Alcoholic Ketoacidosis Pathophysiology

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What is DIABETIC KETOACIDOSIS? What does DIABETIC KETOACIDOSIS mean? DIABETIC KETOACIDOSIS meaning - DIABETIC KETOACIDOSIS definition - DIABETIC KETOACIDOSIS explanation. Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/... license. SUBSCRIBE to our Google Earth flights channel - https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC6Uu... Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a potentially life-threatening complication of diabetes mellitus. Signs and symptoms may include vomiting, abdominal pain, deep gasping breathing, increased urination, weakness, confusion, and occasionally loss of consciousness. A person's breath may develop a specific smell. Onset of symptoms is usually rapid. In some cases people may not realize they previously had diabetes. DKA happens most often in those with type 1 diabetes, but can also occur in those with other types of diabetes under certain circumstances. Triggers may include infection, not taking insulin correctly, stroke, and certain medications such as steroids. DKA results from a shortage of insulin; in response the body switches to burning fatty acids which produces acidic ketone bodies. DKA is typically diagnosed when testing finds high b

Alcoholic Ketoacidosis

Alcoholic ketoacidosis is characterized by an anion gap acidosis due to high levels of ketoacids. It occurs exclusively in relation to alcohol abuse but not just in chronic alcoholics. It has been reported in first-time drinkers whose food intake is minimal. The true incidence is unknown, and the frequency is probably directly related to the incidence of alcoholism in a population. Several mechanisms have been postulated. In one explanation, ketosis results from increased mobilization of free fatty acids from adipose tissue coupled with simultaneous enhancement of the liver's capacity to convert these substrates into acetoacetate and $-hydroxybutyrate. During the metabolism of alcohol in the liver the rate of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) reduction exceeds the rate of mitochondrial NADH oxidation, causing a decrease in available NAD. This state persists for a few days in spite of no further alcohol consumption. An NAD-dependent step in the oxidation of fatty acids in the mitochondria of the hepatocyte is displaced in favor of ketone body formation. During alcoholic ketoacidosis insulin levels are low, whereas levels of cortisol, growth hormone, glucagon, and epinephrine Continue reading >>

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  1. niah

    So I started a high protein low carb lifestyle exactly 7 days ago. I have cut out all fruit, starches, dairy etc. I will reintroduce fruit at the 14 day mark. Anyway, I feel like a bottomless pit the last two days. I am not craving carbs. It's peanut butters or protein pancakes or meat etc. I am having less of a three meal a day and more eating eating eating. Like I had lunch at 11:25 ish came home ( now 3 o clock ) had beef with tahini and devoured that and three protein pancakes. lol. I feel like I can't get enough...... Am I in ketosis now or something?

  2. j3nn

    Well, ketosis does mimic starvation so maybe your body is freaking out and thinks you're trying to kill it? Lol

  3. Drumroll

    It thinks you're trying to KILL it? Oh come on j3nn, you know better.
    I'm not sure if the OP is in ketosis just yet though, as one of the primary symptoms of ketosis is a blunting of the hunger signals. Also seems like he/she might be eating too much protein to get into ketosis. If that's a goal, some dialing back on protein might be necessary.
    Also, OP, don't let people scare you by telling you ketosis is bad, or stressful, or dangerous or that low-carb is somehow "damaging" to your body. It's a perfectly natural state to be in if that is your goal. Some people do better when in ketosis than others do, it doesn't work for everyone, but that is no reason not to try it out for yourself! Don't let the fearmongerers scare you away from giving it a try if you want to. A key component of the Primal Blueprint is experimenting for yourself and finding out where you feel the best/most healthy.

