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Amino Acids And Ketosis

Glucogenic And Ketogenic Amino Acids

Glucogenic And Ketogenic Amino Acids

Amino acids can be classified as being “glucogenic” or “ketogenic” based on the type of intermediates that are formed during their breakdown or catabolism. The catabolism of glucogenic amino acids produces either pyruvate or one of the intermediates in the Krebs Cycle. The catabolism of ketogenic amino acids produces acetyl CoA or acetoacetyl CoA (see Figure 1). There is a rare medical condition in which a person is deficient in the pyruvate dehydrogenase enzyme that converts pyruvate to acetyl CoA – a precursor for the Krebs Cycle. Signs and symptoms vary, but there are generally two main manifestations. First, patients can have an elevated blood lactate (lactic acid) level. Second, patients may have neurological defects, including microcephaly (a small head circumference) and/or mental retardation. Treatment is currently limited and not very effective. Moreover, damage to the brain is often irreversible. Your biochemistry study partner looks at Figure 1 and exclaims, “This doesn’t make sense - why can’t acetyl-coA and the ketogenic amino acids be converted back to pyruvate to create glucose using pyruvate dehydrogenase?” With your knowledge of basic chemistry, you answer: Continue reading >>

Should You Use Bcaas During Ketosis & Fasting? (definitive Answer)

Should You Use Bcaas During Ketosis & Fasting? (definitive Answer)

Should You Use BCAAS During Ketosis & Fasting? (Definitive Answer) I was recently sent a link to a video addressing the topic of if you should use branched chain amino acids during a fast and if doing so, will kick you out of ketosis. Im happy I was sent that video as its a topic Ive been meaning to address. In summary of the video, the author states, and Im paraphrasing, Leucine causes a HUGE spike in insulin. A subject who was fasting for 50 days was given an injection of glucose and the subject was almost instantly kicked out of ketosis. These two BIG swings and misses bring the author of the video to his final point that BCAAs kick you out of ketosis and fasting and you dont need to have BCAAs during a fast. You can watch me talk about this topic in a video below. You can listen to my podcast about it right here I appreciate anyone trying to build a business or brand but doing it was incorrect information and perpetuating lies to fulfill some personal agenda is terrible, there I said it. Let's move on. Starting with the loosely thrown around summary of studies. You cant just say that BCAAS or any supplement or food causes a HUGE this or a LARGE that. Chocolate milk increases muscle protein synthesis when compared to sugar. The media picks up on the chocolate milk study years ago and no one ever bothers to look into what the comparison was. When you want to examine protein synthesis what do YOU think would work better? Something with protein (chocolate milk) versus something with no protein (sugar). Do BCAAS break a fast? Short answer, it doesnt matter but let me explain. The internet assumes that fasting is a magic on and off switch. If you have calories then you turn fasting off but if you dont eat anything except for a little fat, black coffee and water then you Continue reading >>

Hacking Amino Acid Supplements To Enhance Ketosis : Keto

Hacking Amino Acid Supplements To Enhance Ketosis : Keto

I was watching a khan academy video on amino acid metabolism to understand how to hack ketosis better and limit the amount that insulin goes up. There are ketogenic vs. glucogenic amino acids. Ketogenic AAs (lysine, leucine) can only be converted to acetyl CoA. Glucogenic AAs (almost all the rest) can only be converted into glucose precursors (OAA and pyruvate). Couple questions on this: When taking a BCAA supplement, wouldn't it make sense to just do leucine/lysine, because then an overabundance wouldn't contribute to gluconeogenesis? When we say that protein brings us out of ketosis, is that because the amino acids themselves stimulate insulin, or is it that they lead to gluconeogenesis which stimulates insulin? If the latter is the case, we could hack that by taking leucine/lysine supplements pre-workout and not worrying about an insulin or blood sugar increase. In fact, if Leucine/lysine are in excess, is it valid to hypothesize that they would convert to B-Hydroxybutyrate in much the same way that MCTs do? Both of which go to the liver and are converted to acetyl-CoA. Continue reading >>

