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Alcoholic Lactic Acidosis Treatment

Causes Of Lactic Acidosis

Causes Of Lactic Acidosis

INTRODUCTION AND DEFINITION Lactate levels greater than 2 mmol/L represent hyperlactatemia, whereas lactic acidosis is generally defined as a serum lactate concentration above 4 mmol/L. Lactic acidosis is the most common cause of metabolic acidosis in hospitalized patients. Although the acidosis is usually associated with an elevated anion gap, moderately increased lactate levels can be observed with a normal anion gap (especially if hypoalbuminemia exists and the anion gap is not appropriately corrected). When lactic acidosis exists as an isolated acid-base disturbance, the arterial pH is reduced. However, other coexisting disorders can raise the pH into the normal range or even generate an elevated pH. (See "Approach to the adult with metabolic acidosis", section on 'Assessment of the serum anion gap' and "Simple and mixed acid-base disorders".) Lactic acidosis occurs when lactic acid production exceeds lactic acid clearance. The increase in lactate production is usually caused by impaired tissue oxygenation, either from decreased oxygen delivery or a defect in mitochondrial oxygen utilization. (See "Approach to the adult with metabolic acidosis".) The pathophysiology and causes of lactic acidosis will be reviewed here. The possible role of bicarbonate therapy in such patients is discussed separately. (See "Bicarbonate therapy in lactic acidosis".) PATHOPHYSIOLOGY A review of the biochemistry of lactate generation and metabolism is important in understanding the pathogenesis of lactic acidosis [1]. Both overproduction and reduced metabolism of lactate appear to be operative in most patients. Cellular lactate generation is influenced by the "redox state" of the cell. The redox state in the cellular cytoplasm is reflected by the ratio of oxidized and reduced nicotine ad Continue reading >>

Prognosis Of Alcohol-associated Lactic Acidosis In Critically Ill Patients: An 8-year Study

Prognosis Of Alcohol-associated Lactic Acidosis In Critically Ill Patients: An 8-year Study

Prognosis of alcohol-associated lactic acidosis in critically ill patients: an 8-year study We are experimenting with display styles that make it easier to read articles in PMC. The ePub format uses eBook readers, which have several "ease of reading" features already built in. The ePub format is best viewed in the iBooks reader. You may notice problems with the display of certain parts of an article in other eReaders. Generating an ePub file may take a long time, please be patient. Prognosis of alcohol-associated lactic acidosis in critically ill patients: an 8-year study Chun-Chieh Yang, Khee-Siang Chan, [...], and Shih-Feng Weng Lactic acidosis is common in critical care; by contrast, a subtype called alcohol-associated lactic acidosis (AALA) is rarely encountered. The primary purpose of this study was to determine the prognosis of AALA in critically ill patients and the second aim was to determine whether the survival was associated to the peak blood lactate concentration. An 8-year retrospective analysis of adult patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) with AALA between January 2007 and December 2014 was considered in a tertiary care hospital. In total, 23 patients were analyzed and the median peak blood lactate level was 15.9 mmol/L. Only 2 patients (8.7%) presented peak blood lactate levels <10 mmol/L. In this study, 21 patients survived from ICU and hospital, the mortality rate was 8.7%. The result indicted the survival of AALA was not associated with peak blood lactate concentration although survivors still had a better lactate clearance rate per hour than non-survivors. Moreover, AALA patients with coexisting sepsis presenting higher lactate clearance rate and shorter lactate clearance time than those of AALA patients with solely sepsis-related lact Continue reading >>

