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Alcoholic Ketoacidosis Lab Results

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What is DIABETIC KETOACIDOSIS? What does DIABETIC KETOACIDOSIS mean? DIABETIC KETOACIDOSIS meaning - DIABETIC KETOACIDOSIS definition - DIABETIC KETOACIDOSIS explanation. Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/... license. SUBSCRIBE to our Google Earth flights channel - https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC6Uu... Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a potentially life-threatening complication of diabetes mellitus. Signs and symptoms may include vomiting, abdominal pain, deep gasping breathing, increased urination, weakness, confusion, and occasionally loss of consciousness. A person's breath may develop a specific smell. Onset of symptoms is usually rapid. In some cases people may not realize they previously had diabetes. DKA happens most often in those with type 1 diabetes, but can also occur in those with other types of diabetes under certain circumstances. Triggers may include infection, not taking insulin correctly, stroke, and certain medications such as steroids. DKA results from a shortage of insulin; in response the body switches to burning fatty acids which produces acidic ketone bodies. DKA is typically diagnosed when testing finds high blood sugar, low blood pH, and ketoacids in either the blood or urine. The primary treatment of DKA is with intravenous fluids and insulin. Depending on the severity, insulin may be given intravenously or by injection under the skin. Usually potassium is also needed to prevent the development of low blood potassium. Throughout treatment blood sugar and potassium levels should be regularly checked. Antibiotics may be required in those with an underlying infection. In those with severely low blood pH, sodium bicarbonate may be given; however, its use is of unclear benefit and typically not recommended. Rates of DKA vary around the world. About 4% of people with type 1 diabetes in United Kingdom develop DKA a year, while in Malaysia the condition affects about 25% a year. DKA was first described in 1886 and, until the introduction of insulin therapy in the 1920s, it was almost universally fatal. The risk of death with adequate and timely treatment is currently around 1–4%. Up to 1% of children with DKA develop a complication known as cerebral edema. The symptoms of an episode of diabetic ketoacidosis usually evolve over a period of about 24 hours. Predominant symptoms are nausea and vomiting, pronounced thirst, excessive urine production and abdominal pain that may be severe. Those who measure their glucose levels themselves may notice hyperglycemia (high blood sugar levels). In severe DKA, breathing becomes labored and of a deep, gasping character (a state referred to as "Kussmaul respiration"). The abdomen may be tender to the point that an acute abdomen may be suspected, such as acute pancreatitis, appendicitis or gastrointestinal perforation. Coffee ground vomiting (vomiting of altered blood) occurs in a minority of people; this tends to originate from erosion of the esophagus. In severe DKA, there may be confusion, lethargy, stupor or even coma (a marked decrease in the level of consciousness). On physical examination there is usually clinical evidence of dehydration, such as a dry mouth and decreased skin turgor. If the dehydration is profound enough to cause a decrease in the circulating blood volume, tachycardia (a fast heart rate) and low blood pressure may be observed. Often, a "ketotic" odor is present, which is often described as "fruity", often compared to the smell of pear drops whose scent is a ketone. If Kussmaul respiration is present, this is reflected in an increased respiratory rate.....

Alcoholic Ketoacidosis Workup

Approach Considerations Diagnosis of alcoholic ketoacidosis (AKA) requires arterial blood gas (ABG) measurement and serum chemistry assays. Usual laboratory findings include the following [19] : Continue reading >>

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Popular Questions

  1. pencala

    > When do you start to lose weight only after you are in ketosis?

    Hi,
    It took me 5 days to get into ketosis (waaaay longer than I anticipated). I'm assuming I had a lot of built up carbs in my system before I started on my diet. I haven't lost any weight. In fact, I've gained 3 lbs! I'm wondering if the weight will start to come off now that I'm in ketosis. Is that when it begins? Also, I am really starving without the carbs, so I'm eating a lot more than I usually would. Can I be gaining weight from this diet??
    Thanks!

