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Block 2, Week 8, Faculty Objective 6

Physiological Effects Of Hyperchloraemia And Acidosis

Physiological effects of hyperchloraemia and acidosis Chelsea and Westminster NHS Foundation Trust Chelsea and Westminster NHS Foundation Trust BJA: British Journal of Anaesthesia, Volume 101, Issue 2, 1 August 2008, Pages 141150, J. M. Handy, N. Soni; Physiological effects of hyperchloraemia and acidosis, BJA: British Journal of Anaesthesia, Volume 101, Issue 2, 1 August 2008, Pages 141150, The advent of balanced solutions for i.v. fluid resuscitation and replacement is imminent and will affect any specialty involved in fluid management. Part of the background to their introduction has focused on the non-physiological nature of normal saline solution and the developing science about the potential problems of hyperchloraemic acidosis. This review assesses the physiological significance of hyperchloraemic acidosis and of acidosis in general. It aims to differentiate the effects of the causes of acidosis from the physiological consequences of acidosis. It is intended to provide an assessment of the importance of hyperchloraemic acidosis and thereby the likely benefits of balanced solutions. Hyperchloraemic acidosis is increasingly recognized as a clinical entity, a new enemy within, Continue reading >>

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  1. stardustshadow

    So, long story short, I got an infected gland under my arm and had to have it surgically removed (ow!). Because these things often are staph infections, the surgeon prescribed me antibiotics.
    It was that time of the month, so I was already really swollen up with water weight.
    Well, the antibiotics kicked me totally out of ketosis and now I am *sigh* struggling to get back in and FINALLY get rid of the water weight, which did NOT go away after my period.
    I am on another antibiotic, since I had an allergic reaction to the first one.
    One day left! I can't wait to be finished!
    Has anyone else had this happen? Did the weight go away? I fought to lose these pounds and I am sad that they seem to have come back literally overnight!

  2. Leo41

    For many people (I am one of them), the body tends to retain a lot of water during illness or infection. It's part of the immune system response. My body dumps the water as soon as I'm well again. It can be a significant number on the scale, as water weighs more than fat.

  3. stardustshadow

    That may have something to do with it...the thing is, I have had the infection for months, just had it removed last week! But yes, it IS a significant amount. But I can also tell that it is water...my electronic 'body fat monitor' shows no change in body fat % and my hands are all swollen. But seriously, I am getting tired of it now!
    Something certainly did knock me out of ketosis. I don't know if it was the antibiotics or the antihistames I had to take for the allergic reaction, but something sure did and I didn't eat any differently!

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Anion gap usmle - anion gap metabolic acidosis normal anion gap metabolic acidosis

Metabolic Acidosis

Metabolic acidosis is a condition that occurs when the body produces excessive quantities of acid or when the kidneys are not removing enough acid from the body. If unchecked, metabolic acidosis leads to acidemia, i.e., blood pH is low (less than 7.35) due to increased production of hydrogen ions by the body or the inability of the body to form bicarbonate (HCO3−) in the kidney. Its causes are diverse, and its consequences can be serious, including coma and death. Together with respiratory acidosis, it is one of the two general causes of acidemia. Terminology : Acidosis refers to a process that causes a low pH in blood and tissues. Acidemia refers specifically to a low pH in the blood. In most cases, acidosis occurs first for reasons explained below. Free hydrogen ions then diffuse into the blood, lowering the pH. Arterial blood gas analysis detects acidemia (pH lower than 7.35). When acidemia is present, acidosis is presumed. Signs and symptoms[edit] Symptoms are not specific, and diagnosis can be difficult unless the patient presents with clear indications for arterial blood gas sampling. Symptoms may include chest pain, palpitations, headache, altered mental status such as sev Continue reading >>

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  1. llabonte

    I was wondering if someone could answer a question for me. I am on week six or seven of Atkins (and loving it) and this is the second period I have had while on Atkins and once again I noticed I have dropped way down on the test strip. Yesterday, the first day of my period the test strip said I was in Large ketosis. This morning it is down to a "trace". I noticed the same thing last month. Is this normal or has anyone else noticed anything different during menstruation? (Sorry guys, don't mean to gross you out....!) I did have browned hamburger with diced tomatoes with chili powder (my version of chili on Atkins) and I had some sour cream and a mozerella stick also. Could that have anything to do with it? I wouldn't think so because the tomatoes were 5 carbs per 1/2 cup and I don't think I had anymore than the 1/2 cup and the chili powder had no sugar added. I know a womans body does strange things but I was just curious. I don't swear by the test strips but I like to watch myself.

