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Are Babies In Ketosis

Breastfeeding On A Ketogenic Diet

Breastfeeding On A Ketogenic Diet

Breastfeeding on a ketogenic diet: my personal experience Having a baby is one of the most exciting and nerve wracking times in your life, one great big cocktail of emotions. With nine months to prepare, trying to absorb as much information as possible can make you panic rather than put your mind at ease. There’s an abundance of general information on the internet but a lot of this is conflicting and very confusing! I’ll seek to answer the question I know you’ll all be wondering. Breastfeeding on a ketogenic diet: Is it safe? I began my ketogenic journey during pregnancy in preparation for our daughter being born. Searching the internet for information on the ketogenic lifestyle and new mothers, I found the information on breastfeeding on a ketogenic diet was limited and very conflicting. Every mother wants to do what’s best for their child – I desperately wanted to give myself the best chance of breastfeeding our daughter as possible. My ultimate concern was that the keto lifestyle may prevent my ability to do this. I wanted to share my story with you in the hope that it may provide some of that missing resource that i was desperately seeking when my journey first began. The darkness After 12 weeks of being fully keto adapted, I was feeding my baby one afternoon and noticed that she was becoming very frustrated. She had only been feeding for a short while and began pulling at my boob, becoming very restless. Whilst looking for the cause of her frustration, to my horror I realised that my milk had completely dried up! I was immediately overwhelmed with blind panic. A moment of weakness, fuelled by sheer panic and a lack of sleep, resulted in me finding an excuse to get my hands on the forbidden foods – refined carbs and sugar! The cravings part of my brain h Continue reading >>

Ketosis In An Evolutionary Context

Ketosis In An Evolutionary Context

Humans are unique in their remarkable ability to enter ketosis. They’re also situated near the top of the food chain. Coincidence? During starvation, humans rapidly enter ketosis; they do this better than king penguins, and bears don’t do it at all. Starvation ketosis Humans maintain a high level of functionality during starvation. We can still hunt & plan; some would even argue it’s a more finely tuned state, cognitively. And that’s important, because if we became progressively weaker and slower, chances of acquiring food would rapidly decline. Perhaps this is why fasting bears just sleep most of the time: no ketones = no bueno..? Animals with a low brain/carcass weight ratio (ie, small brain) don’t need it. Babies and children have a higher brain/carcass weight ratio, so they develop ketosis more rapidly than adults. Is this a harmful process? No, more likely an evolutionary adaptation which supports the brain. The brain of newborn babies consumes a huge amount of total daily energy, and nearly half comes from ketones. A week or so later, even after the carbohydrate content of breast milk increases, they still don’t get “kicked out of ketosis” (Bourneres et al., 1986). If this were a harmful state, why would Nature have done this? …and all those anecdotes, like babies learn at incredibly rapid rates… coincidence? Maybe they’re myths. Maybe not. Ketosis in the animal kingdom Imagine a hibernating bear: huge adipose tissue but small brain fuel requirement relative to body size and total energy expenditure. No ketosis, because brain accounts for less than 5% of total metabolism. In adult humans, this is around 19-23%, and babies are much higher (eg, Cahill and Veech, 2003 & Hayes et al., 2012). For the rest of this article and more, head over to Pat Continue reading >>

Guest Blog Post: Is It Safe To Go Low Carb During Pregnancy?

Guest Blog Post: Is It Safe To Go Low Carb During Pregnancy?