7 Supplements That Help You Perform Better On A Low Carbohydrate Diet

7 Supplements That Help You Perform Better On A Low Carbohydrate Diet

In the past, there’s been several posts here on the site about how to practically implement a low carbohydrate diet. For example, a few months ago, I released the podcast: Is It Possible To Be Extremely Active and Eat A Low Carbohydrate Diet? (which incidentally, I’ll be revisiting very soon in an upcoming podcast with Peter Attia). I’ve also written the book Low Carbohydrate Diet For Triathletes, and produced these articles about how to avoid typical recommended carbohydrates dosages and instead eat a higher fat diet: -Can You Build Muscle On A Low Carbohydrate Diet? -Should You Eat Carbohydrates Before Exercise? –How I Ate A High Fat Diet, Pooped 8 Pounds, And Then Won A Sprint Triathlon. –The Hidden Dangers Of A Low Carbohydrate Diet –10 Ways To Do A Low Carbohydrate Diet The Right Way And a few days ago, Tim Olsen, the winner of the brutal Western States 100 Mile Run revealed he is a low carb athlete. But the reality is that it can be very, very difficult and uncomfortable to switch to a low carbohydrate or “ketogenic” diet if you don’t have the help of a few supplements – especially if you’re serious about performance in sports like triathlon, Crossfit, marathoning and other high-energy depleting events. So in this article, I’m going to tell you about 7 supplements that help you perform better on a low carbohydrate diet, along with a couple footnotes at the end of the article that I think you’ll find very interesting. —————————————– 1. Sodium. When you shift to a low carbohydrate or a ketogenic diet, your body loses storage carbohydrate, and also begins excreting sodium and water. When this happens, your blood pressure quickly drops, and much of the low energy that is attributed to “low blood sugar” when eat Continue reading >>

The Best Keto Supplements – Learn How They’ll Help You

The Best Keto Supplements – Learn How They’ll Help You

My wife and I have followed a ketogenic/low carbohydrate diet together for a few years. Thanks to the diet and the best keto supplements, our results have been nothing short of extraordinary. We’re leaner, healthier, fitter, stronger, and have more energy than before we started eating low carb. Getting into nutritional ketosis isn’t always easy. Staying in fat burning mode isn’t either. This article reviews what our personal experience and research finds to be the best keto supplements. How We Chose The Best Keto Supplements In choosing these products we reviewed the latest research on dozens of supplements. We then tried them ourselves to see how they did or didn’t work for us. I also spoke with and read the stories of others who eat a keto/low carb diet to see which supplements they take. As a result of this work, we have this guide of the best keto supplements. All you need to do now is read about each and learn which are the best choices for you. How To Use This Guide The best way to get started is to first review the list below. It’s an overview of each keto supplement and it’s benefits. Clicking on the supplements names will take you their detailed review. Branched Chain Amino Acids (BCAAs) – brain fog, workout energy, faster recovery post-workout. Creatine Monohydrate – train hard without carbs, get stronger, build muscle, increase mental energy. MCT Oil (Medium Chain Triglycerides) – get into ketosis faster, diminish/eliminate keto flu, mental energy. ZMA – get to sleep faster, wake up feeling refreshed and ready to get after it. Why Did I Choose These Keto Supplements? When we first started eating really low carb and fasting to get into nutritional ketosis my wife and I experienced varying degrees of the ‘keto flu’. You may be familiar t Continue reading >>

The Ketogenic Diet And Brain Metabolism Of Amino Acids: Relationship To The Anticonvulsant Effect

The Ketogenic Diet And Brain Metabolism Of Amino Acids: Relationship To The Anticonvulsant Effect

