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Amino Acids And Ketosis

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In this video I discuss what are amino acids, what are amino acids made of, and what do amino acids do in the body. I also cover what are peptide bonds, polypeptide chains, how amino acids form proteins, some functions of amino acids, and what are amino acids used to build. Transcript We are going to start by looking at the molecular structure of a typical amino acid, dont worry, I am going to make it easy to understand. The basic structure of amino acids is that they consist of a carboxyl group, a lone hydrogen atom, an amino group, and a side chain, which is often referred to as an R-group. The formation of the side chain is what makes amino acids different from one another. As you can see in this diagram, these 4 are all connected to a carbon atom, which is referred to as the alpha carbon. Not every amino acid follows this exact structure, but, most do. On the screen I have 3 different amino acids, lysine, tryptophan, and leucine. You can see that each has a carboxyl group, an alpha carbon, a amino group, and an R-group that is different from each other. There are 23 total amino acids that are proteinogenic. Proteinogenic amino acids are precursors to proteins, which means they are compounds that participate in a chemical reaction to produce another compound. Of these 23 amino acids, 20 of them are called standard amino acids, and the other 3 are non-standard amino acids. These are listed on the screen. In this video we are going to focus on the standard amino acids, as they are what make up proteins. These amino acids can be classified many different ways, we are going to classify them in a basic nutritional way. Essential and nonessential. Essential amino acids cannot be made by the body, so, they must come from foods we eat. Nonessential amino acids are amino acids that our bodies can produce even if we dont get them from the food we eat. There is a subgroup of nonessential amino acids that are considered to be conditional amino acids. The list of conditional amino acids is not definitive. For instance, in times of illness or stress, there are certain amino acids the body cant produce sufficiently, and children's bodys havent developed the ability to produce certain amino acids yet. There are 9 essential and 11 nonessential amino acids, ive listed them on the screen. So, how do amino acids form proteins? Proteins are built from the 20 standard amino acids. Well, the first thing that happens is that 2 amino acids come together to form a peptide bond. A peptide bond is when the carboxyl group of one amino acid bonds with the amino group of another amino acid, as you can see here. If you notice 2 hydrogen atoms and one oxygen atom have been removed from the peptide bonding process. So, the peptide bonding results in the release of a water moleculeh20. But, we are not finished. More amino acids can link in, and form what is called a polypeptide chain. Some proteins are single polypeptide chains, and other proteins have polypeptide chains linked together. Not all protein contains all 20 of the standard amino acids. Not all protein contains all 20 of the standard amino acids. Proteins are often labeled as complete or incomplete protein. A Complete protein is a protein source that contains a sufficient quantity of all 9 of the essential amino acids that we discussed earlier. An incomplete protein does not contain a sufficient quantity of all 9 of the essential amino acids. Complete protein foods includeanimal foods such as red meat, poultry, pork and fish. Eggs and dairy products such as cows milk, yogurt, and cheese. Plant foods such as soy products, black beans, kidney beans, pumpkin seeds, quinoa, pistachios, just to name a few. You can also combine incomplete protein foods to create a complete protein meal. Amino acids also make up most enzymes. These Enzymes are proteins, so they are made by linking amino acids together in a specific and unique order. This chain of amino acids then forms a unique shape that allows the enzyme created to serve a single specific purpose. Enzymes function as catalysts, which means that they speed up the rate at which metabolic processed and reactions occur. Amino acids can also be metabolized for energy. Some hormones like epinephrine, also known as adrenaline, are amino acid derived. Some neurotransmitters like serotonin are derived from amino acids. The amino acid arginine is a precursor of nitric oxide, which helps regulate blood pressure, improves sleep quality and increases endurance and strength. Glutathione, which is a powerful antioxidant is formed from amino acids. Other sources... https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amino_acid http://www.fitday.com/fitness-article... http://www.ivyroses.com/HumanBiology/...

