diabetestalk.net

Adaptive Glucose Sparing

The Game Of Glucose Cholesterol Code

The Game Of Glucose Cholesterol Code

When I started my journey of Insanely Tracking Everything lifestyle, I naturally took to using a glucose meter frequently. I would capture mornings when I wake up and evenings when going to bed. But I likewise tested meals regularly as well. Early on I happened to come across an article about the FDA insisting on tighter standards to be +/-15% for home-use meters. Wait what??? A 15% margin up or down is considered the new, tighter range? I got a taste of this myself a number of times when I had a reading that didnt seem quite right. So I tried doing retesting for at least two more times whenever that happened, like so: Okay, thats swell. But what if the one meter was off on its retests too? I decided to do some doubling up and got both an Accuchekand a Precision Xtra for some redundancy. Whenever the two were distant from each other, Id do a retest with both. Unfortunately, this didnt work all the time either, as you can see here: riiiiiight. So on the second test the gap actually widens. Sure, Id like to just expand the testing further, but this is already getting expensive as it is. Heres a loose collection of a few pictures from that time period where I was using both glucometers frequently. As you can see, the error range is pretty obvious given all of these were taken from the same site on my finger. As you can imagine, I tried not to put too much stock into it past that point but continued to be sure I took measurements in the morning and evening anyway with my one remaining glucometer the Precision Xtra. This week on Monday before my lab blood draw, I used CardioCheks glucose strip alongside the Precision Xtra and was stunned to see the highest discrepancyyet: Not only do I already have some studies provided by the PTS Diagnostics people on the higher accuracy o Continue reading >>

18.3 Regulation Of Body Processes

18.3 Regulation Of Body Processes

Regulation of the reproductive system is a process that requires the action of hormones from the pituitary gland, the adrenal cortex, and the gonads. During puberty in both males and females, the hypothalamus produces gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), which stimulates the production and release of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) from the anterior pituitary gland. These hormones regulate the gonads (testes in males and ovaries in females) and therefore are called gonadotropins . In both males and females, FSH stimulates gamete production and LH stimulates production of hormones by the gonads. An increase in gonad hormone levels inhibits GnRH production through a negative feedback loop. Regulation of the Male Reproductive System In males, FSH stimulates the maturation of sperm cells. FSH production is inhibited by the hormone inhibin, which is released by the testes. LH stimulates production of the sex hormones (androgens) by the interstitial cells of the testes and therefore is also called interstitial cell-stimulating hormone. The most widely known androgen in males is testosterone. Testosterone promotes the production of sperm and masculine characteristics. The adrenal cortex also produces small amounts of testosterone precursor, although the role of this additional hormone production is not fully understood. Professional baseball player Jason Giambi publically admitted to, and apologized for, his use of anabolic steroids supplied by a trainer. (credit: Bryce Edwards) Some athletes attempt to boost their performance by using artificial hormones that enhance muscle performance. Anabolic steroids, a form of the male sex hormone testosterone, are one of the most widely known performance-enhancing drugs. Steroids are used to help build Continue reading >>

Steve Phinney Low-carb Preserves Glycogen Better Than High Carb

Steve Phinney Low-carb Preserves Glycogen Better Than High Carb

I can ride continuously for three hours and go 60 miles without any hunger or food cravings or drop off in performance. And I ride as well in the last 20 miles coming home as I do going out. Steve Phinney, can you tell us who you are? Im a medical doctor and have my training in internal medicine. Early in my career developed an interest in nutrition and got a PhD in nutritional biochemistry. That was 30 odd years ago, and since then my primary interests have been in weight management, ie, obesity, exercise and the human economy of the various fats we either put in our mouths or make in our bodies. Youre a star in a Canadian documentary called My Big Fat Diet, because you helped a whole group change their eating habits to reduce insulin resistance and lose a lot of weight. youre the co-author of a book about the Atkins Diet thats been updated by you and two other clinician scientists. Partially correct. I had a bit part in My Big Fat Diet. The star is Dr. James Wortman, a Canadian physician. And yes, Im a coauthor of the updated, new Atkins book which came out last March. Youre also in the process of creating a new book thats more technical about high fat diets. Thats correct. Dr. Volek, whos one of the coauthors on the Atkins book felt, like me, that we needed to offer more information for people who are interested in the medical side of low-carb diets, with a more detailed explanation of the workings of the human body when carbohydrates are restricted. Its readable by both a health care professional and an interested, educated lay person. Im physically active. Though after high school, Ive not been involved in competition athletics. I stay between 25 and 50 grams of carbohydrate a day. I eat a moderate amount of protein. Its not a high-protein diet. I eat 2800 calorie Continue reading >>