Alcoholic Ketoacidosis

Alcoholic Ketoacidosis

Alcoholic Ketoacidosis Damian Baalmann, 2nd year EM resident A 45-year-old male presents to your emergency department with abdominal pain. He is conscious, lucid and as the nurses are hooking up the monitors, he explains to you that he began experiencing abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting about 2 days ago. Exam reveals a poorly groomed male with dry mucous membranes, diffusely tender abdomen with voluntary guarding. He is tachycardic, tachypneic but normotensive. A quick review of the chart reveals a prolonged history of alcohol abuse and after some questioning, the patient admits to a recent binge. Pertinent labs reveal slightly elevated anion-gap metabolic acidosis, normal glucose, ethanol level of 0, normal lipase and no ketones in the urine. What are your next steps in management? Alcoholic Ketoacidosis (AKA): What is it? Ketones are a form of energy made by the liver by free fatty acids released by adipose tissues. Normally, ketones are in small quantity (<0.1 mmol/L), but sometimes the body is forced to increase its production of these ketones. Ketones are strong acids and when they accumulate in large numbers, their presence leads to an acidosis. In alcoholics, a combination or reduced nutrient intake, hepatic oxidation of ethanol, and dehydration can lead to ketoacidosis. Alcoholics tend to rely on ethanol for their nutrient intake and when the liver metabolizes ethanol it generates NADH. This NADH further promotes ketone formation in the liver. Furthermore, ethanol promotes diuresis which leads to dehydration and subsequently impairs ketone excretion in the urine. Alcoholic Ketoacidosis: How do I recognize it? Typical history involves a chronic alcohol abuser who went on a recent binge that was terminated by severe nausea, vomiting, and abdominal pain. These folk Continue reading >>

Toxic Alcohol Ingestions: Clinical Features, Diagnosis, And Management

Toxic Alcohol Ingestions: Clinical Features, Diagnosis, And Management

Abstract Alcohol-related intoxications, including methanol, ethylene glycol, diethylene glycol, and propylene glycol, and alcoholic ketoacidosis can present with a high anion gap metabolic acidosis and increased serum osmolal gap, whereas isopropanol intoxication presents with hyperosmolality alone. The effects of these substances, except for isopropanol and possibly alcoholic ketoacidosis, are due to their metabolites, which can cause metabolic acidosis and cellular dysfunction. Accumulation of the alcohols in the blood can cause an increment in the osmolality, and accumulation of their metabolites can cause an increase in the anion gap and a decrease in serum bicarbonate concentration. The presence of both laboratory abnormalities concurrently is an important diagnostic clue, although either can be absent, depending on the time after exposure when blood is sampled. In addition to metabolic acidosis, acute renal failure and neurologic disease can occur in some of the intoxications. Dialysis to remove the unmetabolized alcohol and possibly the organic acid anion can be helpful in treatment of several of the alcohol-related intoxications. Administration of fomepizole or ethanol to inhibit alcohol dehydrogenase, a critical enzyme in metabolism of the alcohols, is beneficial in treatment of ethylene glycol and methanol intoxication and possibly diethylene glycol and propylene glycol intoxication. Given the potentially high morbidity and mortality of these intoxications, it is important for the clinician to have a high degree of suspicion for these disorders in cases of high anion gap metabolic acidosis, acute renal failure, or unexplained neurologic disease so that treatment can be initiated early. Effect of Alcohols on Serum Osmolality and the Osmolal Gap The normal serum Continue reading >>

Glyburide And Metformin (oral Route)

Glyburide And Metformin (oral Route)

Precautions Drug information provided by: Micromedex It is very important that your doctor check your progress at regular visits to make sure this medicine is working properly. Blood tests may be needed to check for unwanted effects. Under certain conditions, too much metformin can cause lactic acidosis. The symptoms of lactic acidosis are severe and quick to appear. They usually occur when other health problems not related to the medicine are present and very severe, such as a heart attack or kidney failure. The symptoms of lactic acidosis include abdominal or stomach discomfort; decreased appetite; diarrhea; fast, shallow breathing; a general feeling of discomfort; muscle pain or cramping; and unusual sleepiness, tiredness, or weakness. If you have any symptoms of lactic acidosis, get emergency medical help right away. It is very important to carefully follow any instructions from your health care team about: Alcohol—Drinking alcohol may cause severe low blood sugar. Discuss this with your health care team. Other medicines—Do not take other medicines unless they have been discussed with your doctor. This especially includes nonprescription medicines such as aspirin, and medicines for appetite control, asthma, colds, cough, hay fever, or sinus problems. Counseling—Other family members need to learn how to prevent side effects or help with side effects if they occur. Also, patients with diabetes may need special counseling about diabetes medicine dosing changes that might occur because of lifestyle changes, such as changes in exercise and diet. Furthermore, counseling on contraception and pregnancy may be needed because of the problems that can occur in patients with diabetes during pregnancy. Travel—Keep your recent prescription and your medical history with yo Continue reading >>