Today my friend and colleague, Lily Nichols, a fellow registered dietitian and certified diabetes educator, shares her insight on carbohydrate-restricted diets during pregnancy. This is a controversial topic that I believe deserves more attention and investigation, which Lily does brilliantly in the following article. Is It Safe to Go Low Carb During Pregnancy? With the wide adoption of low-carbohydrate diets, many people question if they are safe during pregnancy. While quite a few women use a lower carbohydrate diet to conceive (since they are especially useful for women struggling with infertility[1]), most medical professionals discourage women from continuing this diet during pregnancy. I find it ironic that if you tell your doctor that you plan to eat low carb during pregnancy, they’ll say it’s unsafe, but if you say you plan to eat a diet based on fresh vegetables, meat, fish, eggs, dairy, nuts, seeds, and a little fruit, they’ll encourage you to stay the course. The controversy over the safety of low carbohydrate diets in pregnancy stems primarily from misconceptions around ketosis. It’s incorrect, but widely accepted, that ketosis during pregnancy is harmful to a developing baby. When I first dove into the research, I was shocked to find that studies on healthy, non-diabetic pregnant women (eating a “regular” diet) show a marked elevation in ketones after a 12-18 hour fast, which is akin to eating dinner at 8pm and having breakfast at 8am (or skipping breakfast entirely).[2] What’s more interesting is that pregnancy actually seems to favor a state of ketosis. Compared to non-pregnant women, blood ketone concentrations are about 3-fold higher in healthy pregnant women after an overnight fast.[3] And in late pregnancy, metabolism shifts to a state o Continue reading >>

What Is A Ketogenic Diet?

What Is A Ketogenic Diet?

What Is a Ketogenic Diet? If medicine doesn't control seizures in epilepsy, sometimes doctors prescribe a ketogenic (or keto) diet. A ketogenic diet is a strict high-fat, low-carbohydrate diet that can reduce, and sometimes stop, seizures. It's called "ketogenic" because it makes ketones in the body. Ketones are made when the body uses fat for energy. By replacing carbs with fat in the diet, the body burns more fat and makes more ketones. The ketogenic diet is prescribed by a doctor. Kids on the diet need to be followed closely by a dietitian to make sure they follow the diet and get the nutrients they need. The diet starts with fasting during an overnight hospital stay. Who Needs a Ketogenic Diet? Children with seizures that are not well-controlled by medicines (called intractable epilepsy) and severe epilepsy syndromes (such as infantile spasms or Lennox-Gastaut syndrome) might benefit from a ketogenic diet. Studies show that the ketogenic diet also may help treat other conditions, such as diabetes, obesity, and even cancer. How Does a Ketogenic Diet Work? Although the ketogenic diet for epilepsy has been around since 1920, doctors aren't exactly sure how the higher ketone levels works. Some seizure types seem to respond better than others to the ketogenic diet. In babies, the keto diet is given in formula. Young children may be fed by a tube that is place in the stomach by a surgeon. This helps the child stay on the diet. How Long Do Kids Need a Ketogenic Diet? You should know if a ketogenic diet works for your child within a few months. If it does, your doctor may recommend weaning your child off the diet after 2 years of seizure control. The weaning process is done over several months to avoid triggering seizures. Some people stay on a ketogenic diet for years. Are Continue reading >>

Pediatric Ketogenic Diet

Pediatric Ketogenic Diet

A ketogenic diet is a high-fat, adequate-protein, and very-low-carbohydrate diet which has been found to help many children whose seizures are not well-controlled by anti-seizure medications. In some children, the ketogenic diet is combined with standard anticonvulsant medications. While the actual mechanism of the ketogenic diet's effectiveness against seizures is unknown, many children on the diet are able to have their epilepsy medication dose lowered, decreasing unwanted medication side effects. We are consistently ranked among the top hospitals in U.S.News & World Report, distinguished for our pediatric care. Read More Because this is a medical treatment, the ketogenic diet must be supervised by a medical team, consisting of a neurologist and dietitian, who can anticipate and manage possible nutritional deficits or other medical side effects or complications. The team helps children and their families establish and maintain the diet, and learn how to incorporate the diet into daily living. Children on the ketogenic diet are seen several times throughout the year for close monitoring, while they continue to follow with their primary neurologist for potential medication changes. In addition, the team also implements the Modified Atkins Diet and Low-Glycemic Index Therapy, other dietary therapies for which there is increasing data about benefit in the treatment of difficult-to-treat epilepsy. Conditions treated by the Ketogenic Diet Team include: Epilepsy such as Myoclonic Astatic Epilepsy and other epilepsies Glucose transporter type-1 deficiency Lennox Gastaut syndrome Pyruvate dehydrogenase deficiency Dravet syndrome What is a ketogenic diet? The ketogenic diet is sometimes offered to children who continue to have seizures while on seizure medication. When medicati Continue reading >>