The Ketogenic Diet and Brain Metabolism of Amino Acids: Relationship to the Anticonvulsant Effect 1Childrens Hospital of Philadelphia and Department of Pediatrics, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 1Childrens Hospital of Philadelphia and Department of Pediatrics, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 1Childrens Hospital of Philadelphia and Department of Pediatrics, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 1Childrens Hospital of Philadelphia and Department of Pediatrics, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 1Childrens Hospital of Philadelphia and Department of Pediatrics, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 2Department of Neuroscience, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, NTNU, N-7489, Trondheim, Norway The publisher's final edited version of this article is available at Annu Rev Nutr See other articles in PMC that cite the published article. In many epileptic patients, anticonvulsant drugs either fail adequately to control seizures or they cause serious side effects. An important adjunct to pharmacologic therapy is the ketogenic diet, which often improves seizure control, even in patients who respond poorly to medications. The mechanisms that explain the therapeutic effect are incompletely understood. Evidence points to an effect on brain handling of amino acids, especially glutamic acid, the major excitatory neurotransmitter of the central nervous system. The diet may limit the availability of oxaloacetate to the aspartate aminotransferase reaction, an important route of brain glutamate handling. As a result, more glutamate becomes accessible to the glutamate decarboxylase rea Continue reading >>

Ketogenic Amino Acid

Ketogenic Amino Acid

All mammals synthesize saturated fatty and monounsaturated fatty acids de novo from simple precursors such as glucose or ketogenic amino acids. However, mammals cannot insert double bonds more proximal to the methyl end than the ninth carbon atom. Thus, two fatty acids having their first double bonds at the 6th and 3rd carbon atoms, namely, linoleic (18:2 n-6) and alpha-linolenic acid (18:3 n-3), respectively, cannot be synthesized de novo. Therefore, these fatty acids have to be supplied through the diet and are called essential fatty acids. Denoting the position of the first double bond proximal to the methyl end of the fatty acid chain, essential fatty acids are also classified as omega-6 (n-6) and omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids. A list of the most common n-3 and n-6 fatty acids and their systemic, common name, and shorthand notation is shown in Table 28.1. As early as the1930s, the essentiality of linoleic acid (18:2 n-6) and alpha-linolenic acid (18:3 n-3) in rat diets was identified (Burr and Burr, 1930). However, the essentiality of n-3 fatty acids in humans was first demonstrated only in the early 1980s (Holman et al., 1982). M. Saleet Jafri*, Rashmi Kumar, in Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science , 2014 One of the primary functions of the mitochondria is catabolic energy metabolism; that is, substrates, such as carbohydrates, fatty acids, and proteins, are broken down to release energy that is stored in high-energy phosphate bonds in molecules such as ATP and CP (creatine phosphate). This occurs in multiple stages by multiple pathways. (1) The tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle breaks down small carbohydrates (acetyl-CoA and TCA cycle intermediates) to produce reducing equivalents, that store the released energy. (2) There are also pathways that bring Continue reading >>

The 7 Best Keto Supplements For The Ketogenic Diet

The 7 Best Keto Supplements For The Ketogenic Diet

Ketogenic Diets (more specifically, Cyclic Ketogenic Diets) are the most effective diets for achieving rapid, ultra low bodyfat levels with maximum muscle retention. Now, as with all such general statements there are circumstantial exceptions. But done right – which they rarely are – the fat loss achievable on a ketogenic diet is nothing short of staggering. And despite what people might tell you, you will also enjoy incredible high energy and overall sense of well being. The Perception Despite these promises, more bodybuilders/shapers have had negative experiences than have seen positive results. The main criticisms are: Chronic lethargy Unbearable hunger Massive decrease in gym performance Severe muscle loss All of these criticisms result from a failure to heed the caveat above: Ketogenic Diets must be done right. It must be realised that they are an entirely unique metabolic modality that adheres to none of the previously accepted ‘rules’ of dieting. And there is no going half-way; 50 grams of carbs per day plus high protein intake is NOT ketogenic. So how are ketogenic diets ‘done right’? Let’s take a quick look at how they work. Overview of Ketosis Simply put our body, organs, muscles and brain can use either glucose or ketones for fuel. It is the function of the liver and pancreas (primarily) to regulate that fuel supply and they show a strong bias toward sticking with glucose. Glucose is the ‘preferred’ fuel because it is derived in abundance from the diet and readily available readily from liver and muscle stores. Ketones have to be deliberately synthesised by the liver; but the liver can easily synthesise glucose (a process known as ‘gluconeogenesis’ that uses amino acids (protein) or other metabolic intermediaries) too. We don’t get bet Continue reading >>