Randle Cycle - Wikipedia

Randle Cycle - Wikipedia

The Randle cycle, also known as the glucose fatty-acid cycle, is a metabolic process involving the competition of glucose and fatty acids for substrates. [1] It is theorized to play a role in explaining type 2 diabetes and insulin resistance . [2] [3] It was named for Philip Randle , who described it in 1963. [4] The Randle cycle is a biochemical mechanism involving the competition between glucose and fatty acids for their oxidation and uptake in muscle and adipose tissue . The cycle controls fuel selection and adapts the substrate supply and demand in normal tissues. This cycle adds a nutrient-mediated fine tuning on top of the more coarse hormonal control on fuel metabolism. This adaptation to nutrient availability applies to the interaction between adipose tissue and muscle. Hormones that control adipose tissue lipolysis affect circulating concentrations of fatty acids, these in turn control the fuel selection in muscle. Mechanisms involved in the Randle Cycle include allosteric control, reversible phosphorylation and the expression of key enzymes. [5] The energy balance from meals composed of differing macronutrient composition is identical, but the glucose and fat balances that contribute to the overall energy balance change reciprocally with meal composition. [6] When fasting, the activation of lipolysis provides fatty acids as the preferred fuel source for respiration. In the liver -oxidation of fatty acids fulfills the local energy needs and may lead to ketogenesis (creating ketone bodies out of fatty acids.) The ketone bodies are then used to meet the demands of tissues other than the liver. The inhibition of glucose oxidation causes fatty acids and ketone bodies to contribute to a glucose-sparing effect, which is an essential survival mechanism for the brain Continue reading >>

5 Reasons For High Fasting Blood Glucose Other Than Low Carb Or Keto

5 Reasons For High Fasting Blood Glucose Other Than Low Carb Or Keto

Many people are probably wondering why is their fasting blood sugar higher on low carb. As a matter of fact, dozens of paleo and ketogenic forums have discussions on this topic. Some of the information with unsubstantiated claims is that low-carb diet might trigger diabetes. Some people even quit their keto diet since they had high FBGs, i.e., fasting blood glucose. However,you should not jump into conclusions, there are 5 things you should know. 1. Glucose Meters Can Give False Readings You should bear in mind that technical reasons can lead to higher sugar readings. The US Federal Drug Administration, i.e., FDA allows home sugar monitors to have a variance of 15 percent in the results. This means that one reading of 100 mg or dl may be as high as 115 and as low as 85 which is a big variation. The software engineer, Dave Feldman, said that he had a huge variation in the results. Although he expected high blood sugar due to his long-term keto eating low in carbs. Therefore, now whenever he gets a result he was not expecting, he does 3 readings within few minutes and averages the obtained result. According to other researchers, false readings might occur because of other reasons . Reasons like pricking a finger for blood with a hand which has minute traces of food or sugar (for example just touching fruit). In addition, dehydration can increase results. Therefore, it is crucial to wash the hands before testing. However, you should bear in mind that certain soaps have additives such as honey which can distort readings. Other factors which may lead to lower or higher readings are environmental conditions such as high altitudes. And also strips which are too cold or too hot. Therefore, when you get an unexpected high reading , do one more. 2. Understand Cortisol and Its In Continue reading >>