  2. beginagain

    I believe your period can through off those ketosis test strips and that it's best to wait till after you period is done to test again. I had read this not too long ago on this healthboard I post on.

  3. amazin77

    I've been on atkins for quite awhile and love it so much. I defend it all the time. I tell people it's not all about fat. I chose my quality cuts of meat and fish with a nice salad etc. I make my own chicken strips dipped in mayonaise and roll in my ground almonds or flour when my sister brings to me.
    But to get to your TOM: I've found that it's true us woman's body chemicals change constantly during the day. I love like you using the ketostix frequently during the day, at least twice because I know my body well. During my period I've found it to be lighter in the morning when I've had no food yet, but when I get going and had some breakfast I check again before lunch. And I right there Large amount of Keto. I just put that big smile on in the bathroom and feel it mostly in my clothing. Some people don't like using it because when its lightly colored it does a trick to your mind. But understanding my body during the day I know I've been eating right guaranteed. When I check myself more than twice a day, is when I eat out at a fancy restaurant and a waiter tells me this is a good choice for atkins. Believe me, don't always believe the waiter, because immediatly I knew he was wrong with my plate choice, it had SUGAR. He appoligized, but there was nothing on the menu for me to eat, so I just enjoyed my hot tea....It really will be easier the longer your on it to understand what I'm saying about knowing this way of life and your own body. Ketositx aren't cheap, but you know I got myself fat and I really feel I deserve the extra to make me feel good and see the results on the test strip..... I'm sure you know what I mean. I hope I made you feel good.
    Amazin77

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What is ALKALOSIS? What does ALKALOSIS mean? ALKALOSIS meaning - ALKALOSIS pronunciation - ALKALOSIS definition - ALKALOSIS explanation - How to pronounce ALKALOSIS? Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/... license. SUBSCRIBE to our Google Earth flights channel - https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC6Uu... Alkalosis is the result of a process reducing hydrogen ion concentration of arterial blood plasma (alkalemia). In contrast to acidemia (serum pH 7.35 or lower), alkalemia occurs when the serum pH is higher than normal (7.45 or higher). Alkalosis is usually divided into the categories of respiratory alkalosis and metabolic alkalosis or a combined respiratory/metabolic alkalosis. Respiratory alkalosis is caused by hyperventilation, resulting in a loss of carbon dioxide. Compensatory mechanisms for this would include increased dissociation of the carbonic acid buffering intermediate into hydrogen ions, and the related excretion of bicarbonate, both of which lower blood pH. Hyperventilation-induced alkalosis can be seen in several deadly central nervous system diseases such as strokes or Rett syndrome. Metabolic alkalosis can be caused by repeated vomiting, resulting in a loss of hydrochloric acid within the stomach content. Severe dehydration, and the consumption of alkali are other causes. It can also be caused by administration of diuretics and endocrine disorders such as Cushing's syndrome. Compensatory mechanism for metabolic alkalosis involve slowed breathing by the lungs to increase serum carbon dioxide, a condition leaning toward respiratory acidosis. As respiratory acidosis often accompanies the compensation for metabolic alkalosis, and vice versa, a delicate balance is created between these two conditions. Metabolic alkalosis is usually accompanied by low blood potassium concentration, causing, e.g., muscular weakness, muscle pain, and muscle cramps (from disturbed function of the skeletal muscles), and muscle spasms (from disturbed function of smooth muscles). It may also cause low blood calcium concentration. As the blood pH increases, blood transport proteins, such as albumin, become more ionized into anions. This causes the free calcium present in blood to bind more strongly with albumin. If severe, it may cause tetany.

The Effects Of Acidosis And Alkalosis On Long Bone Vascular Resistance.