Alcoholism And Lactic Acidosis

Alcoholism And Lactic Acidosis

Learn more about the SDN Exhibition Forums for exclusive discounts and contests. So the way I understood this is that both alcohol metabolism and latcate to pyrvuate conversion require NAD, and with too much alcohol consumption the body uses up all the NAD for alcohol metabolism right? The part that I'm a bit troubled with this mechanism is that unless we are doing extreme exercise, we don't really generate lactic acid. In most cases, the body uses oxidative phosphorylation, right? So lactic acidosis will most likely occur when you drink alcohol and then do extreme exercise, correct? SDN Members don't see this ad. About the ads. My understanding is that high NADH levels from EtOH metab drives the pyruvate -> lactate conversion. So you don't need to be exercising +drinking, either will do it on their own. I actually enjoy your questions, though some things are really easily looked up. The several different causes of lactic acidosis: I actually enjoy your questions, though some things are really easily looked up. The several different causes of lactic acidosis: But the reasons behind why lactic acidosis occurs for these is significantly different.... For example, in exercise- lactic acidosis- due to depletion of ATP such that the ability to generate ATP via oxidation is overwhelmed. This leads to high levels of ADP> than the O2 intake from respiration. When the ADP/ATP ratio are elevated but O2 is no longer sufficient the body switches to anaerobic metabolism to quickly generate ATP= leading to lactic acidosis. In alcoholism, the NADH levels are elevated. Why does this take place? because degeneration of alcohol to acetic acid (the final state) is via transferring electrons from ETOH to aldehyde DEHYDROGENASE and alcohol DEHYDROGENASE to NAD- the elevation to NADH forces Continue reading >>

Metabolic Acidosis

Metabolic Acidosis

Patient professional reference Professional Reference articles are written by UK doctors and are based on research evidence, UK and European Guidelines. They are designed for health professionals to use. You may find one of our health articles more useful. See also separate Lactic Acidosis and Arterial Blood Gases - Indications and Interpretations articles. Description Metabolic acidosis is defined as an arterial blood pH <7.35 with plasma bicarbonate <22 mmol/L. Respiratory compensation occurs normally immediately, unless there is respiratory pathology. Pure metabolic acidosis is a term used to describe when there is not another primary acid-base derangement - ie there is not a mixed acid-base disorder. Compensation may be partial (very early in time course, limited by other acid-base derangements, or the acidosis exceeds the maximum compensation possible) or full. The Winter formula can be helpful here - the formula allows calculation of the expected compensating pCO2: If the measured pCO2 is >expected pCO2 then additional respiratory acidosis may also be present. It is important to remember that metabolic acidosis is not a diagnosis; rather, it is a metabolic derangement that indicates underlying disease(s) as a cause. Determination of the underlying cause is the key to correcting the acidosis and administering appropriate therapy[1]. Epidemiology It is relatively common, particularly among acutely unwell/critical care patients. There are no reliable figures for its overall incidence or prevalence in the population at large. Causes of metabolic acidosis There are many causes. They can be classified according to their pathophysiological origin, as below. The table is not exhaustive but lists those that are most common or clinically important to detect. Increased acid Continue reading >>

Metabolic Abnormalities In Alcoholic Patients: Focus On Acid Base Andelectrolyte Disorders

Metabolic Abnormalities In Alcoholic Patients: Focus On Acid Base Andelectrolyte Disorders

