing to say the least. If you watch it, see if you can imagine Michael Eades participating in such a hunt. But back to ketosis, despite his acknowledgement that ketogenic diets create a Continue reading >>

What Is Ketosis?

What Is Ketosis?

"Ketosis" is a word you'll probably see when you're looking for information on diabetes or weight loss. Is it a good thing or a bad thing? That depends. Ketosis is a normal metabolic process, something your body does to keep working. When it doesn't have enough carbohydrates from food for your cells to burn for energy, it burns fat instead. As part of this process, it makes ketones. If you're healthy and eating a balanced diet, your body controls how much fat it burns, and you don't normally make or use ketones. But when you cut way back on your calories or carbs, your body will switch to ketosis for energy. It can also happen after exercising for a long time and during pregnancy. For people with uncontrolled diabetes, ketosis is a sign of not using enough insulin. Ketosis can become dangerous when ketones build up. High levels lead to dehydration and change the chemical balance of your blood. Ketosis is a popular weight loss strategy. Low-carb eating plans include the first part of the Atkins diet and the Paleo diet, which stress proteins for fueling your body. In addition to helping you burn fat, ketosis can make you feel less hungry. It also helps you maintain muscle. For healthy people who don't have diabetes and aren't pregnant, ketosis usually kicks in after 3 or 4 days of eating less than 50 grams of carbohydrates per day. That's about 3 slices of bread, a cup of low-fat fruit yogurt, or two small bananas. You can start ketosis by fasting, too. Doctors may put children who have epilepsy on a ketogenic diet, a special high-fat, very low-carb and protein plan, because it might help prevent seizures. Adults with epilepsy sometimes eat modified Atkins diets. Some research suggests that ketogenic diets might help lower your risk of heart disease. Other studies show sp Continue reading >>

Ketoacidosis In Cats – Causes, Symptoms & Treatment

Ketoacidosis In Cats – Causes, Symptoms & Treatment

Ketoacidosis in cats at a glance Ketoacidosis is a serious complication of diabetes in which ketones and blood sugar levels build up in the body due to insufficient levels of insulin which is required to move glucose into the cells for energy. As a result, the body uses fat as an alternate energy source which produces ketones causing the blood to become too acidic. Common causes include uncontrolled diabetes, missed or insufficient insulin, surgery, infection, stress and obesity. Symptoms of ketoacidosis include increased urination and thirst, dehydration, nausea, diarrhea, confusion, rapid breathing which may later change to laboured breathing. What is diabetic ketoacidosis? Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a life-threatening complication of diabetes characterised by metabolic acidosis (increased acids in the blood), hyperglycemia (high blood glucose) and ketonuria (ketones in the urine). It is caused by a lack of or insufficient amounts of insulin which is required to move glucose from the bloodstream and into the cells to be used for energy. When this occurs, the body begins to search for alternate sources of energy and begins to break down fat. When fat is broken down (metabolised) into fatty acids, waste products known as ketones (acetoacetate, beta-hydroxybutyrate, acetone) are released from the liver and accumulate in the bloodstream (known as ketonemia). This causes the blood to become too acidic (metabolic acidosis). As well as metabolic acidosis, ketones also cause central nervous depression.The body will try to get rid of the ketones by excreting them out of the body via the urine, increased urine output leads to dehydration, making the problem worse. Meanwhile, the unused glucose remains in the bloodstream, resulting in hyperglycemia (high blood sugar).Insulin Continue reading >>

Diabetes Complications In Dogs And Cats: Diabetes Ketoacidosis (dka)

Diabetes Complications In Dogs And Cats: Diabetes Ketoacidosis (dka)

