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Acidosis Symptoms

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NCLEX tips and strategies on how to avoid 3 common mistakes students make when taking the NCLEX-RN or NCLEX-PN exam. Mistake 1: panicking when they don't get a certain amount of questions. Most students go into the NCLEX exam hoping to get either 75 or 85 questions because if they don't get this amount of questions they feel like they "may have" failed the exam. It is normal to receive a random number of questions on the NCLEX. So, if your computer doesn't shut off at that magic number of questions, keep going and give it your best. Mistake 2: waiting too long to take the exam after graduation. After you graduate nursing school, schedule to take the exam within 1-2 months. The nursing concepts are fresh on your mind and chances are you just got done taking exit exams which primed you for NCLEX. So, don't wait 6-8 months to schedule the exam...take it soon. Mistake 3: practicing NCLEX questions but not reading the rationales. It is best to study for the NCLEX exam by practicing questions, but you must go back and read the rationales of the questions you got right and wrong, especially the questions you got wrong. Then you need to go back in your study resource and read the areas you

Metabolic Acidosis Nclex Review Notes

Are you studying metabolic acidosis and need to know a mnemonic on how to remember the causes? This article will give you a clever mnemonic and simplify the signs and symptoms and nursing interventions on how to remember metabolic acidosis for nursing lecture exams and NCLEX. In addition, you will learn how to differentiate metabolic acidosis from metabolic alkalosis. Don’t forget to take the metabolic acidosis and metabolic alkalosis quiz. This article will cover: Metabolic acidosis simplified Lab values expected with metabolic acidosis Causes of metabolic acidosis Signs and symptoms of metabolic acidosis Nursing interventions for metabolic acidosis Lecture on Metabolic Acidosis Metabolic Acidosis Metabolic Acidosis in Simple Terms: a metabolic problem due to the buildup of acid in the body fluids which affects the bicarbonate (HCO3 levels) either from: increased acid production (ex: DKA where ketones (acids) increase in the body which decreases bicarbonate) decreased acid excretion (ex: renal failure where there is high amount of waste left in the body which causes the acids to increase and bicarb can’t control imbalance) loss of too much bicarb (diarrhea) When this acidic ph Continue reading >>

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  1. SopranoKris

    Think about what is occurring physiologically in the body during each: acidosis is an abundance of H+. What is that going to do to the body? If it's respiratory acidosis, what is the body going to do naturally to correct it? (Hint: think too much CO2). If it's metabolic acidosis, elevated K+ can lead to seizures, coma or can even be fatal, for example diabetic ketoacidosis. The body has gained too much acid or lost too much base (e.g. diarrhea)
    If it's alkalosis, the body has lost too much acid or gained too much base (e.g. vomiting). Having too little K+ can cause cramping, weakness, etc.
    What other effects can you think of?

  2. EmxoRenee

    Thanks for your response!
    This is what I've been trying to do. I try to think about why the imbalance has happened, and what is causing it to help me determine signs and symptoms. I think where I get confused is because the body then tries to compensate through whichever system is not causing the imbalance.
    For example, with respiratory alkalosis. I know it can be caused by hyperventilation. But then my thought process is that the body would try to hypoventilate to hold onto some CO2 to gain acid and bring the ph back into balance. But I'm not sure if this is actually correct or not.
    I dont know if i just overthink it, or if I'm getting the different signs and symptoms mixed up. This topic just overwhelms me a bit!
    Thanks so much for your help! ☺