E-mail: [emailprotected] , [emailprotected] Received Date: December 20, 2014; Accepted Date: January 24, 2015; Published Date: January 27, 2015 Citation: Moses Elisaf MD, Rigas Kalaitzidis MD (2015) Metabolic Abnormalities in Alcoholic Patients: Focus on Acid Base and Electrolyte Disorders. J Alcohol Drug Depend 3:185. doi:10.4172/2329-6488.1000185 Copyright: 2015 Moses Elisaf MD, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. Alcoholic patients commonly develop a variety of acid-base and electrolyte disturbances. The aim of this review is to describe the most commonly encountered abnormalities and their significant role in the patients morbidity and mortality. Physicians should be aware of these clinically important disturbances caused by alcohol abuse and their underlying pathophysiological mechanisms involved for their appropriate management. Alcoholic Keto Acidosis (AKA) is a medical emergency is more common than previously thought and is characterized by an increased anion gap metabolic acidosis . However, in AKA mixed acid-base disorders are commonly observed. Alcoholic patients also exhibit severe electrolyte derangements. Multifactorial origin hypomagnesaemia is the most common electrolyte abnormality observed. Hypocalcaemia is also a frequent electrolyte disturbance and is commonly associated with hypomagnesaemia. Hypokalemia is occasionally encountered in these patients, while multifactorial origin hypophosphatemia is the second common electrolyte abnormality found. Hyponatremia is also a common electrolyte derangement and may occur subsequent to several mechanisms m Continue reading >>

Treatment Of Alcoholic Acidosisthe Role Of Dextrose And Phosphorus

Treatment Of Alcoholic Acidosisthe Role Of Dextrose And Phosphorus

We have made serial metabolic observations in 18 acute episodes of alcoholic ketoacidosis in ten patients. Data from patients treated with only saline initially were compared to data from patients who received modest amounts of intravenous dextrose (7.0 to 7.5 gm/hr). More rapid improvement in the acidotic state was seen in the latter group (P <.001). The quicker decline in absolute levels and ratio of -hydroxybutyrate to acetoacetate when glucose was given suggests that this treatment induced mitochondrial oxidation of the reduced form of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH). Since phosphorus is a critical cofactor necessary for NADH oxidation and the glucose-induced correction of the acidosis was associated with a rapid decline in serum phosphorus from an initial mean of 6.79 .82 mg/100 ml SEM to 0.96 0.12 mg/100 ml in 24 hours, we propose that glucose enhanced the mitochondrial capacity to oxidize NADH by increasing hepatocyte phosphorus. This effect combined with decline in free fatty acid levels results in reversal of acidosis. Our data suggest that glucose provides the safest, most effective treatment for this disorder; addition of either insulin or bicarbonate is usually unnecessary. Continue reading >>

Lactic Acidosis

Lactic Acidosis

Lactic acidosis is a medical condition characterized by the buildup of lactate (especially L-lactate) in the body, which results in an excessively low pH in the bloodstream. It is a form of metabolic acidosis, in which excessive acid accumulates due to a problem with the body's metabolism of lactic acid. Lactic acidosis is typically the result of an underlying acute or chronic medical condition, medication, or poisoning. The symptoms are generally attributable to these underlying causes, but may include nausea, vomiting, rapid deep breathing, and generalised weakness. The diagnosis is made on biochemical analysis of blood (often initially on arterial blood gas samples), and once confirmed, generally prompts an investigation to establish the underlying cause to treat the acidosis. In some situations, hemofiltration (purification of the blood) is temporarily required. In rare chronic forms of lactic acidosis caused by mitochondrial disease, a specific diet or dichloroacetate may be used. The prognosis of lactic acidosis depends largely on the underlying cause; in some situations (such as severe infections), it indicates an increased risk of death. Classification[edit] The Cohen-Woods classification categorizes causes of lactic acidosis as:[1] Type A: Decreased tissue oxygenation (e.g., from decreased blood flow) Type B B1: Underlying diseases (sometimes causing type A) B2: Medication or intoxication B3: Inborn error of metabolism Signs and symptoms[edit] Lactic acidosis is commonly found in people who are unwell, such as those with severe heart and/or lung disease, a severe infection with sepsis, the systemic inflammatory response syndrome due to another cause, severe physical trauma, or severe depletion of body fluids.[2] Symptoms in humans include all those of typical m Continue reading >>

Severe Metabolic Acidosis In The Alcoholic: Differential Diagnosis And Management