Unfortunately, we veterinarians are seeing an increased prevalence of diabetes mellitus in dogs and cats. This is likely due to the growing prevalence of obesity (secondary to inactive lifestyle, a high carbohydrate diet, lack of exercise, etc.). So, if you just had a dog or cat diagnosed with diabetes mellitus, what do you do? First, we encourage you to take a look at these articles for an explanation of the disease: Diabetes Mellitus (Sugar Diabetes) in Dogs Once you have a basic understanding of diabetes mellitus (or if you already had one), this article will teach you about life-threatening complications that can occur as a result of the disease; specifically, I discuss a life-threatening condition called diabetes ketoacidosis (DKA) so that you know how to help prevent it! What is DKA? When diabetes goes undiagnosed, or when it is difficult to control or regulate, the complication of DKA can occur. DKA develops because the body is so lacking in insulin that the sugar can’t get into the cells -- resulting in cell starvation. Cell starvation causes the body to start breaking down fat in an attempt to provide energy (or a fuel source) to the body. Unfortunately, these fat breakdown products, called “ketones,” are also poisonous to the body. Symptoms of DKA Clinical signs of DKA include the following: Weakness Not moving (in cats, hanging out by the water bowl) Not eating to complete anorexia Large urinary clumps in the litter box (my guideline? If it’s bigger than a tennis ball, it’s abnormal) Weight loss (most commonly over the back), despite an overweight body condition Excessively dry or oily skin coat Abnormal breath (typically a sweet “ketotic” odor) In severe cases DKA can also result in more significant signs: Abnormal breathing pattern Jaundice Ab Continue reading >>

Does Your Cat Have Bad Breath?

Does Your Cat Have Bad Breath?

There are different causes for halitosis in cats — some far more serious than others. Your best strategy is to schedule an appointment with your vet. Cats are well known for being exceptionally clean animals. They take pride in their appearance — grooming constantly to remove any offensive odors that might make them detectable to both predators and prey. Occasionally, however, cats sometimes do emit a foul odor. Although there are several possible reasons for a cat to be malodorous, halitosis (bad breath) is the most common cause of fetid felines. The common causes Periodontal disease — inflammation of the tissues surrounding the teeth — is by far the most common cause of bad breath in cats. Periodontal disease is initiated by a build-up of plaque, the sticky bacteria-laden coating on the tooth surface. As the immune system responds to the plaque, the gums become inflamed. Gum inflammation is called gingivitis, and it is the first stage of periodontal disease. Bad breath often accompanies the gingivitis. As inflammation progresses, the second phase of periodontal disease — periodontitis — occurs. Periodontitis is a condition where both the soft tissues and the bony tissues are affected. Cats may develop receding gums, bone loss and continuing halitosis. If not removed from the tooth, plaque mineralizes into tartar (also called calculus) in a few days. Calculus requires professional removal by your veterinarian. Although periodontal disease and gingivitis tend to develop as cats age, gingivitis can occur in cats as young as six months. These cats often have little or no calculus accumulation. We call this condition “juvenile-onset gingivitis,” and it is a common cause of halitosis in kittens. The exact cause of this condition is unknown, but experts belie Continue reading >>

Ketogenic Diet For Dogs

Ketogenic Diet For Dogs

Ketogenic Diet For Dogs: Ketosis What is a Ketogenic Diet? Ketogenic diets formulate a high ratio of fat compared with protein and carbohydrates. Utilizing high fat content in the diet results in the conversion of fat to ketones. Ketones are short-chain fats produced by the liver – which the body uses as energy in place of carbohydrates. Based in the science which shows cancer cells thrive on sugar (glucose), and as the primary source of glucose is carbohydrates, eliminating these kills the cancer cells. In 1924, Otto Warburg theorized cancer feeds on sugar, which is what carbohydrates become during digestion. Cancer can not process fats well. Warburg concluded patients could cut out sugars and carbs to slow cancer growth. Additionally current key supporters and practitioners include Dr Greg Oglivy of the “Canine Cancer Diet”. DR Oglivy also promotes drastic reductions in carbohydrates. His diet differs slightly with regards to fat content. Dr. Dominic D’Agostino is an assistant professor at the University of South Florida College of Medicine. He claims that a low-carb, high-fat, calorie-restricted ketogenic diet literally starves cancer cells. Dr. Dominic D’Agostino has stated “We’ve found that diet therapy can be effective in prolonging survival in mice with aggressive metastatic cancer,”. Dr D’Agostina notes that it is the underlying inflammation from these high carbohydrate diets that promotes cancer, but also other diseases such as diabetes, obesity and Alzheimer’s. Thomas Sandberg, founder and CEO of Long Living Pets Research in Oakley, Utah says the keto diet can reverse cancer in dogs and cats and help them live significantly longer. Sandberg has an pretty extensive 15 years of research indicates a raw, grain-free ketogenic diet dramatically Continue reading >>