Ketogenic Amino Acids

Ketogenic Amino Acids

As the building blocks of proteins, amino acids give structure to your body. They play numerous additional roles—in healing, tissue repair and energy production. Some of the 20 amino acids that build body proteins are essential, meaning that you must get them from your diet. By contrast, your body can produce enough non-essential amino acids to meet its needs. Depending on the way your body metabolizes them, amino acids can also be classified as glucogenic, ketogenic or glucogenic-ketogenic. Glucogenic and Ketogenic Amino Acids As it does with carbohydrates and fats, your body metabolizes the amino acids in proteins to derive energy. Glucogenic amino acids yield glucose for energy production, whereas the body converts ketogenic amino acids into soluble compounds called ketone bodies via a process called ketogenesis. Ketogenic amino acids specifically form a type of ketone body known as acetoacetate, either directly or by first yielding the intermediary compound acetyl-CoA. Glucose is your body's preferred energy currency, but ketone bodies provide an alternative fuel source when glucose is unavailable. There are seven ketogenic amino acids. Lysine Lysine in an essential and exclusively ketogenic amino acid. It helps your body produce carnitine, a nutrient that metabolizes fatty acids into energy and helps to lower cholesterol. According to the University of Maryland Medical Center, lysine also helps with calcium absorption and the formation of collagen, the protein that makes your bones, cartilage, tendons and skin firm. Lysine breakdown ultimately yields the ketone body acetoacetyl-CoA for use in energy production. Lysine-rich foods include peas, lentils, beans, fish and meats. Leucine Leucine is also an essential and exclusively ketogenic amino acid. Its breakdown p Continue reading >>

Supplements And Ketogenic Diets – Facts And Myths

Supplements And Ketogenic Diets – Facts And Myths

Although not strictly necessary, most supplements and Keto work very well together. The only thing you have to be mindful of is the actual carbohydrate content of your supplements. Prefer those that contain very little or no carbs. Protein Powders Although not really needed if you are meeting your suggested protein intake with whole foods, Protein Powders (whey, beef, casein) are a quick and convenient way to increase protein intake. Aim for whey shakes that have less than 5g carbs per serving. Darthluiggi suggest between 20 to 25g Protein before your strength training sessions. Notes on quality of proteins and brands Before you buy any brand of protein (or any other supplement), check for the reputation or effectiveness of the brand. There have been various cases in which the product does not deliver as marketed. For notable cases, read up these posts: Pre-workout Supplements The best and “must have” supplement for serious muscle building is Creatine Monohydrate. Along with it, any supplement that contains Caffeine may help you focus and train hard. Creatine. If there is one supplement you should be taking, is Creatine. Yes, it works perfectly well with keto. No, it does not require carbs to function properly, nor you have to “load” it for it to work. Note that some people may be non-responders. It can cause water retention on some people, but really is not consequential for keto as you are probably losing water. Remember, you are aiming for fat loss, not total weight loss. According to the International Society of Sports Nutrition, creatine (monohydrate) is the most effective ergogenic (performance-enhancing) nutritional supplement currently available to athletes for increasing high-intensity exercise capacity and lean body mass during training. Source:Examine Continue reading >>