  3. Esme12

    Normal values:
    PH = 7.35 - 7.45
    C02 = 35 - 45
    HC03 = 21-26
    Respiratory acidosis = low ph and high C02
    hypoventilation (eg: COPD, narcs or sedatives, atelectasis)
    *Compensated by metabolic alkalosis (increased HC03)
    For example:
    ph 7.20 C02 60 HC03 24 (uncompensated respiratory acidosis)
    ph 7.33 C02 55 HC03 29 (partially compensated respiratory acidosis)
    ph 7.37 C02 60 HC03 37 (compensated respiratory acidosis)
    Respiratory alkalosis : high ph and low C02
    hyperventilation (eg: anxiety, PE, pain, sepsis, brain injury)
    *Compensated by metabolic acidosis (decreased HC03)
    examples:
    ph 7.51 C02 26 HC03 25 (uncompensated respiratory alkalosis)
    ph 7.47 C02 32 HC03 20 (partially compensated respiratory alkalosis)
    ph 7.43 C02 30 HC03 19 (compensated respiratory alkalosis)
    Metabolic acidosis : low ph and low HC03
    diabetic ketoacidosis, starvation, severe diarrhea
    *Compensated by respiratory alkalosis (decreased C02)
    examples:
    ph 7.23 C02 36 HC03 14 (uncompensated metabolic acidosis)
    ph 7.31 C02 30 HC03 17 (partially compensated metabolic acidosis)
    ph 7.38 C02 26 HC03 20 (compensated metabolic acidosis)
    Metabloic alkalosis = high ph and high HC03
    severe vomiting, potassium deficit, diuretics
    *Compensated by respiratory acidosis (increased C02)
    example:
    ph 7.54 C02 44 HC03 29 (uncompensated metabolic alkalosis)
    ph 7.50 C02 49 HC03 32 (partially compensated metabolic alkalosis)
    ph 7.44 C02 52 HC02 35 (compensated metabolic alkalosis)
    *Remember that compensation corrects the ph.
    Now a simple way to remember this......
    CO2 = acid, makes things acidic
    HCO3 = base, makes things alkalotic
    Remember ROME
    R-Respiratory
    O-Opposite
    M-Metabolic
    E-Equal
    Ok always look at the pH first...
    pH<7.35 = acidosis
    pH>7.45 = alkalosis
    Then, if the CO2 is high or low, then it is respiratory...If the HCO3 is high or low then it is metabolic. How you remember that is that the respiratory system is involved with CO2 (blowing air off or slowing RR), and the kidneys (metabolic) are involved with HCO3 (excreting or not excreting).
    Here is how you think thru it: pH = 7.25 CO2 = 40 HCO3 = 17
    Ok, first, the pH is low so think acidosis. CO2 is WNL. HCO3 is low. Draw arrows if it helps. The abnormal values are both low (think Equal). Metabolic imbalances are equal. So, this must be metabolic acidosis!
    Now, for compensation...If you have a metabolic imbalance, the respiratory system is going to try to compensate. Respiratory = CO2. If the CO2 is normal in the ABG, then there is no compensation going on. Compensation in acidosis will decrease the CO2 because you want to get rid of the acid (CO2). In alkalosis, it will increase because you want to add more acid (CO2)
    If you have a respiratory imbalance, the kidneys will try to compensate. Kidneys = HCO3. If the HCO3 is normal in the ABG, then there is no compensation going on. Compensation in acidosis will increase HCO3 because you want to hold on to the base to make it more alkalotic. In alkalosis, it will decrease because you want to excrete the base to make it more acidic.

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Spinal-fluid Ph And Neurologic Symptoms In Systemic Acidosis

This article has no abstract; the first 100 words appear below. RECENTLY, we have encountered a series of patients with severe metabolic acidosis and serum pH values less than 7.0. Although such severe acidosis is widely regarded as leading rapidly to delirium and unconsciousness, only some of these patients were in coma; the others were awake and alert. In the awake and alert patients, the pH of the cerebrospinal fluid was normal or near to it, but in those in coma, it lay in the far acid range. These observations combined with some previously made on patients with respiratory acidosis1 have led to the postulate that acidosis in the cerebrospinal fluid . . . *From the Department of Neurology, New York Hospital–Cornell University Medical Center (requests for reprints should be addressed to Dr. Posner at the Department of Neurology, New York Hospital–Cornell University Medical Center, New York, New York 10021). Supported by a grant (NB-04928) from the National Institutes of Health, Public Health Service, United States Department of Health, Education, and Welfare. † Associate professor of neurology, Cornell University Medical College; associate attending neurologist, New York H Continue reading >>

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Popular Questions

  1. SopranoKris

    Think about what is occurring physiologically in the body during each: acidosis is an abundance of H+. What is that going to do to the body? If it's respiratory acidosis, what is the body going to do naturally to correct it? (Hint: think too much CO2). If it's metabolic acidosis, elevated K+ can lead to seizures, coma or can even be fatal, for example diabetic ketoacidosis. The body has gained too much acid or lost too much base (e.g. diarrhea)
    If it's alkalosis, the body has lost too much acid or gained too much base (e.g. vomiting). Having too little K+ can cause cramping, weakness, etc.
    What other effects can you think of?

  2. EmxoRenee

    Thanks for your response!
    This is what I've been trying to do. I try to think about why the imbalance has happened, and what is causing it to help me determine signs and symptoms. I think where I get confused is because the body then tries to compensate through whichever system is not causing the imbalance.
    For example, with respiratory alkalosis. I know it can be caused by hyperventilation. But then my thought process is that the body would try to hypoventilate to hold onto some CO2 to gain acid and bring the ph back into balance. But I'm not sure if this is actually correct or not.
    I dont know if i just overthink it, or if I'm getting the different signs and symptoms mixed up. This topic just overwhelms me a bit!
    Thanks so much for your help! ☺