Ketogenic Raw Food Diet Helps Dogs And Cats Fight Cancer And Live Longer

Ketogenic Raw Food Diet Helps Dogs And Cats Fight Cancer And Live Longer

Studies show the low-carb, high-fat ketogenic diet can combat epilepsy and cancer in mice and humans, but animal researcher Thomas Sandberg says the keto diet can reverse cancer in dogs and cats and help them live significantly longer. Sandberg, founder and CEO of Long Living Pets Research in Oakley, Utah, said his 15 years of research indicates a raw, grain-free ketogenic diet dramatically boosts longevity for dogs and cats. Sandberg, who launched his 30-year research project in 2000, has been tracking the health of 1,000 dogs around the world. He discovered that dogs and cats thrive on a grain-free, ketogenic raw food diet consisting of raw meat, offal and bones. “Dogs are pure carnivores and do not thrive on your average commercial dog food,” Sandberg told TheImproper. “The only food they can properly digest, metabolize and utilize is raw meat.” Sandberg detailed the optimal diet for canines in his book, Learn How to Add Years To Your Dog’s Life. “I have studied dogs’ and cats’ digestive systems since 1997 and believe feeding them a simple diet of raw meats, edible bones and organ meats will promote a healthy immune system,” he said. “The result is a long, healthy life way past what is the expected lifespan of most breeds that are fed commercial dog food.” Sandberg continued: “I have studied dogs’ and cats’ digestive systems since 1997 and believe feeding them a simple diet of raw meats, edible bones and organ meats will promote a healthy immune system.” Thomas, who was born in Norway, said the commercial kibble that most dog owners feed their pets causes them to get sick, fat and die early. Sandberg believes you can dramatically extend a dog’s life (even two-fold) simply by limiting their intake of unhealthy carbs and feeding them wha Continue reading >>

Measurement Of Β-hydroxybutyrate In Cats With Nonketotic Diabetes Mellitus, Diabetic Ketosis, And Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Measurement Of Β-hydroxybutyrate In Cats With Nonketotic Diabetes Mellitus, Diabetic Ketosis, And Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Ketone bodies are produced by the liver and are used as an energy source when glucose is not available. The 2 main ketone bodies are acetoacetate and β-hydroxybutyrate (β-HB), while acetone is the least abundant ketone body.13 Beta-hydroxybutyrate is derived from the reduction of acetoacetate in the mitochondria of the liver, and acetone is generated by spontaneous decarboxylation of acetoacetate. Patients suffering from diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) display hyperglycemia, glucosuria, ketonuria, ketonemia, and metabolic acidosis.9 The most popular method for the detection of ketone bodies is the urine dipstick method. Commercial ketone tests for urine are based on the Legal reaction, in which acetoacetate reacts with nitroprusside to produce a purple-colored complex on the test strip. If glycine is added to the test reagent, the Legal reaction can also detect acetone. However, β-HB cannot be detected by using this method.13 Measurement of ketones in blood rather than in urine helps eliminate the risk of false negatives due to insensitivity and false positives due to drug interference.24 In urine samples, the nitroprusside reaction has been reported to give false-positive results in the presence of drugs containing sulfhydryl groups. False-negative readings have been reported when the test strips have been exposed to air for an extended time, after large intakes of vitamin C, or when bacteria in the urine metabolize acetoacetate.17 Moreover, the measurement of ketone bodies is influenced by renal function.8 Another difficulty is the subjective evaluation of the color change of the urine stick. In human beings, the ketone body ratio in DKA is initially 3:1 (β-HB:acetoacetate) and rises to as high as 10–20:1, leading to an underdiagnosis of hyperketonemia when testing Continue reading >>