Ketotic Hypoglycemia

Ketotic Hypoglycemia

Ketotic hypoglycemia is a medical term used in two ways: (1) broadly, to refer to any circumstance in which low blood glucose is accompanied by ketosis, and (2) in a much more restrictive way to refer to recurrent episodes of hypoglycemic symptoms with ketosis and, often, vomiting, in young children. The first usage refers to a pair of metabolic states (hypoglycemia plus ketosis) that can have many causes, while the second usage refers to a specific "disease" called ketotic hypoglycemia. Hypoglycemia with ketosis: the broad sense[edit] There are hundreds of causes of hypoglycemia. Normally, the defensive, physiological response to a falling blood glucose is reduction of insulin secretion to undetectable levels, and release of glucagon, adrenaline, and other counterregulatory hormones. This shift of hormones initiates glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis in the liver, and lipolysis in adipose tissue. Lipids are metabolized to triglycerides, in turn to fatty acids, which are transformed in the mitochondria of liver and kidney cells to the ketone bodies— acetoacetate, beta-hydroxybutyrate, and acetone. Ketones can be used by the brain as an alternate fuel when glucose is scarce. A high level of ketones in the blood, ketosis, is thus a normal response to hypoglycemia in healthy people of all ages. The presence or absence of ketosis is therefore an important clue to the cause of hypoglycemia in an individual patient. Absence of ketosis ("nonketotic hypoglycemia") most often indicates excessive insulin as the cause of the hypoglycemia. Less commonly, it may indicate a fatty acid oxidation disorder. Ketotic hypoglycemia in Glycogen storage disease[edit] Some of the subtypes of Glycogen storage disease show ketotic hypoglycemia after fasting periods. Especially Glycogen storage Continue reading >>

Lactation

Lactation

(redirected from lactation ketosis) Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Encyclopedia. Lactation Definition Lactation is the medical term for yielding of milk by the mammary glands which leads to breastfeeding. Human milk contains the ideal amount of nutrients for the infant, and provides important protection from diseases through the mother's natural defenses. Description Early in a woman's pregnancy her milk-producing glands begin to prepare for her baby's arrival, and by the sixth month of pregnancy the breasts are ready to produce milk. Immediately after the baby is born, the placenta is delivered. This causes a hormone in the woman's body (prolactin) to activate the milk-producing glands. By the third to fifth day, the woman's breasts fill with milk. Then, as the baby continues to suck each day, nursing triggers the continuing production of milk. The baby's sucking stimulates nerve endings in the nipple, which signal the mother's pituitary gland to release oxytocin, a hormone that causes the mammary glands to release milk to the nursing baby. This is called the "let-down reflex." While the baby's sucking is the primary stimulus for this reflex, a baby's cry, thoughts of the baby, or the sound of running water also may trigger the response. Frequent nursing will lead to increased milk production. Breast milk cannot be duplicated by commercial baby food formulas, although both contain protein, fat, and carbohydrates. In particular, breast milk changes to meet the specific needs of a baby. The composition of breast milk changes as the baby grows to meet the baby's changing needs. Most important, breast milk contains substances called antibodies from the mother that can protect the child against illness and allergies. Antibodies are part of the body's natural defense Continue reading >>