Glucogenic And Ketogenic Amino Acids

Amino acids can be classified as being “glucogenic” or “ketogenic” based on the type of intermediates that are formed during their breakdown or catabolism. The catabolism of glucogenic amino acids produces either pyruvate or one of the intermediates in the Krebs Cycle. The catabolism of ketogenic amino acids produces acetyl CoA or acetoacetyl CoA (see Figure 1). There is a rare medical condition in which a person is deficient in the pyruvate dehydrogenase enzyme that converts pyruvate to acetyl CoA – a precursor for the Krebs Cycle. Signs and symptoms vary, but there are generally two main manifestations. First, patients can have an elevated blood lactate (lactic acid) level. Second, patients may have neurological defects, including microcephaly (a small head circumference) and/or mental retardation. Treatment is currently limited and not very effective. Moreover, damage to the brain is often irreversible. Your biochemistry study partner looks at Figure 1 and exclaims, “This doesn’t make sense - why can’t acetyl-coA and the ketogenic amino acids be converted back to pyruvate to create glucose using pyruvate dehydrogenase?” With your knowledge of basic chemistry, y Continue reading >>

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  1. xgwsx

    still not in ketosis according to ketostix

    hi all
    so i started keto last thurs morning, so its been roughly been about 10 days. and i got ketostix two days ago and apparently i'm still not in keto...
    start weight: 147, 12-13% bf
    currently: been at 143 the past two days, was at 10-11% bf but now back at 12%
    i've tried to maintain a proper ratio. 60/35/5 on fat protein carb.
    eating 2250-2350cals a day, breakfast, meal 2, lunch, meal 4, dinner, meal 6 before bed as follows:
    m1: 415 cal, 24fat, 32protein, 3 net carb (~730)
    3 egg white, 1/4 cup of cheese, 3turkey bacon, 1string cheese, benefiber
    m2: 330cal, 25f, 27p, 2carb(~10)
    tuna with evoo and blue cheese, 2string cheese
    m3: 355cal, 25f, 28p, 4 net carb (~1230-1)
    salad, tuna as above
    m4: 390cal, 28f, 34p, 1carb (~330pm)
    1/3lb burger with cheese/cheddar/bluecheese
    m5: 408cal, 27f, 32p, 10carb(only on broc**** days, usually <5netcarbs) (~6pm)
    broc****, chicken breast/pork tenderloin/drumsticks, 1/4 cheese, string cheese, whip cream
    m6: 390cal, 25f, 30p, 2carb (<45min before bed)
    2 egg white omelet, 1/4 cup cheese, bacon/turkey bacon
    total everyday is ~2300cal, 154fat, 200protein, 20netcarbs
    am i doing something wrong? or is this good.
    thanks for the help
    i'm assuming i'm doing somethign right. because my weight has gone down a bit.. but just want to retain as much muscle as possible (hence wanting to be in keto!=))

  2. alexl53

    i've never used keto stix myself, but i've read that they aren't always accurate since ketones can exist in the blood, but at the same time not show up in urine, so that might be the issue.

  3. shadowwalker021

    ketostix are a pretty good indicator of ketosis but it's possible to be under ketosis and not register on a urinalysis.
    have you been working out or doing cardio pretty intensely? you might have used all of your blood-ketone bodies up as energy