Low-carb Lab Testing – Part 1 – Blood Sugar Tests

Low-carb Lab Testing – Part 1 – Blood Sugar Tests

Welcome to part 1 of our series on low-carb lab testing, where we’ll look at common blood sugar test options and how to interpret and track your results. In these posts we’ll dig into the most common lab tests one will encounter on their low-carb journey. Our goal is to educate you on what these tests mean so you can be better informed as you work to optimize your health. In this first post, we look at three tests that can be used to monitor your blood glucose levels. In subsequent posts, we’ll shift focus to insulin, lipids, thyroid and other markers that are important for patients to understand. Heads Up Health was designed to help you centralize and track all of your vital health data in one place, including important lab test results, so you can make informed and empowered decisions about your health. To get started, simply click on the button below to create your account. Or, read on for more information about common tests to help you monitor your blood sugar levels. Blood sugar, insulin and health Chronic, long term pathological elevations in blood glucose or insulin have been linked to type 2 diabetes, obesity, Alzheimer’s disease, kidney problems, deterioration of eyesight, neuropathy, poor prognosis in cancer, connective tissue irregularities, orthopedic injuries and more. Links and associations are not necessarily causal relationships, but the medical literature is robust with research detailing potential mechanisms by which chronically high blood glucose or insulin might be either directly causing or at the very least exacerbating these outcomes. With this in mind, if you’re concerned about your long term health and quality of life, keeping blood glucose and insulin within healthy ranges is one of the most important and effective things you can do. Continue reading >>

Glycemic Load/index This Site Has Moved

Glycemic Load/index This Site Has Moved

In a sense, a Ketogenic diet is the ultimate form of a Low Glycemic index diet. Keto only has food that have very, very low Glycemic Index items. The diet eliminates all of the food on the chart including most Low GI foods. Of course the chart is way out of proportion with actual food usages. Jellybean candy has its own value listed. Some other items, like French Fries, occupy a huge portion of the American diet through fast food. By way of comparison, Meat has a GI of 0, most nuts have a GI of 10 and vegetables which grow above ground have a GI of 20. You cant beat that for Low GI. But why not just eat the Low GI foods? Well, for diabetics they arent quite good enough. As the last study listed shows, they do help, but not nearly as well at getting people off T2D medications. I was eating a lot of chicken wings thinking they are Low Carb. And when it comes to carbs, they are. Well, sorta. Here is the nutritional information for chicken wings. Note they took away the skin which has fat. A wing without skin has 43 calories where 24 of the calories come from Protein. 15 Calories come from Fat. Thats only 35% of calories from fat. Not LCHF at all. Thats LCHP, not the goal for a diabetic. What happens with the Protein? Suppose you have 6 wings. Thats 36 grams of Protein. But half of that gets converted to Glucose. Thats 18 grams of carbs (equivalent). Leaving the skin on helps quite a bit. It is the best part after all. Heres the wing with the skin. Fat is 5.4*9=48.6 calories from fat = 60% Protein is 29.8 calories from protein = 37% A half dozen whole wings is 44 grams of protein with the glucose equivalent of 22 grams of carbs. No wonder I used to need to pump under such a protein load. It wasnt spread out like my carb load was. It would last around twice as long. But it Continue reading >>