Severe Metabolic Acidosis In The Alcoholic: Differential Diagnosis And Management

1 A chronic alcoholic with severe metabolic acidosis presents a difficult diagnostic problem. The most common cause is alcoholic ketoacidosis, a syndrome with a typical history but often misleading laboratory findings. This paper will focus on this important and probably underdiagnosed syndrome. 2 The disorder occurs in alcoholics who have had a heavy drinking-bout culminating in severe vomiting, with resulting dehydration, starvation, and then a β- hydroxybutyrate dominated ketoacidosis. 3 Awareness of this syndrome, thorough history-taking, physical examination and routine laboratory analyses will usually lead to a correct diagnosis. 4 The treatment is simply replacement of fluid, glucose, electrolytes and thiamine. Insulin or alkali should be avoided. 5 The most important differential diagnoses are diabetic ketoacidosis, lactic acidosis and salicylate, methanol or ethylene glycol poisoning, conditions which require quite different treatment. 6 The diagnostic management of unclear cases should always include toxicological tests, urine microscopy for calcium oxalate crystals and calculation of the serum anion and osmolal gaps. 7 It is suggested here, however, that the value of the osmolal gap should be considered against a higher reference limit than has previously been recom mended. An osmolal gap above 25 mosm/kg, in a patient with an increased anion gap acidosis, is a strong indicator of methanol or ethylene glycol intoxication. Continue reading >>

Alcoholic Ketoacidosis

Alcoholic Ketoacidosis

Alcoholic ketoacidosis is a metabolic complication of alcohol use and starvation characterized by hyperketonemia and anion gap metabolic acidosis without significant hyperglycemia. Alcoholic ketoacidosis causes nausea, vomiting, and abdominal pain. Diagnosis is by history and findings of ketoacidosis without hyperglycemia. Treatment is IV saline solution and dextrose infusion. Alcoholic ketoacidosis is attributed to the combined effects of alcohol and starvation on glucose metabolism. Alcohol diminishes hepatic gluconeogenesis and leads to decreased insulin secretion, increased lipolysis, impaired fatty acid oxidation, and subsequent ketogenesis, causing an elevated anion gap metabolic acidosis. Counter-regulatory hormones are increased and may further inhibit insulin secretion. Plasma glucose levels are usually low or normal, but mild hyperglycemia sometimes occurs. Diagnosis requires a high index of suspicion; similar symptoms in an alcoholic patient may result from acute pancreatitis, methanol or ethylene glycol poisoning, or diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA). In patients suspected of having alcoholic ketoacidosis, serum electrolytes (including magnesium), BUN and creatinine, glucose, ketones, amylase, lipase, and plasma osmolality should be measured. Urine should be tested for ketones. Patients who appear significantly ill and those with positive ketones should have arterial blood gas and serum lactate measurement. The absence of hyperglycemia makes DKA improbable. Those with mild hyperglycemia may have underlying diabetes mellitus, which may be recognized by elevated levels of glycosylated Hb (HbA1c). Typical laboratory findings include a high anion gap metabolic acidosis, ketonemia, and low levels of potassium, magnesium, and phosphorus. Detection of acidosis may be com Continue reading >>

Can You Drink Alcohol While Taking Metformin?

Can You Drink Alcohol While Taking Metformin?

Metformin is a medication that helps manage type 2 diabetes and occasionally prediabetes. In general, drinking alcohol while taking metformin is not helpful and not recommended by doctors. The side effects of metformin can be life-threatening with excessive alcohol consumption. Metformin and alcohol both put stress on the liver, so intensifying the harmful effects and increasing the risk of liver complications. How does metformin and alcohol affect the body? Metformin is a popular, effective, and inexpensive management medication, prescribed for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. In 2014, some 14.4 million people in the United States were prescribed metformin. Metformin is also being used more and more frequently in prediabetes cases. Metformin use in overweight people with type 1 diabetes may also reduce insulin requirements and increase metabolic control. The drug works by improving insulin sensitivity, promoting the uptake of glucose into tissues and lowering sugar levels in the bloodstream. By increasing how effectively the existing glucose is used, metformin reduces the amount of glucose the liver produces and the intestines absorb. Alcohol also affects blood sugars significantly. Alcohol digestion puts stress on the liver, an organ dedicated to the removal of poisons from the body. When the liver is forced to process high amounts of alcohol, it becomes overworked and releases less glucose. Long-term alcohol use can also make cells less sensitive to insulin. This means that less glucose is absorbed from the blood and levels in the bloodstream increase. Over time, alcohol consumption damages the liver, especially when it is consumed in excess. It reduces the liver's ability to produce and regulate glucose. Conditions like alcoholic hepatitis and cirrhosis of the live Continue reading >>