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In this video I discuss the basics of what are complete proteins and incomplete proteins, and what essential and non essential amino acids are. I also discuss what are standard amino acids in the amino acids list, and some of the functions of proteins. Transcript (partial with notes). Amino acids are molecules that make up proteins. Protein consumption is important because protein has many functions in the body, such as being used to make enzymes, hormones, build and maintain tissues, construct transport proteins, which transport fats throughout the body, and make antibodies, which help neutralize some bacteria and viruses in the body. There are 20 different standard amino acids that your body requires for healthy function. These amino acids are often classified as essential and non-essential amino acids. Nonessential amino acids are amino acids that our bodies can produce even if we dont get them from the food we eat. There are 11 non essential amino acids. Essential amino acids cannot be made by the body, so, they must come from foods we eat. There are 9 essential amino acids. So, when we eat foods that contain protein, in essence we are eating amino acids, however, not all protein contains all 20 of the standard amino acids.. Protein is often classified as complete or incomplete protein. A Complete protein is a protein source that contains a sufficient quantity of all 9 of the essential amino acids. An incomplete protein does not contain a sufficient quantity of all 9 of the essential amino acids Complete protein foods includeanimal foods such as red meat, poultry, pork and fish. Eggs and dairy products such as cows milk, yogurt, and cheese. Plant foods such as soy products, black beans, kidney beans, pumpkin seeds, quinoa, pistachios, just to name a few. You can also combine incomplete protein foods to create a complete protein meal, or to get the essential amino acids throughout the day. And that is the basics on essential and non-essential amino acids and complete and incomplete proteins.

Ketogenic Amino Acids

As the building blocks of proteins, amino acids give structure to your body. They play numerous additional roles—in healing, tissue repair and energy production. Some of the 20 amino acids that build body proteins are essential, meaning that you must get them from your diet. By contrast, your body can produce enough non-essential amino acids to meet its needs. Depending on the way your body metabolizes them, amino acids can also be classified as glucogenic, ketogenic or glucogenic-ketogenic. Glucogenic and Ketogenic Amino Acids As it does with carbohydrates and fats, your body metabolizes the amino acids in proteins to derive energy. Glucogenic amino acids yield glucose for energy production, whereas the body converts ketogenic amino acids into soluble compounds called ketone bodies via a process called ketogenesis. Ketogenic amino acids specifically form a type of ketone body known as acetoacetate, either directly or by first yielding the intermediary compound acetyl-CoA. Glucose is your body's preferred energy currency, but ketone bodies provide an alternative fuel source when glucose is unavailable. There are seven ketogenic amino acids. Lysine Lysine in an essential and exclu Continue reading >>

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  1. FitBeforeFifty

    Following the success of Gary Taubes' books claiming carbs cause obesity, he founded NuSI (www.nusi.org) to raise money for reasearch. NuSI along with NIH funded a study intended to prove/disprove Taubes' carb/insulin/obesity link. The study has been complete for some time but hasn't been published. One of the principal investigators in the study presented some of the findings at the 2016 International Conference on Obesity earlier this month.
    Some money quotes:
    “The loss of fat mass slowed down on a low-carb, high-fat diet.”

    “…it took the full 28 days of a ketogenic diet to lose the same amount of fat as was lost in the first 15 days of the normal carbohydrate diet.”
    Dr. Hall’s conclusion: no metabolic advantage to a ketogenic diet. Carb-Insulin theory of obesity falsified.
    Here's an interview with Dr. Hall at the conference:
    https://youtu.be/MiUyjMjuLl0

  2. betpchem

    Good to know @FitBeforeFifty. I always like to hear what the science says.

  3. JohnRi

    I personally thought the high fat diet was bad for a number of health reasons. Interesting study that showed a high fat low calorie diet took longer to lose the same amount of weight as the a low calorie high carb diet.
    I will love to read the paper when it comes out.
    I've been running a low caloried diet 20%-25% protein, 20-25% fat, and 45-55% carb diet for 8 months. I've lost 61 lbs. So as far as I'm concerned a balanced diet will cause weight loss great weigth loss...
    If you ever see a link to the paper on the study, please post an new update with the link.
    John | Texas,USA | Surge | Aria | Blaze | Windows | iPhone | Always consult with a doctor regarding all medical issues. Keep active!!!