  3. Esme12

    Normal values:
    PH = 7.35 - 7.45
    C02 = 35 - 45
    HC03 = 21-26
    Respiratory acidosis = low ph and high C02
    hypoventilation (eg: COPD, narcs or sedatives, atelectasis)
    *Compensated by metabolic alkalosis (increased HC03)
    For example:
    ph 7.20 C02 60 HC03 24 (uncompensated respiratory acidosis)
    ph 7.33 C02 55 HC03 29 (partially compensated respiratory acidosis)
    ph 7.37 C02 60 HC03 37 (compensated respiratory acidosis)
    Respiratory alkalosis : high ph and low C02
    hyperventilation (eg: anxiety, PE, pain, sepsis, brain injury)
    *Compensated by metabolic acidosis (decreased HC03)
    examples:
    ph 7.51 C02 26 HC03 25 (uncompensated respiratory alkalosis)
    ph 7.47 C02 32 HC03 20 (partially compensated respiratory alkalosis)
    ph 7.43 C02 30 HC03 19 (compensated respiratory alkalosis)
    Metabolic acidosis : low ph and low HC03
    diabetic ketoacidosis, starvation, severe diarrhea
    *Compensated by respiratory alkalosis (decreased C02)
    examples:
    ph 7.23 C02 36 HC03 14 (uncompensated metabolic acidosis)
    ph 7.31 C02 30 HC03 17 (partially compensated metabolic acidosis)
    ph 7.38 C02 26 HC03 20 (compensated metabolic acidosis)
    Metabloic alkalosis = high ph and high HC03
    severe vomiting, potassium deficit, diuretics
    *Compensated by respiratory acidosis (increased C02)
    example:
    ph 7.54 C02 44 HC03 29 (uncompensated metabolic alkalosis)
    ph 7.50 C02 49 HC03 32 (partially compensated metabolic alkalosis)
    ph 7.44 C02 52 HC02 35 (compensated metabolic alkalosis)
    *Remember that compensation corrects the ph.
    Now a simple way to remember this......
    CO2 = acid, makes things acidic
    HCO3 = base, makes things alkalotic
    Remember ROME
    R-Respiratory
    O-Opposite
    M-Metabolic
    E-Equal
    Ok always look at the pH first...
    pH<7.35 = acidosis
    pH>7.45 = alkalosis
    Then, if the CO2 is high or low, then it is respiratory...If the HCO3 is high or low then it is metabolic. How you remember that is that the respiratory system is involved with CO2 (blowing air off or slowing RR), and the kidneys (metabolic) are involved with HCO3 (excreting or not excreting).
    Here is how you think thru it: pH = 7.25 CO2 = 40 HCO3 = 17
    Ok, first, the pH is low so think acidosis. CO2 is WNL. HCO3 is low. Draw arrows if it helps. The abnormal values are both low (think Equal). Metabolic imbalances are equal. So, this must be metabolic acidosis!
    Now, for compensation...If you have a metabolic imbalance, the respiratory system is going to try to compensate. Respiratory = CO2. If the CO2 is normal in the ABG, then there is no compensation going on. Compensation in acidosis will decrease the CO2 because you want to get rid of the acid (CO2). In alkalosis, it will increase because you want to add more acid (CO2)
    If you have a respiratory imbalance, the kidneys will try to compensate. Kidneys = HCO3. If the HCO3 is normal in the ABG, then there is no compensation going on. Compensation in acidosis will increase HCO3 because you want to hold on to the base to make it more alkalotic. In alkalosis, it will decrease because you want to excrete the base to make it more acidic.

  4. -> Continue reading
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Newsletter: D-lactic Acidosis

AddthisShare | Facebook Twitter Pinterest Gmail var addthis_exclude = 'print, email'; D-Lactic Acidosis Craig Petersen RD, CNSC D-lactic acidosis, also referred to as D-lactate encephalopathy, is a rare neurological syndrome that can occur in individuals with short bowel syndrome (SBS) or following jejuno-ileal bypass surgery. A home parenteral or enteral nutrition (HPEN) consumer may develop the neurological symptoms—which can be quite striking—several months to years after the initial diagnosis of a malabsorption disorder. Misdiagnosis of D-lactic acidosis is common, as the neurologic symptoms are sometimes attributed to other causes. With proper diagnosis, D-lactic acidosis can be treated promptly and the symptoms will usually resolve within several hours to a few days. Symptoms Neurological symptoms associated with this syndrome typically present after the ingestion of enteral formula or food high in carbohydrates (either simple or complex) and include altered mental status, slurred speech, confusion, disorientation, difficulty concentrating, memory deficits, excessive sleepiness, weakness, abnormal gait, problems with muscle coordination, and even coma. Individuals with D- Continue reading >>

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Popular Questions

  1. SopranoKris

    Think about what is occurring physiologically in the body during each: acidosis is an abundance of H+. What is that going to do to the body? If it's respiratory acidosis, what is the body going to do naturally to correct it? (Hint: think too much CO2). If it's metabolic acidosis, elevated K+ can lead to seizures, coma or can even be fatal, for example diabetic ketoacidosis. The body has gained too much acid or lost too much base (e.g. diarrhea)
    If it's alkalosis, the body has lost too much acid or gained too much base (e.g. vomiting). Having too little K+ can cause cramping, weakness, etc.
    What other effects can you think of?