Lactic Acidosis: What You Need To Know

Lactic Acidosis: What You Need To Know

Lactic acidosis is a form of metabolic acidosis that begins in the kidneys. People with lactic acidosis have kidneys that are unable to remove excess acid from their body. If lactic acid builds up in the body more quickly than it can be removed, acidity levels in bodily fluids — such as blood — spike. This buildup of acid causes an imbalance in the body’s pH level, which should always be slightly alkaline instead of acidic. There are a few different types of acidosis. Lactic acid buildup occurs when there’s not enough oxygen in the muscles to break down glucose and glycogen. This is called anaerobic metabolism. There are two types of lactic acid: L-lactate and D-lactate. Most forms of lactic acidosis are caused by too much L-lactate. Lactic acidosis has many causes and can often be treated. But if left untreated, it may be life-threatening. The symptoms of lactic acidosis are typical of many health issues. If you experience any of these symptoms, you should contact your doctor immediately. Your doctor can help determine the root cause. Several symptoms of lactic acidosis represent a medical emergency: fruity-smelling breath (a possible indication of a serious complication of diabetes, called ketoacidosis) confusion jaundice (yellowing of the skin or the whites of the eyes) trouble breathing or shallow, rapid breathing If you know or suspect that you have lactic acidosis and have any of these symptoms, call 911 or go to an emergency room right away. Other lactic acidosis symptoms include: exhaustion or extreme fatigue muscle cramps or pain body weakness overall feelings of physical discomfort abdominal pain or discomfort diarrhea decrease in appetite headache rapid heart rate Lactic acidosis has a wide range of underlying causes, including carbon monoxide poisoni Continue reading >>

Alcoholic Ketoacidosis

Alcoholic Ketoacidosis

Increased production of ketone bodies due to: Dehydration (nausea/vomiting, ADH inhibition) leads to increased stress hormone production leading to ketone formation Depleted glycogen stores in the liver (malnutrition/decrease carbohydrate intake) Elevated ratio of NADH/NAD due to ethanol metabolism Increased free fatty acid production Elevated NADH/NAD ratio leads to the predominate production of β–hydroxybutyrate (BHB) over acetoacetate (AcAc) Dehydration Fever absent unless there is an underlying infection Tachycardia (common) due to: Dehydration with associated orthostatic changes Concurrent alcohol withdrawal Tachypnea: Common Deep, rapid, Kussmaul respirations frequently present Nausea and vomiting Abdominal pain (nausea, vomiting, and abdominal pain are the most common symptoms): Usually diffuse with nonspecific tenderness Epigastric pain common Rebound tenderness, abdominal distension, hypoactive bowel sounds uncommon Mandates a search for an alternative, coexistent illness Decreased urinary output from hypovolemia Mental status: Minimally altered as a result of hypovolemia and possibly intoxication Altered mental status mandates a search for other associated conditions such as: Head injury, cerebrovascular accident (CVA), or intracranial hemorrhage Hypoglycemia Alcohol withdrawal Encephalopathy Toxins Visual disturbances: Reports of isolated visual disturbances with AKA common History Chronic alcohol use: Recent binge Abrupt cessation Physical Exam Findings of dehydration most common May have ketotic odor Kussmaul respirations Palmar erythema (alcoholism) Lab Acid–base disturbance: Increased anion gap metabolic acidosis hallmark Mixed acid–base disturbance common: Respiratory alkalosis Metabolic alkalosis secondary to vomiting and dehydration Hyperchlorem Continue reading >>

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