Babies Thrive Under A Ketogenic Metabolism

Babies Thrive Under A Ketogenic Metabolism

The Ketogenic Diet for Health Babies thrive under a ketogenic metabolism Some people, even some scientists who study ketogenic metabolism, have the idea that ketogenesis is somehow abnormal, or exceptional; an adaptation for emergencies only. We disagree. One reason we think a ketogenic metabolism is normal and desirable, is that human newborns are in ketosis. Despite the moderate sugar content of human breast milk, breastfeeding is particularly ketogenic. This period of development is crucial, and there is extensive brain growth during it. Although the composition of breast milk can be affected by diet [1], it is reasonable to assume that breast milk has always been ketogenic, and this is not an effect of modernisation. When the brain is in its period of highest growth, and when the source of food is likely to be close to what it evolved to be for that period, ketones are used to fuel that growth. If nothing else, this suggests that learning is well supported by a ketogenic metabolism. It is also consistent with the ability of ketogenic diets to treat a variety of seemingly unrelated brain disorders and brain trauma. In brief Newborn infants are in ketosis. This is their normal state. Breastfeeding is particularly ketogenic (compared to formula feeding). Breastfeeding longer (up to a point) is associated with better health outcomes. This suggests the hypothesis that weaning onto a ketogenic diet would be healthier than weaning onto a high-carb diet. (Mark-up ours) Human babies are in ketosis Soon after birth, human babies are in ketosis, and remain so while breastfeeding [2]. They use ketones and fats for energy and for brain growth. When this has been studied, in the first couple of hours after birth, babies aren’t immediately in ketosis. There is a short delay [3]. Continue reading >>

Babies In Ketosis

Babies In Ketosis

BABIES THRIVE IN KETOSIS Breast milk is naturally very high in fat. If a newborn is breastfed, it spends a lot of time in ketosis and is therefore keto-adapted. Keto-adapted babies can efficiently turn ketone bodies into acetyl-coA and myelin. Ketosis helps babies develop and build their brains. Click HERE to read a great article about Babies in Ketosis. The lean human body is 74% fat and 26% protein (broken down by calories). Fats are a structural part of every human cell and are the preferred fuel source of the mitochondria, the energy-burning units of each cell. A fetus naturally uses ketones before and immediately after birth. Many studies done on pregnant pigs that are placed on ketogenic diets show fetuses with increased fetal brain weight, cell size, and protein content. In the early stages of pregnancy, there is an upsurge in body fat accumulation, which is connected to hyperphagia and increased lipogenesis. In the later stages of pregnancy, there is an accelerated breakdown of fat depots, which plays an important role in fetal development. The fetus uses fatty acids from the placenta as well as two other products, glycerol and ketone bodies. Even though glycerol goes through the placenta in small proportions, it is a superior substrate for “maternal gluconeogenesis.” Heightened ketogenesis in fasting conditions, or with the addition of MCT oils, create an easy transference of ketones to the fetus. This transfer allows maternal ketone bodies to reach the fetus, where the ketones can be used as fuels for oxidative metabolism as well as lipogenic substrates. Fat-soluble vitamins like A, D, E, and K which are essential in the formation of healthy fetuses. Full fat dairy is also filled with healthy cholesterol, but I do find some clients to be dairy sensitive. F Continue reading >>

Breastfeeding On A Low-carb Diet – Is It Dangerous?

Breastfeeding On A Low-carb Diet – Is It Dangerous?

Is it dangerous to breastfeed while on a low-carb, high-fat diet? Recently, the journal of the Swedish Medical Association published a case report (summary in English) of a woman who, six weeks after giving birth, had to be hospitalized for severe ketoacidosis. Luckily, she recovered quickly and her numbers were back to normal the next day. Ketoacidosis is a dangerous condition, most often seen in type 1 diabetics with acute insulin deficiency. In rare cases, ketoacidosis may occur in non-diabetics after prolonged periods of starvation or inadequate food intake, in which case it typically occurs in combination with stress or other medical conditions. The woman in this case had been eating low-carb, high fat for a long time before the incident. After giving birth however, she had suffered flu-like symptoms of fever, nausea and a complete loss of appetite. Despite this, she was still able to breastfeed her baby, which of course ramped up her nutritional requirements. The case study report brings up the woman’s low-carbohydrate diet as one possible contributing factor to the situation. However, as soon as the media found out, they immediately exaggerated this possible contributing factor to the guaranteed sole cause of the condition (which, as we shall see, is unikely): Metro: Woman Falls Seriously Ill of LCHF Diet During Lactation (Google translated from Swedish) In the woman’s own words The woman described in the case report in the journal contacted me of her own accord through common acquaintances. She tells a different story from the one perpetuated by the media: What isn’t made clear is that I, the breastfeeding woman, had been eating LCHF for approximately six years before this incident, but, because of stress during my second pregnancy and after childbirth I s Continue reading >>

