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Amino Acids Can Be Used By The Body To Make Glucose And Fatty Acids Quizlet

Lecture 6: Proteins And Amino Acids- Set 3

Lecture 6: Proteins And Amino Acids- Set 3

making proteins from RNA; tRNA translates the mRNA code into a sequence of amino acids. something wrong in a protein, like an enzyme the process whereby the information coded in a gene is used to produce a protein, and is based on the need for the given protein. the essential amino acid that is available in the lowest concentration in relation to the body's need. -this limits the body's ability to synthesize a protein Name some nonprotein molecules that amino acids are used to make? DNA, RNA, and neurotransmitters (all N containing) What happens to the amino group once it is removed from the amino acid? It is converted into ammonia. Ammonia enters the liver and is converted to urea which goes to the kidneys for removal. After deamination, what must happen to the amino acid before it can be used for energy? The remaining carbon skeleton can be broken down to produce ATP or used to make glucose or fatty acids. It can enter at different points of the citric acid cycle, and then enters electron transport chain Breaking up amino acids is metabolically expensive. What does this mean? It takes up more energy to break these down than fat or carbs What happens to body proteins when energy is low? , body proteins, such as enzymes and muscle proteins, are broken down into amino acids that can then be used to generate ATP or synthesize glucose. Proteins provide structure at the cellular level as an integral component of cell membranes. protein molecules that speed up metabolic reactions but are not used up or destroyed in the process. chemical messengers that are secreted into the blood and act on target cells in other parts of the body Proteins that transport substances into and out of individual cells and throughout the body. (inclues lipoproteins, which carry lipids around the Continue reading >>

Nutrition Exam 6-7

Nutrition Exam 6-7

Sort the _________________ structure of proteins occurs as long polypeptide chains twist and fold into a variety of complex tangled shapes (aa side groups attracted to water = hydrophilic) (aa side groups repel water = hydrophilic) tertiary structure when polypeptides enter the small intestine, several pancreatic and intestinal _______________ hydrolyze them further into short peptide chains. the _______________ enzymes on the membrane surfaces of the intestinal cells split most of the dipeptides and tripeptides into single single amino acids 1. proteases 2. peptidase the instructions for making every protein in a person's body are transmitted by way of the genetic information received at conception. this body of knowledge which is filed by _____________ within the nucleus of every cell, never leaves the nucleus DNA in the 1st step, known as ______________ , a stretch of DNA is used as a template to make messenger RNA. messenger RNA then carries the code across the nuclear membrane into the body of the cell, where it seeks out and attaches itself to one of the ribosome transcription an error in the amino acid sequence results in an altered protein--sometimes with dramatic consequences. the protein hemoglobin offers one example of such a genetic variation. in a person with _____________________, 2 of hemoglobins four polypeptide chains have the normal sequence of amino acids, but the other 2 chains do not--they have etc... sickle-cell anemia "protein turnover" and _______________ go hand in hand. in healthy adults, protein synthesis balances with degradation, and protein intake from food balances with nitrogen excretion in the urine feces, and sweat. when the nitrogen intake equals nitrogen output, the person ins in nitrogen equilibrium, or zero _________________ nitroge Continue reading >>

Nutrition. Chap 7: Energy Metabolism.

Nutrition. Chap 7: Energy Metabolism.

Sort Proteins: makes nonessential AA that are in short supply. Removes excess AA & converts them to other AA, or deaminates them & converts them to glucose or fatty acids. Removes ammonia from blood & converts it to urea for excretion. Makes DNA/RNA. & many proteins. >> Other: Detoxifies alcohol, drugs, poison, & excretes them. Helps dismantle old RBC's & captures the iron for recycling. Stores most vitamins, & many minerals. Activates Vitamin D. AA: Before entering metabolic pathways, AA are deaminated (lose their nitrogen amino group). deamination produces ammonia (which provides nitrogen to make nonessential AA. Remaining ammonia is excreted by urea in liver/kid. AA pathway: can enter pathways as pyruvate/Acetyl CoA/others enter krebs as compounds other than Acetyl CoA. AA that make glucose either by pyruvate or krebs cycle are glucogenic. AA that are degraded to Acetyl CoA are Ketogenic. Thus, proteins unlike fats, are a good source of glucose when carbs aren't available. In the liver: because of capillary network the liver is first to get alcohol saturated blood. liver cells are the only other cells in the body that can make sufficient quantities of dehydrogenase, to oxidize alcohol at a decent rate. >> Alcohol affects every organ of the body, bu t the most dramatic evidence is disruptive behavior is in the liver. Normally the liver prefers fatty acids for fuel, & it packages excess out. But when alcohol is there it has to process it first. >> Continue reading >>