  2. girlbug2

    Hi,
    It took me 5 days to get into ketosis (waaaay longer than I anticipated). I'm assuming I had a lot of built up carbs in my system before I started on my diet. I haven't lost any weight. In fact, I've gained 3 lbs! I'm wondering if the weight will start to come off now that I'm in ketosis. Is that when it begins? Also, I am really starving without the carbs, so I'm eating a lot more than I usually would. Can I be gaining weight from this diet??
    Thanks!
    Don't Panic!!
    It entirely depends not only on how much you are eating, but what type of food whether or not you could gain weight.
    I notice that anything high in salt makes me retain water. Cheese, cured meats, salted pork rinds, pickles. These are Atkins friendly and will not hinder ketosis per se, but may cause you to retain water. Think back over the last 5 days and remember if you have eaten these foods or anything else, such as broth which may be high in salt.( Read labels for hidden salt/sodium.)If so, you may be losing fat while retaining water and it could register on the scale as a gain. When you stop eating the hidden salt, it may be a day or two before you experience your body flushing all that extra water quickly and then finally your scale will show a loss.
    Another common error is relying a lot on artificially sweetened products, which a lot of LCers have noticed can stall their weight loss. Diet soda is notorious, so are Atkins bars. Not everybody has a problem with these things, but you may find out that you do.
    Those are just the possibilities that come to my mind, I'm sure other seasoned LCers can think of other things. Don't ditch the diet, you've barely started and there are bound to be setbacks along the way.
    Meanwhile, if you are extra hungry, perhaps you could post an example of a day or two of your menu so some of the more sophisticated LCers can help you spot trouble?
    Good luck!

  3. jcass

    Low carb diets will not cause you to lose weight unless you are overweight. Do you consider yourself overweight? Nevertheless they will make you much healthier.

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Chapter 221. Alcoholic Ketoacidosis

Woods WA, Perina DG. Woods W.A., Perina D.G. Woods, William A., and Debra G. Perina.Chapter 221. Alcoholic Ketoacidosis. In: Tintinalli JE, Stapczynski J, Ma O, Cline DM, Cydulka RK, Meckler GD, T. Tintinalli J.E., Stapczynski J, Ma O, Cline D.M., Cydulka R.K., Meckler G.D., T Eds. Judith E. Tintinalli, et al.eds. Tintinalli's Emergency Medicine: A Comprehensive Study Guide, 7e New York, NY: McGraw-Hill; 2011. Accessed March 27, 2018. Woods WA, Perina DG. Woods W.A., Perina D.G. Woods, William A., and Debra G. Perina.. "Chapter 221. Alcoholic Ketoacidosis." Tintinalli's Emergency Medicine: A Comprehensive Study Guide, 7e Tintinalli JE, Stapczynski J, Ma O, Cline DM, Cydulka RK, Meckler GD, T. Tintinalli J.E., Stapczynski J, Ma O, Cline D.M., Cydulka R.K., Meckler G.D., T Eds. Judith E. Tintinalli, et al. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill, 2011, Alcoholic ketoacidosis is a wide anion gap metabolic acidosis most often associated with acute cessation of alcohol consumption after chronic alcohol abuse and is typically associated with nausea, vomiting, and vague GI complaints. 1 Alcohol metabolism combined with little or no glycogen reserves results in elevated ketoacid levels. Although alcoho Continue reading >>

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Popular Questions

  1. puppydfh

    How long does it take to get kicked out of ketosis?

    Does anyone know how long does it take to get out of ketosis if one started eating regular carbs? Would it take a few hours only, a full day, 2 days, etc....???? Just curious because what if someone unknowingly ate carby stuff at say over 50 grams of carbs and they had been in ketosis would that knock them out right away or is there a delayed reaction like the next day or what???

  2. smorgan

    Quote:

    Originally Posted by puppy
    Does anyone know how long does it take to get out of ketosis if one started eating regular carbs? Would it take a few hours only, a full day, 2 days, etc....???? Just curious because what if someone unknowingly ate carby stuff at say over 50 grams of carbs and they had been in ketosis would that knock them out right away or is there a delayed reaction like the next day or what??? I'm not sure if anyone knows the answer to that or even if it is very constant from person to person. My somewhat educated guess and what I believe is my personal experience is two consecutive bad meals will almost surely do it and recovery will take at least three days.

  3. Mary

    I've actually done this before, and it usually took about as long as smorgan says, two meals or so. I have been in ketosis at breakfast, and then if my carbs were too high for lunch and dinner, I'd be out of it based on ketone readings by late at night, or the next morning.