  2. EmxoRenee

    Thanks for your response!
    This is what I've been trying to do. I try to think about why the imbalance has happened, and what is causing it to help me determine signs and symptoms. I think where I get confused is because the body then tries to compensate through whichever system is not causing the imbalance.
    For example, with respiratory alkalosis. I know it can be caused by hyperventilation. But then my thought process is that the body would try to hypoventilate to hold onto some CO2 to gain acid and bring the ph back into balance. But I'm not sure if this is actually correct or not.
    I dont know if i just overthink it, or if I'm getting the different signs and symptoms mixed up. This topic just overwhelms me a bit!
    Thanks so much for your help! ☺

  3. Esme12

    Normal values:
    PH = 7.35 - 7.45
    C02 = 35 - 45
    HC03 = 21-26
    Respiratory acidosis = low ph and high C02
    hypoventilation (eg: COPD, narcs or sedatives, atelectasis)
    *Compensated by metabolic alkalosis (increased HC03)
    For example:
    ph 7.20 C02 60 HC03 24 (uncompensated respiratory acidosis)
    ph 7.33 C02 55 HC03 29 (partially compensated respiratory acidosis)
    ph 7.37 C02 60 HC03 37 (compensated respiratory acidosis)
    Respiratory alkalosis : high ph and low C02
    hyperventilation (eg: anxiety, PE, pain, sepsis, brain injury)
    *Compensated by metabolic acidosis (decreased HC03)
    examples:
    ph 7.51 C02 26 HC03 25 (uncompensated respiratory alkalosis)
    ph 7.47 C02 32 HC03 20 (partially compensated respiratory alkalosis)
    ph 7.43 C02 30 HC03 19 (compensated respiratory alkalosis)
    Metabolic acidosis : low ph and low HC03
    diabetic ketoacidosis, starvation, severe diarrhea
    *Compensated by respiratory alkalosis (decreased C02)
    examples:
    ph 7.23 C02 36 HC03 14 (uncompensated metabolic acidosis)
    ph 7.31 C02 30 HC03 17 (partially compensated metabolic acidosis)
    ph 7.38 C02 26 HC03 20 (compensated metabolic acidosis)
    Metabloic alkalosis = high ph and high HC03
    severe vomiting, potassium deficit, diuretics
    *Compensated by respiratory acidosis (increased C02)
    example:
    ph 7.54 C02 44 HC03 29 (uncompensated metabolic alkalosis)
    ph 7.50 C02 49 HC03 32 (partially compensated metabolic alkalosis)
    ph 7.44 C02 52 HC02 35 (compensated metabolic alkalosis)
    *Remember that compensation corrects the ph.
    Now a simple way to remember this......
    CO2 = acid, makes things acidic
    HCO3 = base, makes things alkalotic
    Remember ROME
    R-Respiratory
    O-Opposite
    M-Metabolic
    E-Equal
    Ok always look at the pH first...
    pH<7.35 = acidosis
    pH>7.45 = alkalosis
    Then, if the CO2 is high or low, then it is respiratory...If the HCO3 is high or low then it is metabolic. How you remember that is that the respiratory system is involved with CO2 (blowing air off or slowing RR), and the kidneys (metabolic) are involved with HCO3 (excreting or not excreting).
    Here is how you think thru it: pH = 7.25 CO2 = 40 HCO3 = 17
    Ok, first, the pH is low so think acidosis. CO2 is WNL. HCO3 is low. Draw arrows if it helps. The abnormal values are both low (think Equal). Metabolic imbalances are equal. So, this must be metabolic acidosis!
    Now, for compensation...If you have a metabolic imbalance, the respiratory system is going to try to compensate. Respiratory = CO2. If the CO2 is normal in the ABG, then there is no compensation going on. Compensation in acidosis will decrease the CO2 because you want to get rid of the acid (CO2). In alkalosis, it will increase because you want to add more acid (CO2)
    If you have a respiratory imbalance, the kidneys will try to compensate. Kidneys = HCO3. If the HCO3 is normal in the ABG, then there is no compensation going on. Compensation in acidosis will increase HCO3 because you want to hold on to the base to make it more alkalotic. In alkalosis, it will decrease because you want to excrete the base to make it more acidic.

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