Nutrition Chapter 7 Flashcards | Quizlet

Nutrition Chapter 7 Flashcards | Quizlet

After absorption, enzymes and coenzymes can In metabolism they are broken down further into Metabolic reactions take place inside of cells, especially Anabolism is the building up of body compounds and Catabolism is the breakdown of body compounds A high-energy compound called adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is made in protein catalysts that cause chemical reactions. (Facilitators of metabolic reactions) organic molecules that function as enzyme helpers. are organic or inorganic substances that facilitate enzyme action Fats (triglycerides) - glycerol and fatty acids Oxygen is not available or cells lack sufficient mitochondria. Lactate is formed when hydrogen is added to pyruvate. Liver cells recycle muscle lactic acid through the Cori cycle (gluconeogenesis). 2-carbon compound joins with CoA (Coenzyme A) becoming acetyl CoA - irreversible Synthesize fats when the body has enough ATP (storage). generate tap when the cell is low in energy through TCA cycle The conversion of glycerol to pyruvate is easy because 2-carbon units at a time then join with CoA Hydrogens and electrons carried to electron transport chain Fatty acids cannot be used to synthesize glucose. Glucose must be available to provide energy to the red blood cells, brain, and nervous system. Continue reading >>

Nutrition Ch. 6 Flashcards | Quizlet

Nutrition Ch. 6 Flashcards | Quizlet

Condensation reactions build molecules; this is known as ____, and it requires ____. _____ reactions involve hydrolysis, and they release energy in the form of ____. The phosphate groups are hydrolized and broken off. When catabolic and anabolic reactions occur simultaneously About ____ of the chemical energy from food is turned into chemical energy in the form of ATP. The rest is lost as ____. Metabolic reactions almost always require ____, and these in turn require _____. coenzymes, enzymes in energy metabolism reactions When excess kcalories are available, metabolism favors _____, no matter what the source. On average, converting dietary fat to body fat requires only ____ of the ingested energy intake, while converting carbohydrates to body fat requires ____ of the ingested energy intake. The body cannot store excess _____. They must be converted to other compounds. First, it is used for normal replacement/repair. Then protein oxidation (metabolism by cells) increases at the expense of fat metabolism. Last, they are converted to fatty acids. How is excess carbohydrate used by the body? Glucose oxidation increases, displacing fat. Excess is stored as glycogen. Some is stored as fat, but this is a minor pathway. More importantly, glucose oxidation responds readily to to excess carbohydrate (cells use a higher proportion of carbs than normal), sparing dietary and body fat. Thus excess carbohydrates contribute to weight maintenance. Excess protein and carbohydrate increase _____ of these substances by cells. They become a greater part of the body's fuel mix at the expense of ____. T/F: Excess consumption of fat increases fat oxidation by cells. False - since unlimited fat can be stored, there is no need for the body to increase fat oxidation How does the body supply its Continue reading >>

Nutrition Chapter 6-8; Test 2 Review

Nutrition Chapter 6-8; Test 2 Review

By selecting the needed amino acids from the pool of all amino acids available The process of making non-essential amino acids by transferring the amine group from other amino acids to a different acid group and its side chain They are ESSENTIAL because we need them from the foods we eat; our body will not produce them Describe a condition where an amino acid is conditionally essential PKU; where someone cannot metabolize phenylalanine (an EAA) to produce the NEAA tyrosine, so the the inability to metabolize phenylalanine results in failure to make tyrosine. *Tyrosine becomes a conditionally essential amino acid that must be provided by the diet The process by which cells use genes to make proteins occurs in the NUCLEUS where mRNA copies to its own base sequence the genetic info from DNA's base sequence. The mRNA then detaches from the DNA and leaves the nucleus, carrying its genetic "message" to the ribosomes in the cytoplasm. Once the genetic info reaches the ribosomes, the language of the mRNA nucleotide sequences is "translated" into the language of amino acid sequences, or proteins. At the ribosomes, mRNA binds with ribosomal RNA and its nucleotide sequences as distributed to moleucles of transfer RNA. The tRNA roams the cytoplasm until they find the specific amino acid to bind to that matches their "order". Then they transfer their amino acid to the ribosome, which assembles the amino acids into proteins What is the amino acid pool and why is it important to protein turnover? The amino acid pool is the available amino acids, which include AA's we consume in our diets as well as those that are released from the breakdown of other cells in our bodies. It is used to produce not only new amino acids but also other products, including glucose, fat, urea. How is the fu Continue reading >>