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What is KETOACIDOSIS? What does KETOACIDOSIS mean? KETOACIDOSIS meaning - KETOACIDOSIS definition - KETOACIDOSIS explanation. Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/... license. SUBSCRIBE to our Google Earth flights channel - https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC6Uu... Ketoacidosis is a metabolic state associated with high concentrations of ketone bodies, formed by the breakdown of fatty acids and the deamination of amino acids. The two common ketones produced in humans are acetoacetic acid and ß-hydroxybutyrate. Ketoacidosis is a pathological metabolic state marked by extreme and uncontrolled ketosis. In ketoacidosis, the body fails to adequately regulate ketone production causing such a severe accumulation of keto acids that the pH of the blood is substantially decreased. In extreme cases ketoacidosis can be fatal. Ketoacidosis is most common in untreated type 1 diabetes mellitus, when the liver breaks down fat and proteins in response to a perceived need for respiratory substrate. Prolonged alcoholism may lead to alcoholic ketoacidosis. Ketoacidosis can be smelled on a person's breath. This is due to acetone, a direct by-product of the sp

Alcoholic Ketoacidosis

Alcoholic ketoacidosis is a metabolic complication of alcohol use and starvation characterized by hyperketonemia and anion gap metabolic acidosis without significant hyperglycemia. Alcoholic ketoacidosis causes nausea, vomiting, and abdominal pain. Diagnosis is by history and findings of ketoacidosis without hyperglycemia. Treatment is IV saline solution and dextrose infusion. Alcoholic ketoacidosis is attributed to the combined effects of alcohol and starvation on glucose metabolism. Alcohol diminishes hepatic gluconeogenesis and leads to decreased insulin secretion, increased lipolysis, impaired fatty acid oxidation, and subsequent ketogenesis, causing an elevated anion gap metabolic acidosis. Counter-regulatory hormones are increased and may further inhibit insulin secretion. Plasma glucose levels are usually low or normal, but mild hyperglycemia sometimes occurs. Diagnosis requires a high index of suspicion; similar symptoms in an alcoholic patient may result from acute pancreatitis, methanol or ethylene glycol poisoning, or diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA). In patients suspected of having alcoholic ketoacidosis, serum electrolytes (including magnesium), BUN and creatinine, glucose, Continue reading >>

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  1. SadBrontosaurus

    So a lot of friends and family have been asking me what I've been doing to lose so much weight. Finally I typed this out and posted it on my Facebook. I'd originally meant for it to be like 3 paragraphs outlining what I did, but it turned itself into something much longer so I figured I'd share it on here too.
    I can only stress so much that this just happened to work for me. I tell everyone that asks me that they shouldn't expect to copy my every habit and get the same results. You have to tweak your diet to fit your lifestyle, and make it as easy, and likely, as possible for you to keep with it.
    Edit: Had a lot of people asking about my exercise regimen. Also some concerns that people will see the exercise portion and assume that was the basis for my loss. So I am editing this post and putting this right here:

    1: I can't go to the gym right now because of my back injury, but ideally I was spending about 3 hours per day, 3-5 days a week. 1 hour of cardio. I prefer getting on the treadmill, setting the incline as high as it goes, and then low speed. Brisk walk to mellow jog. Something I can maintain for the full hour. Over the three months I was at the gym I steadily increased it (both the incline and speed). Then about an hour and a half of weight training. Legs and back one day, arms another day, chest another day, shoulders and abs the fourth day. Then about a half hour cardio cool-down. On gym days my water consumption was 2-3 gallons.

    2: I didn't start the exercising until probably a month into my dieting. I lost 30 pounds that first month. Keto can and does work -WITHOUT EXERCISE!- In the exact same breath, I remind you that -ANY DIET YOU DO, YOU SHOULD DO WITH EXERCISE!- The exercise helps you maintain that lean muscle that your body would otherwise eat away.
    End edit
    From the day I decided to start changing my life, to today.
    Alright. I started a new diet, Ketosis, 5 months ago. I've seen AMAZING results and I've had a lot of people asking me questions about it. I'm going to try to address some of the basic questions right here, just by telling you what I've done. If you have ANY questions, or want to know if Ketosis would work for you, do NOT hesitate to ask me! You can leave a comment, or send me a private message, or whatever you're comfortable with.
    And don't forget to check out http://www.reddit.com/r/keto It really did change my life and make all of this possible for me.