Is Your Fasting Blood Glucose Higher On Low Carb Or Keto? Five Things To Know

Is Your Fasting Blood Glucose Higher On Low Carb Or Keto? Five Things To Know

This past spring, after 18 months of great success on the keto diet, I tested my fasting blood sugar on my home glucose monitor for the first time in many months. The result shocked me. I had purchased the device, which also tests ketones, when I was diagnosed with pre-diabetes in the fall of 2015. As I embarked on low-carb keto eating, I tested my blood regularly. Soon my fasting blood sugar was once again in the healthy range. I was in optimal ketosis day after day. Not only that, I lost 10 lbs (5 kg) and felt fantastic — full of energy with no hunger or cravings. Before long I could predict the meter’s results based on what I was eating or doing. I put the meter away and got on with my happy, healthy keto life. When my doctor ordered some lab tests this spring, I brought the meter out again. While I had no health complaints, excellent blood pressure and stable weight, she wanted to see how my cholesterol, lipids, HbA1c, and fasting glucose were doing on my keto diet — and I was curious, too. To check the accuracy of my meter against the lab results, on the morning of the test I sat in my car outside the clinic at 7:30 am, and pricked my finger. I was expecting to see a lovely fasting blood glucose (FBG) of 4.7 or 4.8 mmol/l (85 mg/dl). It was 5.8! (103 mg/dl). What? I bailed on the tests and drove home — I didn’t want my doctor warning me I was pre-diabetic again when I had no explanation for that higher result. The next morning I tested again: 5.9! (104). Huh??? For the next two weeks I tested every morning. No matter what I did, my FBG would be in 5.7 to 6.0 (102 to 106 mg/dl), the pre-diabetic range again. One morning after a restless sleep it was even 6.2 mmol/l (113 mg/dl). But my ketones were still reading an optimal 1.5-2.5 mmol/l. I was still burnin Continue reading >>

Introduction And Your Experiance Would Be Greatly Appreciated Please.

Introduction And Your Experiance Would Be Greatly Appreciated Please.

You are here: Home Forums Welcome to the BSD Introduction and your experiance would be greatly appreciated please. Introduction and your experiance would be greatly appreciated please. Viewing 14 posts - 1 through 14 (of 14 total) Morning Guys, as the initial post points out I am new to your excellent site and getting more desperate as time goes by. Bit of my History, Type 2 diabetic after gratefully receiving a Kidney Transplant but I was put on to prednisolone and hey presto I developed Type 2 Diabetes. I was told by the Doc the sugar increase was because of this steroid I was placed on? This is my first question has any of you Guys tried the BSD after having a transplant and if so may I ask what success or failure did you experience? Currently for no apparent reason my BS levels have risen dramatically from 9.5 to 17 and I am extremely worried. Would you say I am now beyond help with the BSD approach? I cant comment on the transplant situation, you should really consult your GP or a dietician but the blood sugar readings should take a tumble on this plan if you get the go ahead. We have had folk with readings similar to yours getting remarkable results. Try just cutting the bad carbs out for a week or so to see how you react and then worry about the calories would be my advice, but ONLY when you have medical advice to go ahead. Not sure if this is helpful or not, but have seen a few references to physiological insulin resistance on other low carb forums which may explain some peoples higher blood sugars. It appears that this is actually a good thing, if the explanation I have copied below (lots of other references come up if you google it)is correct. It looks like you need to get your HbA1c tested to more reliably tell you if this low carb way of eating is benefitin Continue reading >>

Optimal Ketone And Blood Sugar Levels For Ketosis

Optimal Ketone And Blood Sugar Levels For Ketosis

A low carb helps reduce blood sugars and insulin levels and helps with the management of many of the diseases of modern civilisation (e.g. diabetes, heart disease, stroke, cancer, Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s). We become insulin resistant when our body fat can’t store any more energy. Excess energy is then stored in the liver, pancreas, heart, brain and other organs that are more insulin sensitive. We also see increased levels of energy in our blood in the form of glucose, fat and elevated ketone. Endogenous ketosis occurs when we eat less food than we need. Our insulin and blood sugar levels decrease and ketones rise to supply the energy we need. Exogenous ketosis occurs when we eat lots fat and/or take exogenous ketones. Blood ketones rise, but our insulin levels will also rise because we have an excess of energy coming from our diet. Most of the good things associated with ketosis occur due to endogenous ketosis. Most people following a ketogenic diet over the long term have ketone values lower than what some people consider to be “optimal ketosis”. If your goal is blood sugar control, longevity or weight loss then endogenous ketosis with lower blood sugars and lower ketones is likely a better place to be than chasing higher blood ketones. I have seen a lot of interest and confusion recently from people following a ketogenic about ideal ketone and blood sugar levels. In an effort to try to clear this up, this article reviews blood ketone (BHB), breath ketone (acetone) and blood sugar data from a large number of people who are following a low carb or ketogenic diet to understand what “normal” and “optimal” look like. Many people initiate a low carb diet to manage their blood glucose levels, insulin resistance or diabetes. As shown in the chart below, Continue reading >>