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Video transcript below! Magnesium: http://geni.us/RHGhq Keto Collagen: https://youtu.be/uQM7D_Ssavo Today we're talking about Keto supplements and natural remedies. What supplements I recommend in general, as well as more specifically, what supplements to take on a Ketogenic Diet. Some of them are actual supplements and some of them are natural remedies. Lets start with the big 3 on Keto - I'm of course talking about electrolytes. Especially when starting out, supplementing with magnesium, potassium and sodium is very helpful, as your body starts dumping a lot of water & with that, stored electrolytes as well, which need to be replenished. If you've been getting some muscle cramps since starting Keto, that means you need to replenish your electrolytes! I have to mention that I have noticed that electrolytes seem to play a larger role when starting a Ketogenic Diet than they do later on. - Magnesium - I take natural calm with some water or magnesium citrate if I'm on the road or already brushed my teeth. Great for sleep as well, so if you're having trouble falling or staying asleep, try taking some magnesium. I take 300mg of elemental magnesium most nights approx. 30 minutes before going to bed. You can get enough magnesium from natural sources like spinach or nuts, so it's not essential to take it as a supplement. Still, in my opinion it's not a bad idea to supplement either way for reasons like soil depletion, which results in veggies you buy today having less magnesium in them than they used to 10 years ago. - I have to mention epsom salt, which is magnesium sulfate. Don't eat this one - instead, take a hot bath and let some epsom salt dissolve in the water beforehand. I tend to use around 300g of this stuff whenever I take a bath. It's really cheap and soo relaxing, especially if you've had a hard workout that day. Chances are, you're gonna sleep like a baby afterwards. - Potassium - if you're not eating an avocado every day, I would supplement with some potassium. I tend to take a really small dose and I think that's enough for most people. I take one capsule (which is 99mg) with my magnesium supplement on most nights approx. 30 minutes before sleep. - Sodium - just freely salt your food with sea salt/pink Himalayan salt or have a high quality, low-carb bouillon cube or powder with hot water to get enough sodium. Other minerals and vitamins: - I'm not a fan of multivitamins, as they frequently use cheap, badly absorbable sources for vitamins/minerals and most of them add folic acid, which can even be bad for your health. Also, they tend to only add small quantities of essential minerals like magnesium and are usually not well-balanced. There are obviously exceptions out there. - Vitamin D3 is the only vitamin that my girlfriend and I take regularly, since it's hard to get enough natural Vitamin D from sun exposure in Austria. We both take 5.000 IU almost every morning, unless we forget. I seriously believe it might be part of the reason why we haven't gotten sick a single time since starting Keto more than one and a half years ago. We tend to prefer drops, as it's better absorbed when it's mixed with fats like coconut oil or MCT oil, which they add in this one. When I'm feeling sick from eating something bad, which might happen after eating at a low quality restaurant: - I take a couple of Activated charcoal tablets and some chlorella, as they both bind toxins and heavy metals and help you get rid of them. If, for whatever reason we feel like we're about to get a cold, here is what we do to get rid of it right away: - Vitamin C - 3g of Vitamin C - Zinc - a 50mg capsule of zinc citrate - double the portion of Vitamin D3 we would normally take (10.000 IU instead of 5.000 IU), while not taking any the next day if we're feeling better - Vegetable soup for dinner on those occasions, which usually consists of bone broth, 2-3 carrots, some celery, parsley and some sea salt. We also add some ginger as well as some turmeric, which we mix with some black pepper to improve absorption. If we want to turn the soup into an entire meal, we add some grass-fed collagen powder for protein and some healthy fats like butter or coconut oil to make it more filling. These little tricks combined with a Ketogenic Diet have helped us ward off any sickness that tried to come our way. It was really noticeable for us this winter, as every single one of our family members and best friends got sick while we stayed healthy. Lastly, if you need a little extra energy, either because you just started doing Keto recently or you had too many carbs or protein in your last meal: - Try a tablespoon of MCT oil or coconut oil with some tea or coffee. Just make sure you don't add too much, as excessive amounts can cause some gastric discomfort. If you're running to the bathroom right after, you took too much or drank it too quickly! Q: What supplements do you take on a regular basis?