The Ketogenic Diet | 5 Keto-friendly Supplements

The Ketogenic Diet | 5 Keto-friendly Supplements

The ketogenic diet is a very powerful diet which can be utilised in order to promote rapid fat loss. It is most popular among those who have larger amounts of weight to lose. The key principle behind it is to eat minimal amounts of carbohydrates, whilst maximising intake of fat, in order to put your body into a state known as ketosis, where it uses stored energy in order to function. What Is A Ketogenic Diet? Ketogenic diets are fairly simple in principle. Usually, when you are following one, you will aim to eat around 60-70% of your daily calories from fat, focusing on eating healthy fats and not unhealthy, processed, trans fats. Furthermore, 20-30% of your calories should come from protein, whilst no more than 50g of carbs should be consumed per day. Eating this way will place your body into a state known as ketosis. During this metabolic state, there are higher levels of ketones in your bloodstream. When this is the case, lipid energy metabolism is intact, meaning that your body will begin to break down stored fat in order to fuel your everyday activities, rather than using carbohydrates from your diet. Why Supplement? On any diet, supplementation is not a necessity, but beneficial. The same can be said for a ketogenic diet. The reason for supplementing is often in order to maximise your intake of a certain macro/micronutrient if the diet requires you to eat a large quantity of it, or if it restricts certain foods, like carbohydrates, meaning you miss out on some key nutrients. 5 Keto-Friendly Supplements #1 Omega 3 Omega 3 is an essential fatty acid which is found from dietary sources of oily fish such as mackerel, salmon and sardines. It cannot be synthesised in the body; therefore, it must be taken in through our diets. For many people, it is not possible to eat f Continue reading >>

Bcaas And Keto Diets

Bcaas And Keto Diets

(Note: This article is a departure from our tradition of end-to-end citations, and other practices necessary for establishing high confidence in medical assertions. This departure is merely in the interest of publishing more ideas in less time, as our intensely busy lives have led to a huge backlog of unfinished articles for which the verification and explicit justification process has proved to be at least 80% of the work. Because of its importance to us, though, when we return to more fundamental ketogenic science articles, we will return that style.) Benefits of BCAAs If you follow the bodybuilding community, you are probably aware of some of the benefits of branched chain amino acids (BCAAs). That's because they are known to have positive effects on muscle growth and recovery. (See for example Nutraceutical Effects of Branched-Chain Amino Acids on Skeletal Muscle, and Branched-Chain Amino Acids Activate Key Enzymes in Protein Synthesis after Physical Exercise.) Less well known is that BCAAs have favourable effects on the brain, in particular the glial cells (brain cells that aren't neurons, are more numerous than neurons, and turn out to be essential for supporting neurons — it seems probable that most brain afflictions are caused by problems in the glial cells). The beneficial effects of BCAAs come from their important role in the manufacture of neurotransmitters, and vital metabolic cycles such as the leucine-glutamate cycle. Here are a couple of examples of beneficial effects of BCAA supplementation on the brain: Dietary branched chain amino acids ameliorate injury-induced cognitive impairment, Branched-chain amino acids may improve recovery from a vegetative or minimally conscious state in patients with traumatic brain injury: a pilot study, Recovery of brain Continue reading >>