The effects of acidosis and alkalosis on long bone vascular resistance. Mayo Graduate School of Medicine, Rochester, Minnesota. This study used an ex vivo perfusion model to investigate the direct effects of acidosis and alkalosis on the vascular resistance of the canine tibia. Baseline vascular resistance (BVR) and the vascular smooth muscle response to bolus doses of norepinephrine (NE) (0.025-3.2 nmol) and periarterial sympathetic nerve stimulation (NS) (10-25 Hz: 9 V, 2 ms pulses, 10 s) were studied. In Group I, these parameters were measured at normal pH (duration 7.34-7.44) and then during acidosis (pH 7.2-7.33). In Group II, they were measured at normal pH and then during alkalosis (pH 7.47-7.58). In Group III (control), they were measured serially at a normal pH. Alkalosis increased BVR by 56% (p < 0.0001). Acidosis attenuated (18% reduction) and alkalosis enhanced (66% increase) the vasoconstrictor action of NE (p < 0.0001). Acidosis also attenuated (11% reduction) the effect of sympathetic NS (p = 0.012). It is concluded that perfusion pH influences the sensitivity of long bone resistance vessels to circulating NE and sympathetic NS. Thus, local concentration of hydrogen Continue reading >>

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Popular Questions

  1. KOSHIE1

    KETOSIS is a chemical /metabolic state your body is (or isn't!) in. Either your carbs are low enough for your body to be in ketosis, OR NOT. As long as you are in ketosis, your body metabolizes food differently -- it is totally irrelevant whether you are consuming "X" or "Y" number of carbs. In other words, IF you are in ketosis, it doesn't matter how deeply you are in ketosis, or how deeply purple your Ketostix are. You simply ARE or ARE NOT in ketosis.
    Eat too many carbs and your body goes out of ketosis, and changes the way it metabolizes food.
    WHILE IN KETOSIS, you cannot get all the caloric energy out of the food you eat. Fat will only give you 1 (ONE!) calorie of energy, not 9! Protein will give you only 2 calories, not 4; but carbs will still give you the full 4 calories whether or not you are in ketosis.
    So, your Ketostix turn purple because you are in ketosis and producing ketones through your now-inefficient metabolic breakdown of fat. Deeper purple is caused by more ketones, which is caused by eating more fat -- it has absolutely NOTHING to do with changing your body's "level" of ketosis. Remember, you either ARE or ARE NOT in ketosis! THERE ARE NO LEVELS OF KETOSIS, ONLY CONCENTRATIONS OF KETONES, which is entirely dependent upon how much fat you eat.
    So if you are sure you are in ketosis (which you seem to be because your Ketostix are still consistently turning even the palest shade of purple -- which can only happen if you are producing ketones which can only happen if you are in ketosis), then you can only have a limited number of problems (and it isn't ketosis!):
    1. You are simply eating TOO much, too many calories to lose weight! (and it probably is protein).
    2. You are on a plateau, and simply must wait it out.
    3. You are having a "sensitivity" issue that is causing you to retain your weight (probably water). You could be sensitive to anything: milk products, gluten, artificial sweeteners (beware maltitol), medicines, ...
    Three weeks is not an unusually long time for your weight to be stable despite your "best efforts" at losing weight. Review your daily food records and see if there is anything different about the last three weeks. Maybe you can find a clue that way.
    Note: Are you eating maltitol? LOTs of people stall by eating maltitol. "They" say maltitol has "ZERO" effective carbs; but the USDA has research that indicates that maltitol is actually worth "half" its total grams, NOT none of its grams!


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  2. URMYLF

    Are your calories too high?
    I have noticed that if my carbs are the right level and I'm in ketosis, that if I see how many calories I've eaten, I'm usually around/over 1500.
    According to Atkins, eating protein/fat is supposed to keep you full so you don't want or need to overeat. I must concur! When I overeat because it tastes so good, but I'm not hungry, I see it in the scale. For me, I've learned 1200-1300 is a good place to be, and 70% fat/30% protein is a good ratio for me (the carbs range from 20-35 when I'm losing).
    Eating after dinner also causes me to stall.
    Carrie


    current weight: 192.0



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  3. JUST_JULIA

    Tinamarie, are you actually counting your carbs? You may be eating more carbs than you think. I understand that you can register in ketosis with up to 30 net carbs/day, maybe more, but if you're in the induction phase, you only want to be at 20. I am pretty much at that point too. Also, are you exercising. I tend to lose more weight more quickly when I don't exercise. So if you're exercising and doing everything right, just keep it up and know that doing the right thing will get you to where you want to go. I too have been in ketosis for a while and am not losing weight - I work out at least an hour a day at least 5 days/week, so I know I'm getting in better shape and that the weight loss is going slower than it has been. I just keep doing what I'm doing and I know I will reach my goals - just not by the time I had hoped.

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