    The first thing, and most important thing, for me is counting carbs. I stay below 20g of carbs per day. It's suggested that you do NET carbs (total carbs minus carbs from fiber), but I don't do that. I stick with total carbs. That's just my choice; I did it because it makes it easier for me to do the counting.

    Second of all, I installed the MyFitnessPal app on my phone. It's available for Android and Apple, and Windows Phones I believe, as well as being available online. I set it up with a goal of losing 2 pounds per week, and it updates itself every 10 pounds telling me how many calories I can/should consume. Input EVERYTHING you consume into the app! It has hundreds of thousands of options. If you ate 12 Teddy Graham Crackers, you can put that into the calculator. If you did 1.3 miles on a treadmill at 2.5mph, you can put that into the calculator. Use it.

    Third - I made myself accountable by telling a lot of people exactly what I was doing. Subconsciously, or even consciously, when you have people that know what you are going through you are going to try harder. You don't want to fail in front of them. I made a post online and have had the support of, literally, thousands of Internet strangers keeping me going, thanks to Reddit.com.

    Fourth - Exercise. I was exercising 3-5 times a week. I can't now because of my back, and I've seen a MAJOR change in weight loss since I stopped working out. It's a snail's pace, now. But, and this is important, the working out is NOT JUST TO HELP YOU LOSE WEIGHT! When you are doing Ketosis your body is going to burn through your extra fat deposits. But it will also burn through some lean muscle. You need to keep yourself fit while you're doing this. I'm not saying you have to become a gym-rat, but if you can do some jumping jacks, sit-ups, and run in place for twenty minutes you'll thank yourself for it.

    Fifth - DO. NOT. CHEAT. I do not care how many experts you've had telling you that the only way to stick with a diet is to allow yourself a cheat day. In five months I have not had a cheat day. Ketosis is a chemical reaction. Your body physically changes from burning carbs for energy into burning fat for energy. Your body, like everything in nature, will take the path of least resistance. Carbs (and alcohol, I'll get to that) are the path of least resistance. If you take in too many carbs your body will go back to burning them for energy and you'll have to go through the process of getting your body back into ketosis again. Your 'need' for carbs is an ADDICTION! Physical symptoms will be gone in a couple weeks. Put up with the discomfort, it is SO worth it.
    Sixth - HYDRATE. I've read articles that say our need for water is over-exaggerated. I've read articles that say we need to drink a lot MORE water. I no longer pay attention to any of them. The following is what I have decided, for myself. For the first 3+ months I literally tracked EVERYTHING that I ate and weighed myself EVERY morning. No days skipped. And I saw, without exception, is that the days I drank more water, I lost more weight. When I was working out I would drink up to, or over, 3 gallons of water daily. We've all heard that you should drink '8 glasses of water per day.' Those eight glasses are 2/3 of one gallon. 2.5 liters. I was drinking over 11 liters. I'll repeat that again if you need me to. Anytime I wanted a snack, I would drink a bottle or glass of water first, then wait 10 minutes. If I was still hungry I'd eat a (keto-friendly) snack. I'd drink a glass of water before meals. I'd drink a glass during meals. I'd drink a glass every time I went to the bathroom. And, of course, whenever I was thirsty I'd drink. I had a bottle or glass of water in front of my probably 85% of the day. Remember, I'm not pressing one scientific study or claim over another one. I'm telling you that on days when I was better hydrated (whether I worked out or not) I tended to lose more weight.

    * 6.5 - I had to buy bottled water. I know how it's a waste of money and everything, but spending $3 for 24 bottles made me a LOT more likely to drink water. It really did. I'd grab three bottles and take them to the couch with me. I'd take two bottles into the car with me. I would ALWAYS have a bottle of water, and a back-up, at all times. And on the days/weeks I had bottled water I was drinking more, and losing more weight, than on the days when I would just fill up a glass with water.