Experience With The Ketogenic Diet In Infants

Experience With The Ketogenic Diet In Infants

Abstract Objective. To evaluate the effectiveness, tolerability, and adverse effects of the ketogenic diet in infants with refractory epilepsy. Methods. A retrospective review of 32 infants who had been treated with the ketogenic diet at a large metropolitan institution. Results. Most infants (71%) were able to maintain strong ketosis. The overall effectiveness of the diet in infants was similar to that reported in the literature for older children; 19.4% became seizure-free, and an additional 35.5% had >50% reduction in seizure frequency. The diet was particularly effective for patients with infantile spasms/myoclonic seizures. There were concomitant reductions in antiepileptic medications. The majority of parents reported improvements in seizure frequency and in their child's behavior and function, particularly with respect to attention/alertness, activity level, and socialization. The diet generally was well-tolerated, and 96.4% maintained appropriate growth parameters. Adverse events, all reversible and occurring in one patient each, included renal stone, gastritis, ulcerative colitis, alteration of mentation, and hyperlipidemia. Conclusion. The ketogenic diet should be considered safe and effective treatment for infants with intractable seizures. Continue reading >>

Ketogenic Diet Guidelines For Infants

Ketogenic Diet Guidelines For Infants

History of the Ketogenic Diet in Infants For many decades, the idea of using the ketogenic diet for infants with epilepsy was discouraged. Concerns were raised in chapters and books about the diet that infants were highly likely to become hypoglycemic, have complications, and unlikely to achieve ketosis. Although infants often have seizures, and at times very difficult-to-control seizures, until the 1990s, we also did not have pre-made, commercially-available ketogenic diet infant formulas. Even though most anticonvulsant drugs are not FDA-approved for use in infants, this was the main treatment option for most child neurologists. What’s New Things have changed drastically in the last few years. Published research has shown that not only can infants become ketotic, but they respond very well to dietary therapy. In fact, infantile spasms is one of the established "indications" for ketogenic diet treatment. An article from last year by Dr. Anastasia Dressler from Vienna even stated, "The ketogenic diet is highly effective and well tolerated in infants with epilepsy. Seizure freedom is more often achieved and maintained in infants." Adding to this rising tide of acceptance, the European Journal of Paediatric Neurology published guidelines for the use of ketogenic diets in infancy (defined as less than 2 years of age) this month. This was a group effort from 15 neurologists and dietitians with particular expertise in using ketogenic diet in infancy, convened at a conference in London in April 2015. What does this guideline say? Much of it is information about infants that already has been established and is similar to older children. The authors comment that the ketogenic diet can be helpful for infantile spasms, epilepsy with migrating seizures, and GLUT-1 deficiency (al Continue reading >>

Introduction Of A Ketogenic Diet In Young Infants.

Introduction Of A Ketogenic Diet In Young Infants.