Diabetes With Ketone Bodies In Cats

Diabetes With Ketone Bodies In Cats

Diabetes Mellitus with Ketoacidosis in Cats The term “ketoacidosis” refers to a condition in which levels of acid abnormally increased in the blood due to presence of “ketone bodies.” Meanwhile, diabetes is a medical condition in which the body cannot absorb sufficient glucose, thus causing a rise the blood sugar levels. In diabetes with ketoacidosis, ketoacidosis immediately follows diabetes. It should be considered a dire emergency, one in which immediate treatment is required to save the life of the animal. Typically, the type of condition affects older cats; in addition, female cats are more prone diabetes with ketoacidosis than males. Symptoms and Types Weakness Lethargy Depression Lack of appetite (anorexia) Muscle wasting Rough hair coat Dehydration Dandruff Sweet breath odor Causes Although the ketoacidosis is ultimately brought on by the cat's insulin dependency due to diabetes mellitus, underlying factors include stress, surgery, and infections of the skin, respiratory, and urinary tract systems. Concurrent diseases such as heart failure, kidney failure, asthma, cancer may also lead to this type of condition. Diagnosis You will need to give a thorough history of your cat’s health, including the onset and nature of the symptoms, to your veterinarian. He or she will then perform a complete physical examination, as well as a biochemistry profile and complete blood count (CBC). The most consistent finding in patients with diabetes is higher than normal levels of glucose in the blood. If infection is present, white blood cell count will also high. Other findings may include: high liver enzymes, high blood cholesterol levels, accumulation in the blood of nitrogenous waste products (urea) that are usually excreted in the urine (azotemia), low sodium levels Continue reading >>

Ketosis In An Evolutionary Context

Ketosis In An Evolutionary Context

Humans are unique in their remarkable ability to enter ketosis. They’re also situated near the top of the food chain. Coincidence? During starvation, humans rapidly enter ketosis; they do this better than king penguins, and bears don’t do it at all. Starvation ketosis Humans maintain a high level of functionality during starvation. We can still hunt & plan; some would even argue it’s a more finely tuned state, cognitively. And that’s important, because if we became progressively weaker and slower, chances of acquiring food would rapidly decline. Perhaps this is why fasting bears just sleep most of the time: no ketones = no bueno..? Animals with a low brain/carcass weight ratio (ie, small brain) don’t need it. Babies and children have a higher brain/carcass weight ratio, so they develop ketosis more rapidly than adults. Is this a harmful process? No, more likely an evolutionary adaptation which supports the brain. The brain of newborn babies consumes a huge amount of total daily energy, and nearly half comes from ketones. A week or so later, even after the carbohydrate content of breast milk increases, they still don’t get “kicked out of ketosis” (Bourneres et al., 1986). If this were a harmful state, why would Nature have done this? …and all those anecdotes, like babies learn at incredibly rapid rates… coincidence? Maybe they’re myths. Maybe not. Ketosis in the animal kingdom Imagine a hibernating bear: huge adipose tissue but small brain fuel requirement relative to body size and total energy expenditure. No ketosis, because brain accounts for less than 5% of total metabolism. In adult humans, this is around 19-23%, and babies are much higher (eg, Cahill and Veech, 2003 & Hayes et al., 2012). For the rest of this article and more, head over to Pat Continue reading >>

When And How To Check For Them

When And How To Check For Them

Information provided about specific medical procedures or conditions is for educational purposes to allow for educated, on-going discussion with your vet and is not intended to replace veterinary advice. Diabetic Cat Care Ketones Many of us have heard of ketogenic diets; used often by bodybuilders, or to help with weight loss. The science is that by keeping the body in a ketone producing state, fat stores will be used by the body, weight will drop off much more quickly. That may be fine for humans, but producing ketones is the last state we want our diabetic cats to be in. Ketones occur when the body cannot access blood glucose for energy. Left untreated, ketones build up in the system and can lead to a life threatening situation called Diabetic Ketoacidosis, also known as DKA. While development of ketones is not an "immediate emergency", the progression of excessive ketones which develop into diabetic ketoacidosis IS a very real emergency situation requiring immediate veterinary care and very aggressive treatment. Catching ketones at low levels, before they get out of control, and then taking immediate and appropriate action can save your cat’s life. Ketones are a direct result of hyperglycemia (high BG). Ketones can develop because of not enough insulin, illness, infection, and/or anorexia. In humans, ketones can be produced when the body burns too much fat storage for energy. While practicing TR it is very rare for a cat to produce ketones once the BG is well regulated. That said, at the start of TR, right after diagnosis, if your cat is sick, or when making an insulin switch, its strongly recommended as a precaution to test for ketones if your cat is over renal threshold (225/12.5) for longer than a day. For those cats prone to quick ketone production, checking fo Continue reading >>

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