    Seventh - Alcohol. Alright guys, you'll hate this part, but remember this was just my preference for my dieting. I have not had alcohol since my last birthday. February 24th I got drunk, and nothing since then. Why? How much of biology do you remember? Alcohols, sugars, starches, they're all the same thing. They are all carbs. Your body handles them differently, but they're still, for this purpose, the same thing. When you consume alcohol your body stops processing everything else until the alcohol is out of your system. This could take several days. What you will see, if you weigh yourself daily, is a halt in your weight loss, and potentially a gain. Now, from my research (NOT from my experience, as, like I said, I didn't drink any alcohol) this won't take you out of ketosis. As soon as that alcohol is out of your system your body will continue to burn fat instead of carbs. I don't feel like taking the risk, though.

    Eighth - Track yourself. Just like number 5, cheat days, I went against what the 'professionals' said. I weighed myself EVERY DAY. And, believe it or not, 90% of the time I actually saw loss. I didn't see it climb a little and drop a little. This was my graph after two and a half months: http://i.imgur.com/MEOnEHNh.png - Like I said, I tracked it EVERY day. Any way, the point for this was so I could see what was helping and what wasn't. It came in really handy with the water: I saw that drinking water led to more weight loss, so I continued my water intake. Eating late at night lowered my weight loss, so I stopped eating after 8pm. Etc. If you track yourself daily you can make educated guesses (it's still a guess, but at least you have a basis for it) about what is working and what isn't.

    Ninth - Want it. If you want it, you'll do it. It all comes down to you.
    I hope that answers most of the questions anyone could have. Remember, this isn't me telling any of you how to lose weight. It's me telling you how I did it. It worked for me, but you aren't me. This might not work for you. Don't get discouraged. It's all about finding something that YOU can stick with.

  2. unrequieted

    Very inspiring. I especially like the chart idea. I was in the habit of weighing myself, then I'd see dramatic changes and panic. I'm going to try again. Got five months to make a big change. Maybe this is the motivator I needed. Thank you!

  3. SadBrontosaurus

    I lost 90 pounds in five months, and the last month of that has only been about ten pounds (due to back problems). Anything is possible, just keep at it! Good luck!
    Re: the chart - MyFitnessPal does that for you automatically. Check it out!

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Alcoholic Ketoacidosis

• The characteristic example is an alcoholic person who abruptly abstains and has signs and symptoms such as vomiting, abdominal pain, malnutrition, and an anion gap metabolic acidosis, but no measurable alcohol levels. • A ratio of β-hydroxybutyrate to acetoacetate in excess of 10 : 1 is pathognomonic for alcoholic ketoacidosis, whereas a 3 : 1 ratio is more common in diabetic ketoacidosis. • Treatment emphasizes hydration with dextrose-containing solutions and thiamine; resolution of the acidosis usually occurs within 6 to 12 hours. The term alcoholic acidosis describes a syndrome of four types of metabolic acidosis that occur in alcoholics and vary in severity: ketoacidosis, lactic acidosis, acetic acidosis, and loss of bicarbonate in urine. AKA arises from a complicated interplay of the metabolic effects of alcohol in fasted, dehydrated alcoholics who abruptly stop their intake of ethanol.4 β-Hydroxybutyrate is the predominant ketoacid.5 Metabolism of ethanol to acetaldehyde is catalyzed by alcohol dehydrogenase in the liver and results in accumulation of the reduced form of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) relative to the oxidized form of nicotinamide adenine d Continue reading >>

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  1. PPumpItUp

    I have been reading conflicting information on blogs and threads. Some people say that too much protein will kick you out of ketosis, others say that you need excess protein. I lift weights so I try to take 1g for each pound of lean body mass so that around 220g of protein per day. I think I should be safe with this no matter which theory you go by, correct?

  2. PPumpItUp

    I guess the protein is supposed to convert to glucose but even that has controversies around it. Some people say it does happen and others say it does not.

  3. MizTenaciousT

    I've heard different things about this too. I'm hoping some of the more experienced ketoers will chime in. From what I understand, as long as you're staying close to the traditional 5-20-75 CPF ratio, with carbs under 50g, you should be good.

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