Low Carb Dieting Myths

Low Carb Dieting Myths

The myths about low carb dieting and specifically ketogenic diets abound in the American collective consciousness. These are just a few of the most pervasive myths I've encountered, with explanations as to why they are incorrect and simply don't make sense, scientifically: Myth 1: Carbs are an essential nutrient for good health. Some nutrition professionals still believe that carbohydrates are necessary to provide glucose to fuel the brain and avoid hypoglycemia. It's an old way of thinking, and it's just not true scientifically. Essential nutrients are nutrients which your body cannot make, so they have to be obtained on a daily basis from your food sources. There are essential proteins, and essential fatty acids, but there is no such thing as an essential carbohydrate. When the body is in ketosis, it has a “glucose sparing” effect. First, the skeletal muscles burn fatty acids preferentially which spares glucose for the brain to use. Second, once a person is keto-adapted, the brain switches to using ketone bodies for over half of the fuel it needs, and less glucose is needed since ketone bodies are being used as an alternative fuel. This small amount of carbohydrate (glucose or blood sugar) needed to fuel the brain during keto adaptation can be generated internally. Your liver can make all the glucose needed for brain function from glycogen stored in the liver. And if need be, the body can also make glucose from the protein in your food. Hence, carbohydrates are NOT essential nutrients, and many people, such as the Inuit of Alaska and the Masai of Africa live without them for long periods of time without any effect on health and well-being. The “brain needs carbs” idea is only true if you consistently eat a high carb diet (as most registered dietitians will tel Continue reading >>

Does Long Term Ketosis Cause Insulin Resistance?

Does Long Term Ketosis Cause Insulin Resistance?

“It’s a snake.” “It’s a wall.” “It’s a rope.” “It’s a fan.” “It’s a tree.” “It’s insulin resistance.” I’ve always been fascinated by those describing a “new finding” in medicine. I am reminded of the story of 5 men who, never having seen an elephant before, were blindfolded and asked to describe what he discovered. However, each man was introduced to a different part of the elephant. Each of them had a dramatically different description of the elephant and each made a conclusion that was very different from the others. What is fascinating, is that we usually make our “blindfolded comparisons” to those things we have seen or about which we have some descriptive understanding. Observing and describing human physiology is much like examining an elephant while blindfolded for the first time. This week’s “blind-folded finding” is what has been interpreted by some as “insulin resistance” made worse by a ketogenic diet. Really? This perked my curiosity, because I’ve personally been following a low-carbohydrate/ketogenic diet for 10 years and have thousands of patients doing the same. To this day, I’ve never seen insulin resistance “get worse.” In fact, it gets better. Clinically, it seems to take about 18-24 months to improve, but, it usually gets better. THE QUESTION – I’ve had three people from around the world contact me this week and ask why, after being on a ketogenic diet and “in ketosis,” they suddenly get a notably large blood glucose spike when they cheat. By notably large, I mean that their blood sugars rise to over 200 mg/dl within 2 hours of a carbohydrate containing meal. Now, they admit to rapid glucose recovery within an hour or two, and their hemoglobin A1c levels are subjectively normal (l Continue reading >>