Abstract The ketogenic diet is a rational treatment for pyruvate dehydrogenase complex deficiency (McKusick 312170) and GLUT1 deficiency syndrome (McKusick 138140). An increasing number of patients are diagnosed in early infancy, but few data are available on the introduction of a ketogenic diet in this age group. GLUT1 deficiency syndrome was suspected in four infants presenting with seizures and unexplained hypoglycorrhachia. A ketogenic diet was introduced at 6-28 weeks of age. Ketosis was initiated by fasting, monitored by bedside blood glucose and 3-hydroxybutyrate determinations, and was maintained successfully using supplemented carbohydrate-free infant formula and emulgated triglycerides. All patients developed ketosis within 24 h. 3-Hydroxybutyrate concentrations available at the bedside correlated inversely with the base excess. At glucose levels < or = 40 mg/dl patients remained asymptomatic in the presence of ketones. The ketogenic formula was tolerated well, parental compliance was good, and all patients remained seizure-free on the diet. GLUT1 deficiency was confirmed in two patients; the diet was discontinued in the other two patients. In one infant, failure to thrive on medium-chain triglycerides was effectively reversed using long-chain triglycerides. Urine dipstick analyses failed to detect ketosis in another infant. Adverse effects of the diet were limited to renal stones in one patient. The ketogenic diet can be introduced and maintained successfully in young infants using long-chain fat emulsion. Monitoring 3-hydroxybutyrate at the bedside was useful for metabolic control and superior to urine dipstick analysis. Seizure control was effective and adverse effects were limited, but evaluation of the long-term effects of the ketogenic diet in this age g Continue reading >>

Ketosis During Pregnancy – Is It Safe?

Ketosis During Pregnancy – Is It Safe?

Ketosis is a state of metabolism in adults where the energy is supplied to the body by ketones present in the blood rather than glycolysis, where the energy comes from glucose. People often land up in a dilemma while judging whether ketosis is safe during pregnancy or not. The diet of a woman has to undergo certain changes in case she nears pregnancy. However, you should be aware of the effects of ketosis before you opt for such a diet. The body of a woman undergoes a lot of changes during pregnancy. Food choices are important when she tries to conceive. Here, you will have a detailed information about ketosis before and during pregnancy. Ketosis before Pregnancy Although people think that ketosis during pregnancy is harmful, in reality, it can help you get pregnant. If you want to draw your energy from ketone particles, you should plan a ketogenic diet. For an ordinary person, it is safe and even women trying to get pregnant can stick to such a meal. These meals are low-carb diets, and people can switch to these diets when they get pregnant. Well, it is important to know that ketosis is safe before you get pregnant. However, the norms are a bit different during pregnancy and you should stick to the rules. Read on to know whether it is safe during pregnancy or not. If you had heard that ketosis is harmful during pregnancy, you might be confusing it with diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA). This is completely different from ketosis that we are speaking of here. DKA has no relevance with nutritional ketosis and it is a far more harmful syndrome. It occurs in diabetic people where the level of insulin is not managed properly. It disrupts the balance of acid and base in the body. The level of blood sugar in the case of DKA is around three times the normal conditions. This situation Continue reading >>

Experience With The Ketogenic Diet In Infants.

Experience With The Ketogenic Diet In Infants.

Abstract OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effectiveness, tolerability, and adverse effects of the ketogenic diet in infants with refractory epilepsy. METHODS: A retrospective review of 32 infants who had been treated with the ketogenic diet at a large metropolitan institution. RESULTS: Most infants (71%) were able to maintain strong ketosis. The overall effectiveness of the diet in infants was similar to that reported in the literature for older children; 19.4% became seizure-free, and an additional 35.5% had >50% reduction in seizure frequency. The diet was particularly effective for patients with infantile spasms/myoclonic seizures. There were concomitant reductions in antiepileptic medications. The majority of parents reported improvements in seizure frequency and in their child's behavior and function, particularly with respect to attention/alertness, activity level, and socialization. The diet generally was well-tolerated, and 96.4% maintained appropriate growth parameters. Adverse events, all reversible and occurring in one patient each, included renal stone, gastritis, ulcerative colitis, alteration of mentation, and hyperlipidemia. CONCLUSION: The ketogenic diet should be considered safe and effective treatment for infants with intractable seizures. Continue reading >>

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