Nutrition Test 3

Nutrition Test 3

Sort What is ketosis? The body's shift to ketosis allows us to survive starvation for longer periods of time (otherwise we would die in about 3 weeks). Why is this? Ketosis occurs the body adapts to fasting by combining acetyl CoA fragments derived from fatty acids to produce an alternate energy source, ketone bodies. Ketone bodies can efficiently provide fuel for brain cells. Ketone body production rises until, after about 10 days of fasting, it is meeting much of the nervous systems needs, but the body still continues to sacrifice protein. A ketone body that contains an acid group (COOH) is called a keto acid. Small amounts of keto acids are a normal part of the blood chemistry, but when their concentration rises, the pH of the blood drops. This is ketosis, a sign that the body's chemistry is going awry. When the body is in ketosis, elevated blood kentones are excreted in the urine, and a fruity odor on the breath develops. Ketosis induces a loss of appetite,. As starvation continues, this loss of appetite becomes an advantage to a person without access to food. When food becomes available again and the person eats, the body shifts out of ketosis and appetite returns. Continue reading >>

Chapter 7

Chapter 7

Sort What is the difference between energy and metabolism? Energy metabolism? Energy is the capacity to do work - heat, mechanical, electrical, CHEMICAL Metabolism is how the body uses food to meet its needs - specifically, it is the sum total of all chemical reactions in the living cells of the body - energy metabolism includes all reactions by which the body obtains and expends the energy from food What are the two types of metabolic reactions in the body? Anabolic/Anabolism - building body compounds (requires energy) - ex. glucose + glucose = glycogen - ex. glycerol + fatty acid = triglycerides - ex. amino acid + amino acid = protein Catabolic/Catabolism - breaking down body compounds (releases energy) - ex. glycogen -> glucose - ex. triglycerides -> glycerol + fatty acid - ex. protein -> amino acids What is ATP? How is it formed? (adenosine triphosphate) It is a molecule made up of three phosphate groups that has high energy bonds (so it provides lots of energy when it is broken down) - it is what provides energy for any reaction or cell activity in the body It is formed from the breakdown of glucose (glycolysis), fatty acids, and amino acids Its negative charge makes it vulnerable to hydrolysis What is the idea of coupled reactions? The body makes ATP in coupled reactions. Energy (ATP) is needed to facilitate the reactions that make more ATP. So the body uses ATP to make ATP 1.) ATP is broken down, which provides energy for a variety of functions in the body - when ATP is broken down, it loses a phosphate group and becomes ADP 2.) Energy is required to add a phosphate group to ADP to make ATP (uses ATP from food to do this) This system is about 50% efficient, and the rest is lost as heat How does digestion break things down into smaller units? Carbs -> glucose (and Continue reading >>

Nutrition Chapter 7

Nutrition Chapter 7

Sort 13. Before entering the TCA cycle, each of the energy yielding nutrients nutrients is broken down to: a. ammonia b. pyruvate c. electrons d. acetyl CoA d. acetyl CoA 17. During a fast, when glycogen stores have been depleted, the body begins to synthesize glucose from: a. acetyl CoA b. amino acids c. fatty acids d. ketone bodies b. amino acids Learn it - Summarize the main steps in the energy metabolism of glucose, glycerol, fatty acids, and amino acids Carbohydrate, fat, and protein take different paths to acetyl CoA, but once there, the final pathways - the TCA cycle and electron transport change- are shared. All of the pathways, which are shown as a simplified overview in Fig 7-5 (p207), are shown in more detail in Fig 7-18 (p216). Instead of dismissing this figure as "too busy." take a few moments to appreciated the busyness of it all. Consider that this figure is merely an overview of energy metabolism, and then imagine how busy a living cell really is during the metabolism of hundreds of compounds, each of which may be involved in several reactions, each requiring specific enzymes. Learn it - Explain how an excess of any of the three energy-yielding nutrients contributes to body fat and how inadequate intake of any of them shifts metabolism When energy intake exceeds energy needs, the body makes fat- regardless of whether the excess intake is from protein, carbohydrate, or fat. The only difference is that the body is much more efficient at storing energy when the excess derives from dietary fat. When fasting, the body makes a number of adaptations: increasing the breakdown of fat to provide energy for most of the cells, using glycerol and amino acids to make glucose for the red blood cells and central nervous system, producing ketones to fuel the brain, suppr Continue reading >>