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What is KETOACIDOSIS? What does KETOACIDOSIS mean? KETOACIDOSIS meaning - KETOACIDOSIS definition - KETOACIDOSIS explanation. Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/... license. SUBSCRIBE to our Google Earth flights channel - https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC6Uu... Ketoacidosis is a metabolic state associated with high concentrations of ketone bodies, formed by the breakdown of fatty acids and the deamination of amino acids. The two common ketones produced in humans are acetoacetic acid and ß-hydroxybutyrate. Ketoacidosis is a pathological metabolic state marked by extreme and uncontrolled ketosis. In ketoacidosis, the body fails to adequately regulate ketone production causing such a severe accumulation of keto acids that the pH of the blood is substantially decreased. In extreme cases ketoacidosis can be fatal. Ketoacidosis is most common in untreated type 1 diabetes mellitus, when the liver breaks down fat and proteins in response to a perceived need for respiratory substrate. Prolonged alcoholism may lead to alcoholic ketoacidosis. Ketoacidosis can be smelled on a person's breath. This is due to acetone, a direct by-product of the spontaneous decomposition of acetoacetic acid. It is often described as smelling like fruit or nail polish remover. Ketosis may also smell, but the odor is usually more subtle due to lower concentrations of acetone. Treatment consists most simply of correcting blood sugar and insulin levels, which will halt ketone production. If the severity of the case warrants more aggressive measures, intravenous sodium bicarbonate infusion can be given to raise blood pH back to an acceptable range. However, serious caution must be exercised with IV sodium bicarbonate to avoid the risk of equally life-threatening hypernatremia. Three common causes of ketoacidosis are alcohol, starvation, and diabetes, resulting in alcoholic ketoacidosis, starvation ketoacidosis, and diabetic ketoacidosis respectively. In diabetic ketoacidosis, a high concentration of ketone bodies is usually accompanied by insulin deficiency, hyperglycemia, and dehydration. Particularly in type 1 diabetics the lack of insulin in the bloodstream prevents glucose absorption, thereby inhibiting the production of oxaloacetate (a crucial molecule for processing Acetyl-CoA, the product of beta-oxidation of fatty acids, in the Krebs cycle) through reduced levels of pyruvate (a byproduct of glycolysis), and can cause unchecked ketone body production (through fatty acid metabolism) potentially leading to dangerous glucose and ketone levels in the blood. Hyperglycemia results in glucose overloading the kidneys and spilling into the urine (transport maximum for glucose is exceeded). Dehydration results following the osmotic movement of water into urine (Osmotic diuresis), exacerbating the acidosis. In alcoholic ketoacidosis, alcohol causes dehydration and blocks the first step of gluconeogenesis by depleting oxaloacetate. The body is unable to synthesize enough glucose to meet its needs, thus creating an energy crisis resulting in fatty acid metabolism, and ketone body formation.

Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a serious problem that can occur in people with diabetes if their body starts to run out of insulin. This causes harmful substances called ketones to build up in the body, which can be life-threatening if not spotted and treated quickly. DKA mainly affects people with type 1 diabetes, but can sometimes occur in people with type 2 diabetes. If you have diabetes, it's important to be aware of the risk and know what to do if DKA occurs. Symptoms of diabetic ketoacidosis Signs of DKA include: needing to pee more than usual being sick breath that smells fruity (like pear drop sweets or nail varnish) deep or fast breathing feeling very tired or sleepy passing out DKA can also cause high blood sugar (hyperglycaemia) and a high level of ketones in your blood or urine, which you can check for using home-testing kits. Symptoms usually develop over 24 hours, but can come on faster. Check your blood sugar and ketone levels Check your blood sugar level if you have symptoms of DKA. If your blood sugar is 11mmol/L or over and you have a blood or urine ketone testing kit, check your ketone level. If you do a blood ketone test: lower than 0.6mmol/L is a normal reading Continue reading >>

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Popular Questions

  1. RedhairedNurse

    Your nursing text should point out the difference. I would tell you, but I'd just have to look it up and my books are in storage. I could also google it, but something you can also do as well. Sorry.

  2. RedhairedNurse

    http://books.google.com/books?id=aLt...um=9&ct=result

  3. Ilithya

    In HHNS, blood sugar levels rise, and your body tries to get rid of the excess sugar by passing it into your urine, your body tries to compensate. This usually happens to type 2s
    In DKA there is little to no circulating insulin. DKA occurs mainly, but not exclusively, in Type 1 diabetes because Type 1 diabetes is characterized by a lack of insulin production in the pancreas. It is much less common in Type 2 diabetes because the latter is closely related to cell insensitivity to insulin, not -- at least initially -- to a shortage or absence of insulin. Some Type 2 diabetics have lost their own insulin production and must take external insulin; they have some susceptibility to DKA. You get acidosis in DKA because ketones lower the bloods pH.
    Does that help?

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