My Periodic Ketogenic Diet Protocol

My Periodic Ketogenic Diet Protocol

I bounce in and out of ketosis. Some prosper in perpetual ketosis, like Dominic P. D’Agostino and newborn babies (though if you know Dom, it is rather difficult to have him in the same sentence as newborn babies). Some adamantly refuse ever purposefully going into ketosis (many, many, many, old school nutritionists and physicians who, for years, have confused it with ketoacidosis). This article is not what is best for you. The following is my Periodic Ketogenic Diet Protocol. I seem to perform best when I periodically enter into nutritional ketosis. I have been in ketosis for 6 months, a year, you name it. I have tried everything in terms of timing, and brief periods of ketosis are optimal for me. Over the years, I have gradually come up with my own protocol to get into ketosis quickly and maintain it for around 5 days. After 12 years of reading study after study, I have created my personal periodic ketogenic diet protocol. I am in no way saying this protocol is good, bad, or even appropriate for you. In fact, I am not even inferring that this protocol is safe for you, as I have no clue if you have any medical conditions. This is what I do. This is what keeps me lean, metabolically healthy, and hopefully provides my body with the tools to fight cancer now and for the rest of my life. Maybe it will work. Maybe it won’t. But my review of the data tells me this is my best bet. So this is what I do. In the middle of July, in a small city of champions known as Pittsburgh, I was due for some ketosis. I decided to write down everything I did, from meals to workouts. The following is a step-by-step description of the five days following my personal protocol. I get many questions from my readers and patients asking what I do, so I hope this answers most of them. I try to key Continue reading >>

Ketogenic Amino Acids | Optimising Nutrition

Ketogenic Amino Acids | Optimising Nutrition

Lately, Ive seen a number of common themes come up at low carb conferences and online. The contentious questions tend to run along the lines of: I did really well on a low carb diet initially, but my fat loss seems to have stalled. What gives? What should I do now? If protein is insulinogenic should I actively avoid protein as well as carbs if my goal is to reduce insulin because low insulin = weight loss? If eating more fat helped kick start my weight loss journey, then why does eating more fat seem to make me gain weight now? This article outlines some quantitative parameters around these contentious questions and helps you chose the most appropriate nutritional approach. the importance of monitoring blood glucose levels Coming from a diabetes headspace, Ive seen firsthand the power of a low carb diet in reducing blood glucose and insulin levels. As a Type 1 Diabetic, my wife Moni has been above to halve her insulin dose with a massive improvement in energy levels, body composition and mood. If your blood glucose levels are high, then chances are your insulin levels are also high. Insulin is the hormonal switch that causes us to store excess energy as body fat in times of plenty. [1] Lower levels of insulin in times of food scarcity then enable us to access to the stored energy on our body. [2] You can actively manage the fat storing potential of your diet by managing the insulin load of the food you eat. The chart below shows that our glucose response is fairly well predicted by the carbohydrates we eat. (note: The glucose score is the area under the curve of glucose response to various foods tested over the three hours relative to glucose which gets a score of 100%.) [3] [4] Having high blood glucose levels is bad news. [5] The chart below shows the correlation bet Continue reading >>

Ketogenic Amino Acids

Ketogenic Amino Acids

Amino acids which also called the building blocks of life have a gigantic role in our lives as well as the general state of our health. Amino acids are classified into more than 20, although in fact, there are hundreds. They are taken for the purpose of enhancing recovery from illness, concentration, energy, as well as general performance. Essential Amino Acids the body cannot make them, so they must be in the diet. These are acids such as for instance arginine, lysine, leucine, tryptophan, etc. Nonessential Amino Acids the body is usually able to produce the following amino acids: alanine, aspartic Acid, glutamine, serine, etc. Conditionally Essential These amino acids are essential if your body is under extreme stress, and they are obtained from food or supplements: arginine, tyrosine, taurine, etc. Classification as per the charge and polarization of the side chains (R-Group) Nonpolar or Hydrophobic Side Chains: alanine, phenylalanine, proline, tryptophan, etc. Glycogenic: these amino acids are able to be converted over into glucose, and they are as follows: arginine, aspartic acid, glycine, etc. Ketogenic: these amino acids have the ability of conversion into ketones, in contrast to glucogenic amino acids, which are converted intoglucose. Ketone formation entails the breaking down of fats as well as the forming of an energy source. Ketogenic amino acids are those organic acids which produce ketone bodies after a chemical alteration of the carbon skeleton. Ketone bodies are 3 chemicals which are made as by-products when fatty acids are broken down for the purpose of producing energy. Even though the term bodies is used, these are soluble compounds and not particles. Ketogenesis implies any kind of production of these mixtures, and it is required in small quantities Continue reading >>

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