The Ketogenic Diet | 5 Keto-friendly Supplements

The ketogenic diet is a very powerful diet which can be utilised in order to promote rapid fat loss. It is most popular among those who have larger amounts of weight to lose. The key principle behind it is to eat minimal amounts of carbohydrates, whilst maximising intake of fat, in order to put your body into a state known as ketosis, where it uses stored energy in order to function. What Is A Ketogenic Diet? Ketogenic diets are fairly simple in principle. Usually, when you are following one, you will aim to eat around 60-70% of your daily calories from fat, focusing on eating healthy fats and not unhealthy, processed, trans fats. Furthermore, 20-30% of your calories should come from protein, whilst no more than 50g of carbs should be consumed per day. Eating this way will place your body into a state known as ketosis. During this metabolic state, there are higher levels of ketones in your bloodstream. When this is the case, lipid energy metabolism is intact, meaning that your body will begin to break down stored fat in order to fuel your everyday activities, rather than using carbohydrates from your diet. Why Supplement? On any diet, supplementation is not a necessity, but benefic Continue reading >>

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  1. ectoplasmic

    Keto and heart problems?

    Ok......so today I stood up and for the first time ever, I felt really light headed, and I could literally feel my heart beats, and veins pumping. It was strange, and made me wonder if the keto diet I currently started on was the culprit
    so i searched and found this.

    Until now, the diet was thought to have few side effects. But the Children's Hospital Medical Center of Cincinnati researchers initiated a study after a 5-year-old patient on the diet developed dilated cardiomyopathy (an enlarged, poorly functioning heart muscle) and a prolonged QT interval (an electrical abnormality that can lead to a fast heart rhythm and sudden death).
    The researchers found that out of 21 children on the ketogenic diet, 15 percent had these abnormalities. When taken off of the diet, the problems went away.
    The problems may be related to a substance called beta-hydroxybutyrate and the high level of acid in the blood with which it is associated, according to Thomas Best, M.D., a physician in the Children's Hospital Medical Center of Cincinnati Cardiology Division and the study's lead author.
    Beta-hydroxybutyrate levels are higher in people on the ketogenic diet, and children with the highest levels of beta-hydroxybutyrate had the most severe heart problems.
    Anyone else experiencing these things?
    Am I just worrying about stupid things?
    Or is it like the kidney thing, where if you have preexisting problems, you shouldnt go on keto. But for the heart?

  2. redheadlaw7

    Originally Posted by ectoplasmic
    Ok......so today I stood up and for the first time ever, I felt really light headed, and I could literally feel my heart beats, and veins pumping. It was strange, and made me wonder if the keto diet I currently started on was the culprit
    so i searched and found this.
    Anyone else experiencing these things?
    Am I just worrying about stupid things?
    Or is it like the kidney thing, where if you have preexisting problems, you shouldnt go on keto. But for the heart?

    When I went on this diet I had severe postpartum depression, was extremely fat, had mega high blood pressure, was prediabetic and had kidney issues. My doctors were not thrilled that I was eating like this. I have had multiple, as in once every two weeks or so, blood tests done and have had my vitals taken repeatedly. The result has been huge drop in weight, blood pressure, and pulse. This has also resulted in a huge drop in need for medication. My docs are blown away and tell me to keep doing what I'm doing.
    Eileen has been doing this forever and it sounds to me like she is in terrific health. Hopefully others, especially Eileen, will chime in with anecdotal evidence.

  3. DelijaZauvjek

    People have been doing this diet for thousands of years and just in the last couple hundred we've started using bread, crackers, and other carbs where our body fat has increased largely and cause obesity throughout the world.
    Excellent example:
    You ever see those movies like 300 or Troy? How buff those guys are and cut?
    Well, most of them were like that and mostly because all they ate was meat, meat, and meat ..With some veggies and fruits minus carbs
    If you just started the keto diet then that could be the reason for feeling light-headed or even gasp for breath. It could also mean that you are not eating enough. That's what happened to me when I first started and then upped the calories and didn't have that light-headed problem anymore.

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