Nutrition-chapter 7

Nutrition-chapter 7

Sort Carbohydrates -Metabolizes fructose, galactose, and glucose - Makes and stores glycogen -Breaks down glycogen and releases glucose -Breaks down glucose for energy when needed -Makes glucose from some amino acids and glycerol when needed -Converts excess glucose and fructose to fatty acids - Lipids lipids -Builds and breaks down triglycerides, phospholipids, and cholesterol as needed -Breaks down fatty acids for energy when needed - Packages lipids in lipoproteins for transport to other body tissues -Manufactures bile to send to the gallbladder for use in fat digestion -Makes ketone bodies when necessary Proteins -Manufactures nonessential amino acids that are in short supply -Removes from circulation amino acids that are present in excess of need and converts them to other amino acids or deaminates them and converts them to glucose or fatty acids -Removes ammonia from the blood and converts it to urea to be sent to the kidneys for excretion - Makes other nitrogen-containing compounds the body needs (such as bases used in DNA and RNA) -Makes many proteins other -Detoxifies alcohol, other drugs, and poisons; prepares waste products for excretion -Helps dismantle old red blood cells and captures the iron for recycling -Stores most vitamins and many minerals -Activates vitamin D Continue reading >>

Understanding Nutrition Chap 7

Understanding Nutrition Chap 7

a common high-energy compound composed of a purine (adenine), a sugar (ribose), and three phosphate groups. cellular organelles responsible for producing ATP made of lipids and proteins with enzymes mounted to them pairs of chemical reactions in which some of the energy released from the breakdown of one compound is used to create a bond in the formation of another compound. converts fructose and galactose to glucose, makes and stores glycogen, breaks down glycogen and releases glucose, makes glucose from some amino acids and glycerol when needed. converts excess glucose to fatty acids manufactures nonessential amino acids that are short in supply. removes from circulation amino acids that are present in excess of need and converts them to other amino acids or deaminates them and converts them to glucose or fatty acids. removes ammonia from the blood and converts it to urea to be sent to the kidneys for excretion. makes other nitrogen containing compounds the body needs such as bases usein DNA and RNA. makes many proteins builds and breaks down triglycerides, phospholipids, and chelesterol as needed. breaks down fatty acids for energy when needed. packages extra lipids in lipoproteins for transport to other body organs. manufactures bile to send to the gallbladder for use in fat digestion. makes ketone when necessary. detoxifies alcohol, other drugs, and poisions; prepares waste products for excretion. helps dismantle old red blood cells and captures iron for recycling. stores most vitamins and many minerals. activates vitamin d metabolic break down of glucose to pyruvate anaerobic, 1 molecule of glucose = 2 molecules of pyruvate Three-carbon compound that forms as an end product of glycolysis. and plays a key role in energy metabolism not requiring oxygen, pyruvate to Continue reading >>

Nsci Final Flashcards | Quizlet

Nsci Final Flashcards | Quizlet

too much body fat with adverse health affects. BMI 3o or more What are the hormones that affect weight? estrogen, progesterone, testosterone, DHEA, cortisol, and thyroid Glycolysis is the process in which one glucose molecule is broken down to form two molecules of pyruvic acid (also called pyruvate). The glycolysis process is a multi-step metabolic pathway that occurs in the cytoplasm of animal cells, plant cells, and the cells of microorganisms Summarize the main steps in the metabolism of glucose, glycerol, fatty acids and amino acids Carbohydrate, fat, and protein take different paths to acetyl CoA, but once there, the final pathways- the TCA cycle and electron transport chain- are shared. Instead of dismissing this figure as "too busy," take a few moments to appreciate the busyness of it all. The digestion of carbohydrates yields glucose (and other momosaccharides): some is stored as glycogen, and some is broken down to pyruvate and acetal CoA to provide energy. The acetyl CoA can then enter the TCA cycle and electron transport chain to provide more energy. The digestion of fat yields glycerol and fatty acids; some are reassembled nd stored as fat, and others are broken down to acetyl CoA, which can enter the TCA cycle and electron transport chain to provide energy. The digestion of protein yields amino acids, most of which are used to build body protein or other nitrogen-containing compounds, but some amino acids may be broken down through the same pathways as glucose to provide energy. Other amino acids enter directly into the TCA cycle, and these, too, can be broken down to yield energy. In summary, although carbohydrate, fats and protein enter the TCA cycle by different routes, the final pathways are common to all energy-yielding nutrients. Chemical reactions Continue reading >>