High Fasting Blood Sugar On Keto

High Fasting Blood Sugar On Keto

I'm new here and was going to introduce myself and your post caught my eye, because I am in the same boat. I was doing great in ketosis for a number of years and then something broke, and for about the last year my FBS was in the 170-200 range, and seemed to go higher every week, despite nothing changing in my diet. I was puzzled, doc had no idea but was willing to throw all kinds of medications at it, etc. I am not on anything now, although i have tried metformin numerous time,s and could not get past the gut-wrenching digestive issues. Anyway - my great mystery was why my liver seemed to be dumping multiple times a night. After a little research, I found high cortisol stimulated the liver to make glucose. I looked into what supplements could tamp down a cortisol response (mind you this was a shot in the dark - because I have no data as the basis). I found Tulsi (Holy Basil) is an adaptogen that modulates stress response by balancing cortisol, and that it also seemed to "help diabetics bring down their A1c" (I am guessing by shutting down cortisol). I started drinking 1 cup of the tea after dinner (it makes me ready to sleep) and found that although my numbers are still in the 140s-160s, it has tamped down that morning glucose number. Now instead of going to bed at 140 and waking up at 190, I am going to bed at 140 and waking somewhere in the 140s. I also have been sleeping better than I have in a while, and I am finding it easier to wake up too. So just be aware that cortisol might be at play. I am above normal weight - losing quite quickly now since i started tamping down cortisol levels...especially belly fat. I didn't think of myself as particularly stressed either, I either am extremely used to it, or I have been wondering if Low-Carb and Intermittent Fasting can Continue reading >>

Protein Over-consumption In Ketogenic Diets Explained

Protein Over-consumption In Ketogenic Diets Explained

Protein over-consumption is one of the main issues discussed at the Ketogains Group everyday. People are always reading, hearing and/or misunderstanding that eating protein will cause gluconeogenesis and kick you out of ketosis. Tyler Cartwright splendidly refuted the claim that protein supply activates GNG in this post, I recommend you check it out. So, if protein consumption doesn’t massively increase gluconeogenesis, then two questions remain: Why doesn’t ketogains recommend you eat tons of protein? Why does protein over-consumption lower ketones? Ketogains Protein Recommendation Of these questions, the first is easier to answer. The reason we don’t advocate the consumption of tons of protein is because beyond a certain point -arguably somewhere between .8g and 1.2g per pound of lean mass(lbm)- there’s just no benefit. Protein also carries a couple of minor inconveniences: It tends to be expensive and it can cause indigestion. If there were no other reason not to over-consume protein, this would simply be enough. There is also a minor debate over whether or not protein over-consumption prolongs the adaptation phase (irrelevant if you are already adapted). Also some people argue that it may be sub-optimal for performance, but these are secondary to the previous points: It’s unnecessary to eat more, so there’s no reason to recommend over-consumption. Protein and lower ketones The second gets a bit more complicated, and touches on something that Tyler just hinted at in his article. My soapbox is diabetes, and to a lesser extent, obesity… Diabetes has a lot to tell us about blood sugar control and precisely how and why certain food items impact blood glucose. In type one diabetes, the population of beta cells in the pancreas mostly dies, leaving the alpha c Continue reading >>

Let's Not Call It Physiologic Insulin Resistance. - Ketoscience

Let's Not Call It Physiologic Insulin Resistance. - Ketoscience

Let's not call it physiologic insulin resistance. Let's call it something else like adaptive glucose sparing. Or something else that doesn't confuse it with true insulin resistance. It appears the underlying biochemistry is completely different. I found an article where the response to insulin injection in mice produced the exact same reduction in glucose. So its not really insulin resistance at all. Its more like adaptive hypoinsulinemia. Just like ketosis/ketoacidosis I wish there were a wider chasm between the words so the concepts could be more clearly defined. I'm cool with difference between nutritional ketosis and ketoacidosis. They fairly accurately describe the underlying science. Ketosis means a lot of ketones and ketoACIDosis is so many ketones that your blood becomes more acidic. Well the average layman and most doctors won't think of it this way since it's worded very similar. "insulin resistance" is a term that can describe so many things anyway, it's hardly even meaningful to discuss it without additional adjectives (e.g. hepatic insulin resistance). Yeah. The thing is insulin resistance is a fairly specific clinical term. It means that for a give concentration of insulin, the cells don't respond to the same degree in respect to lowering of blood glucose such that higher and higher levels are required to get the normal effect. Whereas "adaptive glucose sparing" is something that happens when insulin resistance is completely cured because insulin is so low that glucose is rejected from muscle (that's the theory anyway) and blood glucose rises. In the case of a glucose challenge, the insulin response is delayed. So where insulin resistance is an ineffective overresponse of insulin secretion, "adaptive glucose sparing" happens when insulin secretion in too Continue reading >>

More in ketosis