Ntr 312 Exam 2 Flashcards | Quizlet

Ntr 312 Exam 2 Flashcards | Quizlet

Transamination: attaching amino group to a carboxyl group; process by which cells make nonessential amino acids Does denaturation of protein affect the nutritional content of the protein? Name some examples of protein denaturation in foods. Denaturation: proteins uncoiling; results from change in pH (acids), addition of heat, high salt concentration, mechanical breakdown It does NOT change the nutritional content of protein. High fevers (105.8) can denature proteins Protein digestion in the GI tract. (In your description include the digestive juices / enzymes secreted, review the hormones involved) STOMACH: pepsin breaks down large peptide chains SMALL INTESTINE: proteases come from pancreas to break down smaller chains into dipeptides, and tripeptides. peptidases (on microvilli) break small chains into individual amino acids Into what circulatory system are amino acids, dipeptides and tripeptides absorbed? Amino acids are absorbed into the blood stream through the micro villi in the small intestine What provides the instructions for all proteins synthesized in the body? Described the process of transcription and translation in synthesizing proteins. DNA ---> mRNA--->attaches to ribosome (rRNA translates)----> tRNA brings in an amino acid that binds to the complementary base on the rRNA. The amino acids bind together in protein synthesis through peptide bonds Name the amino acids that are used to synthesize: neurotransmitters: epinephrine/norepinephrine Reactions of condensation and hydrolysis in protein/amino acid metabolism. Why are the reactions called condensation and hydrolysis? Hydrolysis breaks down proteins into amino acids with the addition of water. Condensation forms water when proteins are formed by joining together amino acids Roles of proteins in the body Continue reading >>

Human Nutrition Exam 3

Human Nutrition Exam 3

Which of the following statements about essential amino acids is FALSE? A.Without essential amino acids, we lose our ability to make proteins and other nitrogen-containing compounds we need. B.Nine of the 20 amino acids in the body are classified as essential. C.Our bodies can synthesize essential amino acids in sufficient amounts, so we do not need to consume them in our diet. D.Our bodies cannot synthesize essential amino acids in sufficient amounts, so we must consume them in our diet. Once the instructions have been transcribed to mRNA, the mRNA leaves the nucleus and binds to a ribosome in the cytoplasm. The ribosome moves along the mRNA reading the code to begin the process of translation. Which of the following statements correctly describes the function of tRNA during translation? A.During translation, tRNA collects and transports the amino acids to the ribosome. B.During translation, tRNA carries the mRNA to the ribosome. C.During translation, tRNA carries the gene's instructions to the ribosome. D.During translation, tRNA transfers the instructions to the DNA. The sequential order of the amino acids in a protein is called the __________ of the protein. Which of the following statements is TRUE? A.Protein denaturation affects the primary structure of proteins. B.Protein denaturation affects both the shape and function of proteins. C.Heat exposure, but not acid, will cause proteins to denature. D.Protein denaturation affects only the shape, but not the function of proteins. How does the body use the protein once it has been ingested? Consider the following statements and select the correct ones regarding protein use. A.The liver uses amino acids to create glucose. B.Amino acids are used to create new proteins. C.If you ingest more protein than your body needs, Continue reading >>

Energy Metabolism

Energy Metabolism

Sort Electron Transport Chain The electron transport chain is the final pathway in energy metabolism that transports electrons from hydrogen to oxygen and captures the energy released in the bonds of ATP (respiratory chain). The electron transport chain captures energy in the high-energy bonds of ATP. The electron transport chain consists of a series of proteins that serve as electron "carriers." These carriers are mounted in sequence on the inner membrane of the mitochondria. The electron carriers pass the electrons down until they reach oxygen. Oxygen accepts the electrons and combines with hydrogen atoms to form water. Oxygen must be available for energy metabolism. As electrons are passed from carrier to carrier, hydrogen ions are pumped across the membrane to the outer compartment of the mitochondria. The rush of hydrogen ions back into the inner compartment powers the synthesis of ATP (energy is captured in the bonds of ATP). The ATP leaves the mitochondria and enters the cytoplasm, where it can be used for energy. Anaerobic When the body needs energy quickly, pyruvate is converted to lactate. The breakdown of glucose-to-pyruvate-to-lactate proceeds without oxygen-it is anaerobic. This anaerobic pathway yields energy quickly, but it cannot be sustained for long. Coenzymes carry the hydrogens from glucose breakdown to the electron transport chain. If the electron transport chain is unable to accept the hydrogens, as may occur when cells lack sufficient mitochondria or in the absence of oxygen, pyruvate can accept the hydrogens. By accepting the hydrogens, pyruvate becomes lactate, and the coenzymes are freed to return to glycolysis to pick up more hydrogens. In this way, glucose can continue provided energy anaerobically for a while. One possible fate of the lactat Continue reading >>

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